Jun 19, 2021

The Munich Connection


 Research Question: How did Nazi plunder get from a cabal of looted art dealers in Munich to the art museums of the United States of America?

Which names have replaced theirs in the provenance texts?

Method

1. Gather the provenance texts for artworks listed on the Nazi-era Provenance Internet Portal that mention Munich

https://www.harvardartmuseums.org/collections/object/229043Unidentified owner, Paris, sold, [through Hôtel Drouot, Paris, June 16, 1906, no 30.]. Dr. Alfred Wolff, Munich, (1912). Sir Michael Sadler, England, (1912). [De Hauke & Co., New York], sold, to A. Conger Goodyear, New York, (1929-1937) sold, [through Wildenstein && Co., New York];to Maurice Wertheim, New York (1937-1951) bequest, to Fogg Art Museum, 1951.
https://www.harvardartmuseums.org/collections/object/299841[Ambroise Vollard, Paris]. [Thannhauser, Munich]. [Paul Cassirer Gallery, Berlin].;S. Fischer, Berlin, (by 1918)."R.P.A." (private collector), Paris, (1939).;[Paul Rosenberg, Paris, (by 1939),sold], to Maurice Wertheim, (1939 - 1951) bequest, to Fogg Art Museum, 1951.;Notes;Meier-Graefe lists Fischer as owner in 1918.
https://www.harvardartmuseums.org/collections/object/299843Vincent van Gogh, Arles, (1888,) gift, to Paul Gauguin, (1888-1897) sold. [Ambroise Vollard, Paris.] [Paul Cassirer Gallery, Berlin.] Dr. Hugo von Tschudi, Berlin, (1906-1911), by descent, to his widow, Angela von Tschudi, Munich (1911-1919), to Neue Staatsgalerie, Munich (1919-1938), removed from the collection by the National Socialist (Nazi) authorities in 1938, consigned, to [Theodor Fischer Gallery, Lucerne, Switzerland, for sale June 30, 1939, lot 45], to Maurice Wertheim (1939-1951) bequest, to Fogg Art Museum, 1951.;Notes;Gauguin sold the painting for Fr 300;Hugo von Tschudi bought the painting for the Nationalgalerie, Berlin, with funds from sponsors, but did not submit it to the Kaiser for pre-approval. He took the painting to Munich when he assumed a post there.;According to Stephanie Barron, the van Gogh was removed from the Neue Staatsgalerie on March 27, 1938 and stored at Schloss Niederschönhausen in August of that year. (Barron, 1991, pp. 135-146)
https://www.harvardartmuseums.org/art/299841[Ambroise Vollard, Paris]. [Thannhauser, Munich]. [Paul Cassirer Gallery, Berlin].;S. Fischer, Berlin, (by 1918)."R.P.A." (private collector), Paris, (1939).;[Paul Rosenberg, Paris, (by 1939),sold], to Maurice Wertheim, (1939 - 1951) bequest, to Fogg Art Museum, 1951.;Notes;Meier-Graefe lists Fischer as owner in 1918.
https://www.harvardartmuseums.org/art/299959Jean-Baptiste-Pierre Le Brun, Paris, 1809. Possibly de Beuronville, Paris. Charles Fairfax Murray, London, by 1909. [1] Marczell von Nemes, Budapest and Munich, sold [through his sale, Mensing & Sons, Paul Cassirer, and Hugo Helbing, June 16, 1931, lot no. 40]. [Jacques Goudstikker, Amsterdam]. [2] Baron Mór Lipót Herzog (Moritz L. Herzog), Budapest, by descent, to his wife, Johanna Herzog de Csete, Budapest, 1934, by descent, to their children (probably his son, István Herzog, Budapest), 1940, confiscated and transferred, to Germany, circa 1944-1945, [3] returned, to Hungary, 1946, returned, to Mme István Herzog (née Ilona Kiss) via Dr. Emil Oppler, a family friend and lawyer. [4] [Julius Weitzner, New York], sold, to Fogg Art Museum, 1949;Notes;[1] Photographed by Braun & Co., 1909;[2] Red wax seal on verso identified as that of Goudstikker. See “Giambattista Tiepolo: Master of the Oil Sketch” (1993).;[3] The Baron Herzog collection was confiscated before 1944.;[4] See “The ‘Sacco di Budapest:’ Depredation of Hungary, 1938-1949” (1998).
https://www.harvardartmuseums.org/art/298132Theodore Fontane, Berlin, 1906, Leo Lewin, Breslau, his sale, Paul Cassirer, Berlin, April 12, 1928, no. 123, Galerie Caspari, Munich, acquired from them through Martin Birnbaum by Grenville L. Winthrop, November 1927, his bequest to the Fogg Art Museum, 1943.
https://www.harvardartmuseums.org/art/299843Vincent van Gogh, Arles, (1888,) gift, to Paul Gauguin, (1888-1897) sold. [Ambroise Vollard, Paris.] [Paul Cassirer Gallery, Berlin.] Dr. Hugo von Tschudi, Berlin, (1906-1911), by descent, to his widow, Angela von Tschudi, Munich (1911-1919), to Neue Staatsgalerie, Munich (1919-1938), removed from the collection by the National Socialist (Nazi) authorities in 1938, consigned, to [Theodor Fischer Gallery, Lucerne, Switzerland, for sale June 30, 1939, lot 45], to Maurice Wertheim (1939-1951) bequest, to Fogg Art Museum, 1951.;Notes;Gauguin sold the painting for Fr 300;Hugo von Tschudi bought the painting for the Nationalgalerie, Berlin, with funds from sponsors, but did not submit it to the Kaiser for pre-approval. He took the painting to Munich when he assumed a post there.;According to Stephanie Barron, the van Gogh was removed from the Neue Staatsgalerie on March 27, 1938 and stored at Schloss Niederschönhausen in August of that year. (Barron, 1991, pp. 135-146)

