Showing posts with label restitution. Show all posts
Showing posts with label restitution. Show all posts

Nov 25, 2022

Art Provenance Texts as Data: Restitution Histories in Auction Catalogs

Adolph Menzel, restituted to the heirs of Walter Westfeld

When Nazi-looted artworks are restituted, families are often obliged to sell at least some of the artworks. For this they turn to auction houses. As a result, the provenances published by auction houses may provide valuable insights into the art market networks that handled the looted art until the time of restitution

Below is a selection of several provenances published online by Sotheby's. Some of the provenance texts indicate that artworks put up for auction had previously been restituted to the families of persecuted collectors. 

For the artworks that have been restituted, the provenances - before the restitution - offer clues to how the resale market for Nazi-looted art worked. Through which hands did the artworks pass? Do any names recur? 

May 8, 2021

Linz ALMAS



Maria Almas-Dietrich: Nazi art looter

"Art dealer; personal friend of Hitler, and for a time his principal buyer of works of art. One of the most important purchasing agents for Linz. Was under house arrest at Grafing, Bavaria, autumn 1945."
ALIU 1946 Final Report


Art historians, "Almas" in a provenance text means: dig deep.

The probability of Nazi looting is high.

Below, artworks from the DHM Linz database that contain "Almas" in the provenance.

Apr 3, 2020

Curt Valentin in provenances at the Harvard Art Museums




- The Persistent Crime of Nazi-Looted Art, by Sophie Gilbert, in The AtlanticLooted Art



The director of New York’s Museum of Modern Art, Alfred H. Barr Jr. used art dealer Curt Valentin as an intermediary to secretly purchase artworks confiscated by Nazis from German museums. What else did Barr and other American museums directors purchase through Valentin?

In this next series of posts, we will look at the provenances of artworks that mention Curt Valentin. 

An interesting exercise for young art historians and provenances researchers is to examine each provenance with the questions: 

1) Who owned this artwork before Curt Valentin? 

2) Are there provenance gaps for the years 1933-1945?

3) What share of artworks that mention Curt Valentin in the provenance lack information about sellers, dates and places for the Nazi years? (0-25%; 26-50%; 51%-75%; 76%-100%).

4) What possible explanations might there be for the observations in 3)?

5) What actions does this suggest?


1. Mentions of Curt Valentin in the provenances of artworks at the Harvard Art Museums








See  Valentin Harvard Art Museums Provenance



---
for more information on Curt Valentin's role in bringing European art into American museums, see:

MoMA’s Problematic Provenances by William D. Cohan published November 17, 2011 by Artnews


Dec 9, 2019

Nazi-era Provenance Research and Restitution Status, Albertina Museum Vienna

The Kunstdatenbank provides information about Nazi-era provenance research projects in Austria.

Below is a summary of the status of provenance research for the Albertina Museum, based on the information provided in the Kunstdatenbank in December 2019:

ArtistOwners or their legal successors are sought (2705 Objects)Questionable nature to be resolved (6353 Objects)Restitution to owners or their legal successor has occurred (95 Objects)
Hörmann, Theodor von (1840 - 1895)94
Gauermann, Friedrich (1807 - 1862)77
Danhauser, Josef (1805 - 1845)47
Boeckl, Herbert (1894-1966)42
Schultz, Johann Karl (1801-1873)38
Blau, Tina (1845 - 1916)34
Goebel, Carl (1824 - 1899)30
Alt, Franz (1821-1914)27
Berger, Julius Victor (1850 - 1902)19
Meid, Hans (1883-1957)18
Stöhr, Ernst (1865 - 1917)17
Engerth, Eduard von (1818 - 1897)14
Anonymous111
Unger, William (1837-1932)11
Kubin, Alfred (1877 - 1959)10
Windhager, Franz (1879 - 1959)9
Klaus, Johann (1847-1893)9
Eisenmenger, August (1830 - 1907)9
Alt, Rudolf von (1812 - 1905)71
Schwind, Moritz von (1804-1871)16
Schönn, Alois (1826 - 1897)7
Schnug, Leo (1878 - 1933)7
Stuck, Franz von (1863 - 1928)6
Schraudolph, Johann von (1808-1879)6
Geiger, Johann Peter Nepomuk (1805 - 1880)6
Fronius, Hans (1903 - 1988)6
Fischer, Hans Ludwig (1891-?)6
Zorn, Anders (1860-1920)5
Liebenwein, Maximilian (1869 - 1926)5
Lefler, Heinrich (1863 - 1919)5
Kriehuber, Josef (1800 - 1876)5
Gareis, Franz (1775 - 1803)5
Sterrer, Karl (1885-1972)4
Schiele, Egon (1890 - 1918)4
Pettenkofen, August Xaver Karl von (1822-1889)13
Klimt, Gustav (1862 - 1918)4
Klemm, Walther (1883-1957)4
Genelli, Bonaventura (1798-1868)4
Füger, Heinrich Friedrich (1751 - 1818)4
Fortner, Georg4
Eissenhardt, Johannes Kaspar (1824-1896)4
Anonymous, attributed to German artist4
Zille, Heinrich (1858 - 1929)3
Wawra, Josef (1893 -1935)3
Thoma, Hans (1839-1924)3
Steinhart, Anton (1889 - 1964)3
Schiele, Egon (1890-1918)3
Rops, Félicien (1833-1898)3
Romako, Anton (1832 - 1889)3
Neureuther, Eugen Napoleon (1806 - 1882)3
Krauskopf, Wilhelm3
Klieber, Joseph (1773 - 1850)3
Haanen, Cecil van (1844 - 1914)3
Fischer, Karl3
Eckert, Walter (1913 - 2001)3
Blechen, Karl (1798-1840)3
Bayros, (Marquis) Franz von (1866 - 1924)3
Anonymous, attributed to 'French artist'3
Zampis, Anton (1820 - 1883)2
Wigand, Balthasar (1770 - 1846)2
Voltz, Ludwig Gustav (1825-1911)2
Valckenborch, Lucas van (1530 - 1597)2
Steinle, Edward Jakob von (1810-1886)11
Steinhausen, Wilhelm August Theodor (1846 - 1924)2
Slevogt, Max (1868-1932)2
Schwind, Moritz von (1804 - 1871)2
Schubert, Ferdinand (1824 - 1853)2
Schlittgen, Hermann (1859 - 1930)2
Schleich the Elder, Eduard (1812 - 1874)2
Schindler, Carl (1821 - 1842)2
Schindler, Albert (1805 - 1861)2
Schilcher, Friedrich (1811-1881)2
Sattler, Josef (1867 - 1931)2
Raffaelli, Jean Francois (1850-1924)2
Pipal, Viktor (1887 - 1981)2
Peter, Emanuel Thomas (1799 - 1873)2
Pessler, Ernst (1838 - 1900)2
Peisker, Anton2
Neder, Johann Michael (1807 - 1882)11
Müller, Karl2
Menzel, Adolf Friedrich Erdmann (1815-1905)11
Makart, Hans (1840 - 1884)2
Laske, Oskar (1874 - 1951)2
Lafite, Karl (1830 - 1900)2
Koller, Emil2
Forberg, Carl Ernst (1844-1915)2
Fohn, Emanuel (1881-1966)2
Enhuber, Karl von (1811-1867)2
Engelhart, Josef (1864 - 1941)2
Dobrowsky, Josef (1889 - 1964)2
Delacroix, Eugène (1798 - 1863)2
Czeschka, Carl Otto (1878 - 1960)2
Bormann, Emma (1887-1974)2
Bol, Hans (1534 - 1593)2
Bloemaert, Abraham (1566 - 1651)2
Attributed to Engleheart, George (c.1750-1829)2
Anonymous, attributed to 'Japanese artist'2
Anonymous, attributed to 'German artist'2
Alt, Rudolf von (1812-1905)2
Zumsande, Josef (1806 - 1865)1
Ziegler, Johann (1749 - c. 1812)1
Zais, Giuseppe (1709 - 1784)1
Wörnle, Wilhelm (1849-1922)1
Winck, Christian (1738 - 1797)1
Wiegele, Franz (1887 - 1944)1
Whistler, James Abbott MacNeil (1834-1903)1
Weser, Ernst Christian (1783 - 1860)1
Welti, Albert (1862-1912)1
Weixlbaum, Johann (1752-1840)1
Waldmüller, Ferdinand Georg (1793 - 1865)1