https://www.harvardartmuseums.org/art/222988R. von Passavant-Gontard, Frankfurt am Main, Germany (1921-?). Walter von Pannwitz collection [1], Munich and Berlin, Germany, sold, [to Rosenberg & Stiebel, New York, NY (?-1963), sold], to Busch-Reisinger Museum, 1963.;Notes;[1] The sculpture was almost certainly in the collection of R. von Passavant-Gontard in Frankfurt as early as 1921. It is included in the 1921 “Meisterwerke der Bildhauerkunst in Frankfurter Privatbesitz,” featuring works from Frankfurt’s private collections. Although the publication does not identify the private collection by name, it is almost certainly the Passavant-Gontard collection. In 1929 the sculpture was included in the Passavant-Gontard collection catalogue.
https://www.harvardartmuseums.org/art/299820[A.S. Drey, Munich, Germany (by 1914-?) ]. Walter von Pannwitz collection, Munich and Berlin, Germany (by 1925-?), sold, [to Rosenberg & Stiebel, New York, NY (?-1963), sold], to Busch-Reisinger Museum, 1963.;Notes;In the 1914 “Festschrift des Münchner Altertums-Vereins zur Erinnerung an das 50 Jähr. Jubiläum” the work is listed as being in the collection of A.S. Drey (fig. 22, p. 41). Later the work is included in the 1925-1926 von Pannwitz collection catalogue (vol. II, no. 115, M.J. Friedländer and Otto von Falke, “Die Kunstsammlung von Pannwitz,” 1925-1926).
https://www.harvardartmuseums.org/art/332230Sale, Christie’s, London, 20 March 1973, lot 137, Julius Böhler, Munich, private collection, Austria, sale, Kunsthaus Lempertz, Cologne, 22 November 2008, lot 1430, Didier Aaron et Cie, Paris, sold, to Harvard Art Museums/Fogg Museum, Marian H. Phinney Fund, Paul J. Sachs Memorial Fund, through the generosity of Virgilia Klein, Bunge North America Corporation, and David M. Leventhal, and the Drawing Department Acquisition Fund, inv. no. 2009.74
https://www.harvardartmuseums.org/art/228228[Julius Böhler, Munich, 1901]. [1] Graf Preti, Vienna. W. B. Patterson, London, 1904. Dr. Paul Mersch, Paris, sold [through Keller & Reiner's, Berlin, March 1-2, 1905, lot 66 as Cavazolla]. [Christie's, London, March 14, 1924, lot 80], sold, to Layton. Conte Avogli-Trotti, Paris. Contini Bonacossi, Rome and Florence, sold, to Samuel H. Kress, New York, 1930, gift, to Fogg Art Museum, 1962;Notes;[1] Böhler is listed as the owner in 1901. See "Offizieller Katalog der Ausstellung von Mesiterwerken der Renaissance...
https://www.harvardartmuseums.org/art/228161Willem Lormier, 1754, The Hague, sold [through his sale, The Hague, July 4, 1763, lot 137], to Balden. Collection Etienne François Choiseul-Stainville, Duc de Choiseul et Ambroise (1719-1785), Paris, sold [through J.F. Boileau, Paris, April 6-10, 1772, lot 74 as “Van der Heiden”], to [J.F. Bolieau], sold (?), to Dubois de Courval, sold [through Folliot, Delalande, Fournier, May 11, 1789, lot. No. 10 as Jean Vander Heyden]. Aleksander Andreyevich, Prince Bezborodko (1747 – 1799), Saint Petersburg 1783 (?), by descent, to his brother, 1800, by descent, to Countess Liubov Il'inichna Kusheleva (née Bezborodko) (1783-1809), the daughter of Prince Bezborodko, by descent, to Grigorii (1801-1855), her son as part of Collection Georg, Count Kushelev-Bezborodko, sold [through Durand-Ruel, Paris, June 5, 1869 lot 4, as by Gérard Berkeyden]. Collection Edwards, sold [through Hôtel Drouot, Paris, May 25, 1905, lot 2, as “Un Quai à Amsterdam” by Gérard Berkheyden (Lugt 63248)], to Féral. [Julius Böehler, Munich, through James Loeb] [1], sold, to Paul Moritz Warburg (1868-1932), New York, NY, October 1909, by descent, to his son, James P. Warburg (1896-1969), to Mr. and Mrs. Samuel B. Grimson (née Bettina Warburg, sister of James P. Warburg), gift, to Fogg Art Musum, 1968.;Notes;[1] James Loeb is a relative of Paul M. Warburg’s wife, Nina J. Loeb.
https://www.harvardartmuseums.org/art/228593[J. & A. Le Roy, Brussels, April 27-28, 1903, no. 90). [Julius Böhler, Munich, by 1912]. James P. Warburg (by 1960), gift, to Fogg Art Museum, 1962.;Notes;Warburg lent painting to Fogg Museum in 1960.
https://www.harvardartmuseums.org/art/223405Ise Bienert and son, Berlin(?), Paris(?), Munich(?). [Galerie Ferdinand Möller, Berlin]. Heinz Berggruen, Paris. [Saidenberg Gallery, New York]. Sold to Busch-Reisinger Museum, 1956.;Footnotes: Source: H. K. Rothel, Kandinsky: Catalogue Raisonné of the Oil Paintings (1982-1984).
https://www.harvardartmuseums.org/art/227854[Scheidwimmer, Munich]. [Julius H. Weitzner, New York, NY, sold,] to David E. Rust, Washington, DC, gift, to Fogg Art Museum, 1977.
https://www.harvardartmuseums.org/art/222991[A. S. Drey Gallery, New York, NY (?-1964), sold], to Busch-Reisinger Museum, 1964.;Notes;The painting was purchased along with a certificate of authenticity by Dr. Hermann Voss, Munich, Germany dated July 8, 1963.
https://www.harvardartmuseums.org/art/230293[Julius Böhler, Munich]. [Wildenstein & Co., Inc., New York], sold, to Grenville L. Winthrop, New York, 1929, bequest, to Fogg Art Museum, 1943.
https://www.harvardartmuseums.org/art/222866[Adolphe Stein, Paris], sold, to [Julius Böhler Kunsthandlung, Munich, July 1961], sold, to Busch-Reisinger Museum, 1962.
https://www.harvardartmuseums.org/art/222889[Adolphe Stein, Paris], sold, to [Julius Böhler Kunsthandlung, Munich, July 1961], sold, to Busch-Reisinger Museum, 1962.
https://www.harvardartmuseums.org/art/223306A von Hildebrand, Munich and Florence. [J. B. Neumann, New York]. Kurt H. and Erich O. Grunebaum, gift, to Busch-Reisinger Museum, 1960.
https://www.harvardartmuseums.org/art/225860Dr. Wurz Collection, Stuttgart. [Graphisches Kabinett, Munich]. [Galerie Alfred Flechtheim, Berlin], sold, to Busch-Reisinger Museum, 1934.
https://www.harvardartmuseums.org/art/297008Jonathan Richardson Sr., London (L. 2184), 1745. Jan Pietersz Zoomer, Amsterdam (L. 1511). A. S. Drey, Munich, Germany, sold, to Paul J. Sachs, Cambridge, MA 1928, gift, to Fogg Art Museum, 1959.
https://www.harvardartmuseums.org/art/231998A.S. Drey, Munich, 1908
http://collection.cmoa.org/CollectionDetail.aspx?item=12339Ferdinand Georg Waldmüller [1793-1865]. Herr von Hüfler, by 1865. Dr. August Heymann, Vienna, Austria. (Sold at Glückselig & Wärndorfer, Vienna, Austria, May 17, 1921, lot 679) [1]. Private collection, Paris, France. (Sold at Neumeister, Munich, Germany, December 1965, lot 1597). Private collection, Vienna, Austria. (Sold at Sotheby's, London, England, March 29, 2001). (Sold at French & Company, New York, NY, 2004); purchased by Carnegie Museum of Art, December 2004. 
NOTES: [1] This work is listed as "Der Mohrenfürst".


http://collection.cmoa.org/CollectionDetail.aspx?item=1006885J. D. Böhm (1794-1865), Vienna (Lugt 1442 and Lugt 271); A. Artaria (1807-1893), Vienna (Lugt 33); Paul Sachs (b. 1873), Munich (Lugt 2925a); Gift of Kenneth Seaver
http://collection.cmoa.org/CollectionDetail.aspx?item=1009067Fritz Winter [1905-1976], Diessen am Ammersee, Germany, until November 1952 [1]; Galerie Günther Franke, Munich, Germany [2]; purchased by Department of Fine Arts, Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, December 1952 [3].

Notes:
[1]. The painting was no. 299 in "The 1952 Pittsburgh International Exhibition of Contemporary Paintings" held at Carnegie Institute, October-December 1952. 
[2]. Carnegie Institute purchased the painting from the 1952 International, through the artist's gallery. Payment was acknowledged by the gallery on November 21, 1952 (see curatorial file for relevant correspondence.) 
[3]. The painting was accessioned on December 11, 1952.
http://collection.cmoa.org/CollectionDetail.aspx?item=1010379Private collector, Munich; Mr. Hugo Moser, NYC, purchased from private collector in Munich in 1956; Feigle Gallery, NYC;
Museum purchased from Feigle Gallery, March 1957
http://collection.cmoa.org/CollectionDetail.aspx?item=1010880Hans Platschek [1923-2000], Munich, Germany; Galerie van de Loo, Munich, Germany [1]; purchased by Department of Fine Arts, Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, December 1958.

Notes:
[1]. The painting was exhibited (no. 354, illustrated in the catalogue, plate 52) in "The 1958 Pittsburgh Bicentennial International Exhibition of Contemporary Painting and Sculpture" held at Carnegie Institute, December 1958 - February 1959. 
[2]. The painting was purchased by Carnegie Institute from the International. It was accessioned on December 17, 1958. Payment was sent to Galerie van de Loo on January 12, 1959.
http://collection.cmoa.org/CollectionDetail.aspx?item=1010989Julius Bohler, Munich, Germany
http://collection.cmoa.org/CollectionDetail.aspx?item=1010990Daniel Lang [-1635]. Duke of Cumberland [1]. Private collection, Basel, Switzerland. (Julius Böhler, Munich, Germany, by 1959); purchased by Museum, May 1959. 
NOTES:1. Exactly which creation of the Duke of Cumberland this refers to is unclear.

http://collection.cmoa.org/CollectionDetail.aspx?item=1011657Maurice Wyckaert [1923-1996], Alsemberg, Belgium, until November 1961 [1]; Mr. and Mrs. George Magee Wyckoff, Sewickley, PA, November 1961 until December 17, 1963 [2]; their gift to Department of Fine Arts, Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, December 1963.

Notes:
[1]. The painting was included (no. 432) in "The 1961 Pittsburgh International Exhibition of Contemporary Painting and Sculpture" held at Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, October 1961 - January 1962. 
[2]. The painting was purchased from the International by Mr. and Mrs. George Magee Wyckoff for $505. Payment to the artist was sent on November 20, 1961. See curatorial file for copy of correspondence with the artist and his agent, Galerie van de Loo, Munich, Germany.
http://collection.cmoa.org/CollectionDetail.aspx?item=1011666Julius Bohler, Munich, Germany
http://collection.cmoa.org/CollectionDetail.aspx?item=1011667Julius Bohler, Munich, Germany
http://collection.cmoa.org/CollectionDetail.aspx?item=1011685Paul Gauguin [1848-1903]. Julius Stern [1859-1914], until 1914; estate of Julius Stern, 1914 until 1916; sold at Galerie Paul Cassirer, Berlin, Germany, May 22, 1916, no. 22, illustrated [1]; Siemens, Berlin, Germany [2]. Georg Hofmann, Munich, Germany [3]; Private Collection, France [4]; Jacques Dubourg [1897-1981], Paris, France; with Jacques Lindon, New York, NY [5]; Sylvester W. Labrot, Jr. [1901-1958], Hobe Sound, FL until October 21, 1958; estate of Sylvester W. Labrot, Jr., 1958-1963; on deposit with M. Knoedler & Company, New York, NY, June 7, 1962 until June 20, 1963 [6]; purchased by Museum of Art, Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, June 1963. 