Vieth (von Golssenau), Friedrich Ludwig (1768-1848)1
Vieth (von Golssenau), Friedrich Ludwig (1768 - 1848)1
Vestier, Antoine (1740 - 1824)1
Venus, August Leopold (1843-1886)1
Veit, Philipp (1793-1877)1
Varrone, Johann1
Unger, William (1837-1932) after van de Velde, Willem (the Elder) (c.1611-1689)1
Unger, William (1837-1932) after Menzel, Adolf Friedrich Erdmann (1815-1905)1
Unger, William (1837-1932) after Hals, Frans (c.1580-1666)1
Unger, William (1837-1932) after Hals, Frans (c. 1580-1666)1
Troost, Cornelis (1696 - 1750)1
Trapp, Hede von (1877 - ?)1
Toulouse-Lautrec, Henri de (1864-1901)1
Today attributed to Vignon, Claude (1593-1670), formerly to Bellange, Jacques (c. 1575-1616)1
Today attributed to Shelley, Samuel (1750-1808), formerly to Hazlehurst, Thomas (1740-1821)1
Today attributed to Shelley, Samuel (1750-1808), formerly to Cosway, Richard (1742-1821)1
Today attributed to Krüger, Ferdinand Anton (1795 - 1857), formerly to Overbeck, Friedrich (1789 - 1869)1
Today attributed to Guérin, Jean Urbain (1760-1836), formerly to Sauvage, Piat J. (1744-1818)1
Today attributed to Dresely, Johann Baptist, formerly to Braun, Friedrich1
Today attributed to Bouchardon, Edme (1698 - 1762), formerly to Fragonard, Honoré (1732 - 1806)1
Today attributed to 'Dutch artist', formerly to Suttermans, Justus (1597 - 1681)1
Till, Johann1
Tichy, Hans (1861 - 1925)1
Theer, Robert (1808 - 1863)1
Suchy, Adalbert (1783 - 1849)1
Straehuber, Alexander (1814-1882)1
Stemberger, Elisabeth (1906 - ?)1
Spitzweg, Carl (1808-1885)1
Spitzweg, Carl (1808 - 1885)1
Spitzer, Thomas1
Seibertz, Engelbert (1813-1905)1
Seewald, Richard (1889-1976)1
Schweninger (the Younger), Karl (1854 - 1903)1
Scholz, Werner 1898 - 1982)1
Scholz, Werner (1898 - 1982)1
Schmögler, Theobald1
Schmitson, Teutwart (1830 - 1863)1
Schindler, Emil Jakob (1842 - 1892)1
Schilcher, Friedrich (1811-81)1
Schiestl, Rudolf (1878-1931)1
Samz, Anton1
Rumohr, Freiherr Carl Friedrich von1
Rottmann, Carl (1797-1850)1
Rosenzweig, Nanette1
Romako, Anton (1832-1889)1
Rollé, Marie (1865-1942)1
Rochard, Francois Théodore (1798-1858)1
Ridinger, Johann Elias (1695 - 1767)1
Renoir, Pierre-Auguste (1841 - 1919)1
Reinicke, Emil (1859 - ?)1
Raabe, Josef (Karl Josef) (1780 - 1846)1
Pynas, Jacob Symonsz. (c.1590-c.1648)1
Preller the Elder, Ernst Christian Johann Friedrich (1804 - 1878)1
Plimer, Andrew (1763 - 1837)1
Plattenberg, Matthieu van, called Platte Montagne1
Pichler, Stefan1
Philippi, Robert (1877-1959)1
Pfeifer, Josef1
Peter, Emanuel Thomas (1799-1873)1
Périn-Salbreux, Louis Lié (1753 - 1817)1
Peche, Ernst (1885 - 1945)1
Payer-Gartegen, Robert1
Pauser, Sergius (1896 - 1970)1
Opiz, Georg Emanuel (1775 - 1841)1
Neureuther, Eugen Napoleon (1806-1882)1
Müller, Anton1
Monogrammist JH1
Moldovan, Kurt (1918 - 1977)1
Mirbel b. Rue, Lizinka Aimée Zoé de (1796 - 1849)1
Millet, Jean-François (1814-1875)1
Michalek, Ludwig (1859-1942)1
Mediz, Karl (1868 - 1945)1
Mayer-Beck, Friedrich (1907-?)1
Max, Gabriel Cornelius von (1840 - 1915)1
Manet, Edouard (1832-1883)1
Makart, Hans (1840-1884)1
Lütgendorff-Leinburg, Ferdinand Karl Theodor Christoph Peter von (1785 - 1858)1
Lindenschmidt, Wilhelm von (1829-1895)1
Leybold, Moritz1
Lenz, Maximilian (1860 - 1948)1
Lenbach, Franz Seraph von (1836-1904)1
Laurencin, Marie (1883 - 1956)1
Lasinio, Carlo (1759-1838) after del Sarto, Andrea (1486-1530)1
Lanzedelly, Karl (1806 - 1865)1
Landragin, Marie-Adélaide1
Kupelwieser, Leopold (1796 - 1862)1
Kügelgen, Wilhelm von (1802-1867)1
Krüger, Ferdinand Anton (1795-1857)1
Kriehuber, Josef (1800-76)1
Kriehuber, Josef (1800-1876)1
Kreutzinger, Josef (1757-1829)1
Kreutzberger, Karl1
Krafft, Peter (1780 - 1856)1
Krafft, Joseph (1787 - 1828)1