Notes:
[1]. This was the sale of Julius Stern's estate, entitled "Sammlung Julius Stern."
[2]. Perhaps C. H. von Siemens or Siemmens?; see curatorial file. 
[3]. The last name could possibly be "Hoffmann" as it appears in George Wildenstein's "Paul Gauguin," Paris, 1964, no. 601, p. 255-56; see also curatorial file. 
[4]. The dealer Jacques Dubourg was asked repeatedly but did not identify the private collector; see curatorial file.
[5]. In half share with Jacques Dubourg.
[6]. Knoedler No. CA6405, dated June 7, 1962; see Knoedler commission book 5b, Knoedler Archives, The Getty Research Institute.
http://collection.cmoa.org/CollectionDetail.aspx?item=1011710Adrien Ysenbrandt [1500?-1551?]. M. Nieuwenhuys, in 1856 [1]; purchased by Thomas Baring, M.P. [1799-1873], in 1856 [2]; bequest to his nephew, Thomas George Baring, Lord Northbrook, subsequently 1st Earl of Northbrook [1826-1904], in 1873 [3]; by descent to Francis George Baring, 2nd Earl of Northbrook [1850-1929], until at least 1927 [4]. Julius Böhler, Munich, Germany, August 30, 1929 until at least January 16, 1935, stock no. 217-29 [5]; Howard A. Noble [1874-1964], Pittsburgh, PA by April 1944 until April 30, 1964 [6]; his bequest to Museum of Art, Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, May 1964. 

NOTES:
[1]. The information is from entry no. 5 in the 1889 catalogue of the Earl of Northbrook collection. It refers, most likely, to noted collector and dealer C. J. Nieuwenhuys [1799-1883], Brussels and London. 
[2]. As by Bernard Van Orley. 
[3]. In the 1889 catalogue of the Earl of Northbrook collection, this work, no. 5, is simply listed under the "Early Netherlandish School" section, with the following footnote: "A similar picture was, in 1860, in the collection of the Rev. Mr. Heath, Vicar of Enfield." 
[4]. The Earl lent it to the Royal Academy Exhibition of Flemish and Dutch art in 1927. 
[5]. Photo, no. R 770. Information from a copy of the firm's inventory records at the Getty Research Institute. The record for this painting lists the source as "Sarasota N 248", which may suggest a connection with John Ringling with whom the Böhler firm had a long and close relationship.
[6]. Notes: In 1944, the painting hung in the living room of the Noble residence at 1245 Shady Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA.
http://collection.cmoa.org/CollectionDetail.aspx?item=1011727Marczell von Nemes [1866-1930] Munich, Germany and Budapest, Hungary until May 20, 1927 [1]; sold to M. Knoedler & Co., London, England, Paris, France, and New York, NY [2]; M. Knoedler & Co., London, England, Paris, France, and New York, NY, May 20, 1927 until September 9, 1932 [3]; sold to Howard A. Noble [1874-1964], Pittsburgh, PA on September 9, 1932 [4]; Howard A. Noble, Pittsburgh, PA, September 9, 1932 until April 30, 1964 [5]; his bequest to Museum of Art, Carnegie Institute, Pittsburgh, PA, May 1964.

Notes: 
[1]. Provenance information before acquisition by Mr. Noble is from the Knoedler Gallery Archive (The Getty Research Institute). The Hungarian art collector and dealer Marczell von Nemes was also known as Marczell or Marcel de Nemes. 
[2]. Sold for £800, as "Woman with a Pink" by Master of the Half Lengths. 
[3]. Knoedler London stock no. 8178; Knoedler New York stock no. 16912. During this period, Knoedler changed the attribution of the work, first to Master of the Parrot and then to Flemish School. 
[4]. Mr. Noble purchased the painting in London. The Knoedler New York invoice, dated September 30, 1932, lists a price of $3500 for two paintings purchased in London, this work and 64.11.2.
[5]. In 1944, the painting hung in the parlor of the Noble residence at 1245 Shady Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA.

https://collections.mfa.org/objects/33560/christ-as-the-man-of-sorrows1946, in Amsterdam [see note 1]. By 1953, Alfred Weinberger (dealer), Paris [see note 2], 1956, sold by Weinberger, through Kleinberger and Co., New York, to the MFA. (Accession Date: April 12, 1956);NOTES;[1] This picture was examined by Max Friedländer in Amsterdam on May 17, 1946, according to photo-documentation from the Kleinberger files at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. In whose possession it was at this time is not known. On the reverse of the panel is an export stamp from Amsterdam, as well as similar stamps from Munich and Paris. [2] This is according to a statement of January 14, 1955 by Hanns Swarzenski of the MFA that he first saw the panel in Weinberger's possession in Paris in October 1953. Swarzenski notes that Weinberger was a dealer in Paris who was a relative of Harry G. Sperling of Kleinberger and Co., New York.
https://collections.mfa.org/objects/33921/nobleman-with-two-children-in-a-landscapePrivate collection, Bavaria [see note 1], sold from the private collection to an unidentified dealer, Munich, sold by the dealer to Kurt Rossacher (b. 1918 - d. 1988), Salzburg, 1965, sold by Rossacher to the MFA. (Accession Date: November 10, 1965);NOTES;[1] In a letter to the MFA (March 23, 1966) Dr. Rossacher wrote of the painting, "I have bought it from a dealer in Munich, who had it -- as he says -- from the private collection of a Bavarian noble family. But he does not say the name of the collection...." At the time of its acquisition, the painting was attributed to Justus Sustermans.
https://collections.mfa.org/objects/33498/woman-dressed-with-jewels-the-personification-of-fireSir Robert Gresley (b. 1866 - d. 1936), 11th Bart., Drakelowe Hall, Derbyshire, England. 1925, Basil Dighton, London, 1925, sold by Basil Dighton to Siegfried Aufhäuser (b. 1877 - d. 1949), London, Munich, and New York [see note 1], February 19, 1948, Aufhäuser sale, Parke-Bernet, New York, lot 45, sold for $1300. 1953, Charles Armour, New York, March 14, 1953, Armour sale, Parke-Bernet, New York, lot 305, to Victor D. Spark (dealer) for Catherine Spencer Eddy (Mrs. Albert J.) Beveridge (b. 1881 - d. 1970), Beverly Farms, MA, 1953, gift of Mrs. Albert J. Beveridge to the MFA. (Accession Date: May 14, 1953);NOTES;[1] As suggested by information in the 1948 Parke-Bernet catalogue. Siegfried Aufhäuser, of the Munich Bankhaus Aufhäuser, had spent the early years of the twentieth century working in London, where he obtained English citizenship. He returned to Munich after World War I and, in addition to working as banker, became the general consul to Sweden. The Bankhaus Aufhäuser was Aryanized in 1938, and Siegfried Aufhäuser emigrated through England to the United States. Parke-Bernet galleries held a number of sales of objects from his collection in the 1940s.
https://collections.mfa.org/objects/33499/woman-wearing-a-laurel-wreath-the-personification-of-poetrySir Robert Gresley (b. 1866 - d. 1936), 11th Bart., Drakelowe Hall, Derbyshire, England. 1925, Basil Dighton, London, 1925, sold by Basil Dighton to Siegfried Aufhäuser (b. 1877 - d. 1949), London, Munich, and New York [see note 1], February 19, 1948, Aufhäuser sale, Parke-Bernet, New York, lot 45, sold for $1300. 1953, Charles Armour, New York, March 14, 1953, Armour sale, Parke-Bernet, New York, lot 305, to Victor D. Spark (dealer) for for Catherine Spencer Eddy (Mrs. Albert J.) Beveridge (b. 1881 - d. 1970), Beverly Farms, MA, 1953, gift of Mrs. Albert J. Beveridge to the MFA. (Accession Date: May 14, 1953);NOTES;[1] As suggested by information in the 1948 Parke-Bernet catalogue. Siegfried Aufhäuser, of the Munich Bankhaus Aufhäuser, had spent the early years of the twentieth century working in London, where he obtained English citizenship. He returned to Munich after World War I and, in addition to working as banker, became the general consul to Sweden. The Bankhaus Aufhäuser was Aryanized in 1938, and Siegfried Aufhäuser emigrated through England to the United States. Parke-Bernet galleries held a number of sales of objects from his collection in the 1940s.
https://collections.mfa.org/objects/398280/old-woman-cutting-breadProbably between 1684 and 1716, acquired by Johann Wilhelm, Elector Pfalz von Neuburg (b. 1658 - d. 1716), Düsseldorf [see note 1], by descent to his brother, Karl III Philip, Elector von der Pfalz (b. 1661- d. 1742), Mannheim [see note 2], by descent within the family to Karl IV Theodor, Elector von der Pfalz (b. 1724- d. 1799), Mannheim [see note 3], by descent to Maximilian IV Joseph (b. 1756 - d. 1825), Mannheim and Munich [see note 4], by descent to his son, Ludwig I, King of Bavaria (b. 1786 - d. 1868), Munich, 1836, transferred to the Alte Pinakothek, Munich (inv. no. 580) [see note 5], March, 1937, exchanged by the Alte Pinakothek with Eduard Plietzsch, Berlin, April, 1937, with Heinz Steinmeyer, Berlin [see note 6], 1937, sold by Steinmeyer to a private collector, until 2003, by descent within the family, 2003, sold by the family to the MFA. (Accession Date: March 26, 2003);NOTES;[1] The early provenance of this painting was established by Carla Kunkel, who kindly shared the results of her research (see correspondence in MFA curatorial file). By 1684, Elector Johann Wilhelm of the Palatine (r. 1690-1716) had already begun to assemble his collection of about 350 paintings through a network of dealers throughout Europe. An inventory of his collection, made at the time of his death and published in 1751, records the MFA painting as one of seven works by Dou: "An old woman cuts bread, near her is a young boy with a spoon in his hand, and a small child sits at the table, on which is a ham. By Gerard Dou." See Johan von Gool, "Catalogus en uitvoerige