Krabbes, Hermann (1840-1920)1
Kollwitz, Käthe (1867-1945)1
Kolbe, Georg (1877-1947)1
Koch, Joseph Anton (1768-1839)1
Kobell, Ferdinand (1740 - 1799)1
Klinger, Max (1857 - 1920)1
Klengel, Johann Christian (1751-1824)1
Kitt, Ferdinand 1887 - 1961)1
Kirchner, Albert Emil (1813-1885)1
Kiesewetter, Wilhelm1
Khnopff, Fernand (1858 - 1921)1
Karger, Karl (1848 - 1913)1
Kaltner, Joseph (c. 1758 - after 1824)1
Jungnickel, Ludwig Heinrich (1881 - 1965)1
Isabey, Jean-Baptiste (1767 - 1855)1
Hoffmann, Josef (1870 - 1956)1
Hofer, Franz (1885 - 1915)1
Höchle, Johann Nepomuk (1790 - 1835)1
Hessell, Leonhard Heinrich (1757 - 1830)1
Hausknecht, Rudolf1
Hauck, Reinhold1
Hagenauer, Karl (1898 - 1956)1
Haanen, Remigius Adrianus van (1812 - 1894)1
Guys, Constantin (1802 - 1892)1
Guibal, Nicolas (1725-1784)1
Guérin, Jean Urbain (1760 - 1836)1
Grünbaum, Laurent1
Granet, François-Marius (1775 - 1849)1
Graeb, Carl Georg Anton (1816-84)1
Girodet De Roussy-Trioson, Anne Louis (1767-1824)1
Genelli, Bonaventura (1798 - 1868)1
Gauermann, Jakob (1773 - 1843)1
Gauermann, Friedrich (1807-1862)1
Führich, Josef von (1800 - 1876)1
Füger, Heinrich Friedrich (1751-1818)1
Freydanck, Carl Daniel (1811-1887)1
Frey, Max (1902 - 1955)1
Forgery after Schiele, Egon (1890 -1918)1
Fischer, Leopold (1814-1864)1
Fest, Wilhelm1
Fendi, Peter (1796 - 1842)1
Engerth, Eduard von (1818-1897), after: Vermeyen, Jan Cornelisz. (before 1559-1606)1
Eissenhardt, Johannes Kaspar (1824-1896) after Ruisdael, Jacob van (1828/29-1682)1
Eckl, Vilma (1892 - 1982)1
Dunker, Balthasar Anton (1746-1807)1
Dumont, Francois (1688 - 1726)1
Dreber, Heinrich (1822-1875)1
Dobrowsky, Josef (1889-1964)1
Dillis, Maximilian Johann Georg von (1759-1841)1
Daffinger, Moritz Michael (1790-1849)1
Daffinger, Moritz Michael (1790 - 1849)1
Cosway, Richard (1742-1821)1
Cocteau, Jean (1889-1963)1
Chéret, Jules (1836 - 1932)1
Castello, Giovanni Battista, called il Bergamasco (1547 - 1637)1
Caspar, Carl1
Burne-Jones, Edward (1833 - 1898)1
Brozík, Václav (1851 - 1901)1
Bril, Paul (1556 - 1626)1
Bresslern-Roth, Norbertine von (1891-1978)1
Bracht, Eugen Felix Prosper (1842 - 1921)1
Bossi, Domenico (1765-1853)1
Boeckl, Herbert (1894 - 1966)1
Bloemaert, Abraham (1566-1651)1
Blaas, Carl von (1815 - 1894)1
Bertl, Otto1
Bergmüller, Johann Georg (1688-1762)1
Benedetti, Tommaso (1796/97 - 1863)1
Becker, Alexander1
Bartsch, Adam Johann (1757-1821)1
Balbi, Lorenzo Gasparo (1732 - 1782)1
Baisch, Hermann (1846 - 1894)1
Attributed to Zincke, Christian Friedrich (1685 - 1767)1
Attributed to Wolf, Franz (?)1
Attributed to Vincent, Francois André (1746 - 1816)1
Attributed to Theer, Robert (1808-1863)1
Attributed to Theer, Robert (1808 - 1863)1
Attributed to Smart, John (the Elder)1
Attributed to Nilson, Johannes Esaias (1721-1788)1
Attributed to Lanino, Bernardino (c. 1512-1583)1
Attributed to Hoskins, John (the Elder)1
Attributed to Grahl, August (1791 - 1868)1
Attributed to Fraisinger, Caspar (1560 - 1599)1
Attributed to Fendi, Peter (1796-1842)1
Attributed to Fendi, Peter (1796 - 1842)1
Attributed to Blesendorf, Constantin Friedrich (1674 - 1744)1
Archduchess Marie Christine of Habsburg-Lorraine (1742 - 1798)1
Antonio, Juan1
Anreiter, Aloys von (1803 - 1882)1
Anonymous, English, formerly attributed to Cosway, Richard1
Anonymous, copy after Clouet, François (c. 1505/10-1572)1
Anonymous, attributed to Ranftl, Johann Mathias (1804 - 1854)1
Anonymous, attributed to northern school1
Anonymous, attributed to Florentine artist1
Anonymous, attributed to Flemish artist1
Anonym1
Alt, Jakob (1789-1872)1
Agricola, Karl (1779 - 1852)1
After Olivier the Elder, Isaac (c. 1565 - 1617)1
Adamek, Johann (1774 - 1840)1
Abel, Joseph (1764 - 1818)1
Grand Total593537