Beschriyvinge der voortrefflyke onschatbaere Schilderkunst," in De nieuwe Schouburg der nederlantsche kunstschilders en Schilderessen, vol. 2 (s'Gravenhage, 1751).;[2] Karl Philipp inherited his brother's painting collection and transferred it from Düsseldorf to Mannheim in 1730. The painting is recorded in the inventory drawn up at Mannheim in 1730 (no. 132: "An old woman cutting bread, with a boy holding a candle in his hand") and is visible in the drawings made of the cabinet walls there in 1731. For these documents, see Everhard Korthals Altes, "The collections of the Palatine Electors: new information, documents and drawings" Burlington Magazine 145, no. 1200 (March, 2003): 209 (fig. 98), 212, and Appendix, no. 132. The painting is also included in the 1756 "inventory of the princely art collection at Mannheim" (Verzeichnis der in den Churfürstlichen Cabinetten zu Mannheim befindlichen Mahlereyen, no. 109: "An old woman sits at a table, cutting a loaf of bread, in front of the table stands a boy with a light, behind is a smaller boy, who eats something with a spoon"). See "Geschichte der kurfürstlichen Gemäldegalerie in Mannheim," in Mannheimer Geschichtsblätter 27 (1926): 38.;[3] In 1777, Karl Theodor, already Elector of the Palatine, inherited the Electorate of Bavaria and the estates of the House of Wittelsbach. Thereafter, the Mannheim Galerie was legally merged with the Wittelsbach family collections.;[4] With Karl Theodor's death in 1799, the Sulzbach line of succession became extinct. The Electorates of both the Palatine and Bavaria passed to Maximilian Joseph, who, as Duke of Zweibrücken (since 1795) was the most senior prince. He became Maximilian I, King of Bavaria, in 1806, at which point the Mannheim Galerie was transferred to the Wittelsbach estate in Munich.;[5] In 1836 King Ludwig I (r. 1825 - 1848) opened the Pinakothek in Munich to exhibit the royal painting collection. It was renamed the Alte Pinakothek with the opening of the Neue Pinakothek across the street in 1853.;[6] In the 1930s, the director of the Bavarian State Paintings Collection, Ernst Buchner, deaccessioned many paintings at the Alte Pinakothek to trade for German works of art. At least seventy-four Dutch paintings, including the Dou, were deaccessioned at this time. In a letter to Dr. Buchner of February 22, 1937, Eduard Plietzsch confirmed the conditions of the trade: in exchange for three German altarpiece panels, he would receive the Dou and a small landscape by Jan Brueghel the Elder, this is confirmed in the registers of the Alte Pinakothek. According to David Alan Brown and Jane Van Niemen (Raphael and the Beautiful Banker [London and New Haven, 2005], p. 218, n. 17), the official date of the trade was March 3, 1937. While Plietzsch received the painting, by April the dealer Heinz Steinmeyer was offering it for sale. In a letter of April 21, 1937 Steinmeyer attested that the Alte Pinakothek had asked to trade the Dou for a German painting. In order to compensate the seller of the German painting, Steinmeyer needed first to sell the Dou. For further information on the deaccessions, see Jonathan Petropoulos, The Faustian Bargain: The Art World in Nazi Germany (Oxford, 2000), 31-32.
https://collections.mfa.org/objects/33415/still-life-in-an-architectural-settingFrançois Emmanuel van Ertborn (b. 1716 - d. 1791), Antwerp, August 18, 1807, posthumous Ertborn sale, Beeckmans, Antwerp, lot 42, to Henri-Joseph Stier d'Aertselaer, Antwerp, July 29, 1822, Aertselaer sale, G. J. Bincken, Antwerp, lot 25, to Paramosky (or Baranowsky), Vienna. Jean Baptiste Puthon (b. 1773 - d. 1839), Vienna, 1840, sold from the Puthon collection, probably through Artaria and Co., Vienna, to Philipp Dräxler von Carin, Vienna, probably sold by Dräxler von Carin to Baron Samuel von Festetits (b. 1806 - d. 1862), Vienna [see note 1], March 7 and April 11, 1859, Festetits sale, Vienna, lot 101, to Friedrich Jakob Gsell (d. 1872), Vienna, March 14, 1872, Gsell sale, Plach, Vienna, lot 30, sold to Plach, possibly for Anselm Solomon von Rothschild (b. 1803 - d. 1874), Vienna, by descent to Nathaniel von Rothschild (b. 1836 - d. 1905), Vienna, by descent to his nephew, Alphonse Rothschild (b. 1878 - d. 1942) and Clarice de Rothschild (b. 1894 - d. 1967), Vienna, 1938, confiscated from Alphonse and Clarice de Rothschild by Nazi forces (no. AR884), taken to the Kunsthistorisches Museum, stored at the Central Depot, Neue Burg, Vienna, and selected for the Führermuseum, Linz [see note 2], removed to the monastery of Kremsmünster (K 995), December 16, 1943, taken from Kremsmünster to the Führerbau, Munich (no. 3225) [see note 3] and later moved to Alt Aussee [see note 4], July 19, 1945, shipped by Allied forces to the Munich Central Collecting Point (MCCP no. 4928) [see note 5], May 11, 1948, released from the MCCP to United States Forces in Austria, April 12, 1949, returned to Clarice de Rothschild, New York [see note 6], sold by Clarice de Rothschild to Rosenberg and Stiebel, New York, 1950, sold by Rosenberg and Stiebel to the MFA for $3,000. (Accession Date: September 14, 1950);NOTES;[1] On the provenance of this painting from Puthon to Gsell, see Theodor von Frimmel, "Lexikon der Wiener Gemäldesammlungen" (Munich, 1913), pp. 290, 375-376. Festetits acquired many works of art from Dräxler von Carin, and it is likely that he acquired this painting from him as well.;[2] With the Anschluss, or annexation of Austria to Nazi Germany in March, 1938, the possessions of Alphonse and Clarice de Rothschild were seized and expropriated almost immediately by Nazi forces. This painting appears in a Nazi-generated inventory of 1939 as no. AR (Alphonse Rothschild) 884: "Jan Fyt, Architektur mit Stilleben. Leinwand, 112 x 83." Katalog beschlagnahmter Sammlungen, inbesondere der