source of information analysed in this table:

Kunstdatenbank for Albertina
https://www.kunstdatenbank.at/detail-view-museum/albertina
Albertina, Albertinaplatz 1;1010 Vienna

Additional information provided about the provenance research project at the Albertina Museum by the Kunstdatenbank on its website:

Provenance researcher: Mag.a Julia Eßl

In the Albertina, Maren Gröning carried out provenance research for the period 1938–1960 actively between 1998 and 2000 and as required between 2000 and 2009. During this time, 49 reports regarding 317 works were submitted to the Commission for Provenance Research. Of these, 163 objects were restituted, in addition to a collection of around 3,500 posters (as at October 2009) and the restitution of a further 34 objects was recommended by the Advisory Board pursuant to the Art Restitution Law, Federal Law Gazette 1998/181.
Mag. Julia Eßl and Dr. Pia Schölnberger (until August 2017) have been working as provenance researchers at the Albertina since spring 2011, on behalf of the Commission for Provenance Research. Their task is to build on the research already carried out at an intensified level, by examining all objects which came into the collection between 1933 and the present for their origins and previous owners. In dubious or contentious cases, dossiers are compiled which are subsequently submitted to the Art Restitution Advisory Board, whose task is to advise the Federal Minister of Education, the Arts and Culture on a possible restitution.
Due to the extension of the period to be investigated, the provenance researchers of the Albertina will carry out investigations into the purchases from the German art trade between 1933 and 1938, into all purchases after 1960 and into acquisitions of the library, and a general object autopsy in order to look for indications of provenance on the originals as well as a systematic revision of the entire holdings of the works of Egon Schiele and Gustav Klimt.
(source: Kunstsdatenbank)