Rothschild-Sammlungen in Wien, Verlags-Nr. 4938, Staatsdruckerei Wien, 1939, Privatarchiv, reproduced in Sophie Lillie, "Was einmal war: Handbuch der enteigneten Kunstsammlungen Wiens" (Vienna, 2003), p. 1032. The Führermuseum, the art museum Adolf Hitler planned to build in Linz, Austria, was given right of first refusal over the confiscated Rothschild collection. This painting was included in an inventory of the museum drawn up on July 31, 1940. CIR no. 4, attachment 73.;[3] The Führerbau in Munich was used as a repository for works of art. An inventory of the paintings was drawn up in 1943, the Führerbau inventory number, 3225, is recorded on the reverse of this painting's stretcher in chalk and on a label.;[4] Many works of art stored elsewhere by the Nazis were moved to the abandoned salt mines of Alt Aussee in Austria, to be kept safe from wartime bombing.;[5] Allied troops recovered the artwork at the end of World War II and established collecting points where the art could be identified for restitution to its rightful owners. This painting came to the Munich Central Collecting Point in 1945 from Alt Aussee (number 3577), and was numbered 4928, which is recorded on the reverse of the painting stretcher. The Munich Central Collecting Point inventory card is held by the National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, Maryland (Property Card 4928, National Archives Record Group 260, Box 501, and National Archives Record Group 260, Entry USACA-USFA, File Rep & Rest. Box 158).;[6] See Birgit Schwarz, "Hitlers Museum. Die Fotoalben Gemäldegalerie Linz: Dokumente zum 'Führermuseum'" (Cologne and Weimar, 2004), p. 101, no. II/26.
https://collections.mfa.org/objects/33278/houses-at-auversBy 1905, Johanna van Gogh-Bonger (b. 1862 - d. 1925), Amsterdam;1908, sold by Van Gogh-Bonger to the Moderne Kunsthandlung Franz Joseph Brakl, Munich. Probably Galerie Thannhauser, Munich. Voss collection, Berlin. 1926, Wildenstein and Co., New York;October 18, 1926, sold by Wildenstein to John Taylor Spaulding (b. 1870 - d. 1948), Boston;1948, bequest of John Taylor Spaulding to the MFA. (Accession Date: June 3, 1948)
https://collections.mfa.org/objects/557659/saint-anthonys-vision-of-the-christ-childBy 1966, private collection, Munich [see note 1]. 1968, with Kurt Rossacher (b. 1918 – d. 1988), Pro Arte, Salzburg, 1968, sold by Rossacher to Jeptha H. Wade (b. 1924 – d. 2008), Belmont, MA, 2011, bequest of Jeptha H. Wade to the MFA. (Accession Date: January 25, 2012);NOTES;[1] First published and illustrated by Gerhard Woeckel, “Unbekannte religiöse Bildwerke und Handzeichnungen Ignaz Günthers,” Alte und Moderne Kunst 86 (1966): 20-26.
https://collections.mfa.org/objects/33242/portrait-of-a-womanPossibly Dowdeswell and Dowdeswell, Ltd., London [see note 1]. 1910, A. S. Drey, Munich, September, 1910, sold by Drey to Delia Spencer (Mrs. Marshall) Field (b. 1854 - d. 1937), Paris and Washington, D.C., by inheritance to her niece, Catherine Spencer Eddy (Mrs. Albert J.) Beveridge (b. 1881 - d. 1970), Beverly Farms, MA, 1948, gift of Mrs. Albert J. Beveridge to the MFA. (Accession Date: June 3, 1948);NOTES;[1] The Dowdeswell archives were said to have recorded a 1631 portrait of a woman on panel, signed and dated by Cornelis Jonson, measuring 16 x 13 inches. See A. J. Finberg, "A Chronological List of Portraits by Cornelis Jonson," Walpole Society 10 (1922), p. 21.
https://collections.mfa.org/objects/33392/biccherna-cover-the-tribute-offeringAbout 1364 until at least 1724, the Commune of Siena [see note 1]. By 1862, Johann Anton Ramboux (b. 1790 - d. 1866), Cologne [see note 2], May 23, 1867, Ramboux sale, Heberle, Cologne, lot 354. 1931, Carl Anton Reichel (b. 1874 - d. 1944), Munich [see note 3], between 1931 and 1934, sold by Reichel to Max Neunzert (b. 1892 - d. 1982), Munich and Flims Waldhaus, Switzerland [see note 4], May 25-29, 1943, sale, Galerie Fischer, Lucerne, lot 1692, not sold [see note 5], consigned by Neunzert to Walter Schatzki (b. 1899 - d. 1983), New York, 1950, sold by Schatzki to the MFA for $1750. (Accession Date: January 2, 1950);NOTES;[1] This biccherna, or account book cover, was recorded by Galgano Bichi in Siena in 1724, see L. Borgia et al., Le Biccherne: Tavole Dipinte delle Magistrature Senesi (Secoli XIII-XVIII) (Rome, 1984), p. 112, cat. no. 36. It was probably dispersed in the late eighteenth or early nineteenth century.;[2] Published in Ramboux's collection catalogue of 1862, no. 21. See A. Geffroy, "Tablettes Inédites de la Biccherna et de la Gabella de Sienne," Mélanges d'Archéologie et d'Histoire 2 (1882), p. 419.;[3] In 1949, when the MFA first considered acquiring the panel, its owner wrote to Walter Schatzki, the dealer through whom it was offered (November 14, 1949). According to a transcript of this letter (which is unsigned, but must have been written by Max Neunzert, as discussed below), "this painting formerly belonged to my good friend Karl Anton Reichel. I obtained the painting from him in Munich in 1931 upon my return from China, since he then found himself in financial difficulties." An authentication of the painting by Georg Swarzenski of February 28, 1933 is, however, addressed to Reichel, which suggests that it was still in his possession at that time. The painting was probably in Reichel's possession in February 1931, as well, when it was authenticated in Munich by Wilhelm Suida.;[4] As discussed above (n. 3), despite the letter attesting that the sale took place in 1931, the authentication of the painting by Swarzenski in 1933 suggests that it was in Reichel's possession at that time. It was certainly in Max Neunzert's possession by July 24, 1934, when it was authenticated by Hanna Gräff on behalf of her husband, Dr. Walter Gräff, and Neunzert was named as the owner. Neunzert later attested that he took the panel to Switzerland in 1934 (see below, Additional Information).;[5] According to his letter to Walter Schatzki (as above, n. 3), Neunzert "deposited the painting -- when I was forced to flee Munich on account of my anti-Nazi activities -- in Switzerland, and in 1943 put it up for sale at the Galerie Fischer in Lucerne. It is listed in the Fischer catalogue for that year. I did not sell it because of the low price it made." Correspondence from Kuno Fischer, Galerie Fischer, to the MFA (February 18, 2004) indicates that the consignor of the painting was Mrs. Dr. Zellweger of Zurich. Whether Neunzert consigned it to Fischer under a pseudonym, or whether he had entrusted the panel to a Mrs. Zellweger, is not known.;ADDITIONAL INFORMATION;Max Neunzert was a member of the Nazi party in the 1920s. The statements that he made to Walter Schatzki in 1949 (see above, n. 3) can be corroborated with what is known of his life. In 1929 Neunzert traveled to China to help spread National Socialism, he returned to Munich in 1931. Like Carl Anton Reichel, he fought for the restoration of the monarchy in Germany. Upon his return from China in 1931, he realized this would not be possible under Hitler, and he left the party. Thereafter he fought actively against the Nazis. He assumed names including "Max Keck" and "Mr. Donau" and was exiled in Switzerland during the 1940s. For more on Neunzert, see Carlos Collado Seidel, "In geheimer Mission für Hitler und die bayerische Staatsregierung. Der politische Abenteurer Max Neunzert zwischen Fememorden, Hitler-Pusch und Berlin-Krise," Vierteljarshefte für Zeitgeschichte 50, no. 2 (April, 2002): 201-236.;In a signed statement of January 20, 1948, written from Flims-Waldhaus, Max Neunzert attested that the painting was not Nazi loot: "I herewith declare on oath that the Biccherna panel was legally acquired by me at that time and, therefore, is not Nazi looted property. In order to deny the Nazis access to it, as early as 1934 I was able to bring the panel into Switzerland.;The MFA has no indication that the panel was improperly transferred or stolen during the Nazi era.
https://collections.mfa.org/objects/33532/moses-and-the-israelites-after-the-miracle-of-water-from-theBy 1657, Borghese family, Rome [see note 1], by descent within the family to Agnese Borghese (b. 1836 - d. 1920), Principessa di Piombino, Rome [see note 2]. 1900, with Julius Böhler, Munich. 1900, acquired on the Munich art market by the Germanisches Nationalmuseum, Nuremberg [see note 3], 1954, sold by the Germanisches Nationalmuseum, through the Schaeffer Galleries, New York (stock no. 1563), to the MFA for $135,000 [see note 4]. (Accession Date: December 9, 1954);NOTES;[1] This is probably the painting by Lucas van Leyden recorded in the Borghese collection as early as 1657. See the summary of the early provenance by Elise Lawton Smith, "The Paintings of Lucas van Leyden: A New Appraisal, with Catalogue Raisonné" (University of Missouri Press, 1992), pp. 101, 302-302, cat. no. 7.;[2] On its acquisition by the Principessa di Piombino in or about 1888, see Giovanni Piancastelli, in "L'Arte" 1 (1898): 219. The Principessa must have been Agnese Borghese, wife of Rodolfo, 7th Prince of Piombino (b. 1832 - d. 1911). The painting is said to have remained in the Villa Borghese until 1891 in the "Katalog der Gemälde-Sammlung des Germanischen Nationalmuseums in Nürnberg" (Nürnberg, 1909), p. 28, cat. no. 80, though when it left the possession of the family is not clear.;[3] It is unclear whether it was purchased directly from Böhler. See the "Katalog der Gemälde-Sammlung" (as above, n. 2).;[4] On its sale, see "Entering the Public's Domain," Art News, December 1955, p. 16.
https://collections.mfa.org/objects/33160/virgin-and-child-enthroned-with-saints-sebastian-andrew-beBefore 1868, a church in Pisa (?) [see note 1]. 1868, Gabrielli, Florence, 1868, sold by Gabrielli to Joseph Spiridon, Paris, May 31, 1929, Spiridon sale, Paul Cassirer and Hugo Helbing, Berlin, lot 46, sold for M 50,000 to Marczell von Nemes (b. 1866 - d. 1930), Budapest and Munich, June 16, 1931, Nemes sale, Frederik Muller, Paul Cassirer and Hugo Helbing, Munich, lot 15, sold for M 9,500, to A. S. Drey, Munich [see note 2]. By 1934, Eugene L. Garbáty (b. 1880 - d. 1966), Schloss Alt-Döbern, Niederlausitz (Germany), New York, and East Norwalk, CT [see note 3], 1948, sold by Garbáty to the MFA for $11,000. (Accession Date: April 8, 1948);NOTES;[1] According to information taken from the Frick Art Reference Library photo study collection, this comes "from a church in Pisa, as [by] Fra Filippo Lippi and Machiavelli" (citing the "ms. catalogue of the J. Spiridon collection, 1928," a copy of which has not been located).;[2] In the German periodical "Die Weltkunst," June 21, 1931, p. 2, the Amsterdam dealer Hoogendijk is said to have purchased the painting at the Nemes sale. However, according to correspondence from Monika Tatzkow (November 17, 2000, in the MFA curatorial file) A. S. Drey was the buyer, as documented in Cassirer's records as well as in those kept by the dealer Karl Haberstock, Berlin, who visited the sale that day.;[3] At the time of the painting's acquisition, Eugene Garbáty provided the MFA with a memo dated June, 1934, bearing his signature, regarding comparative works by Zanobi Machiavelli. As he was compiling information on the artist as early as 1934, the painting was probably already in his possession at that time. Mr. Garbáty emigrated to the U.S. in 1939 and lent the painting to the MFA in that year.
https://collections.mfa.org/objects/32850/shipwreckUntil 1933, Ludwig Behr (d. 1945), Tutzing, Germany;June 27-28, 1933, Behr sale, Helbing, Munich, lot 176. 1940, private collection, New York;February 15, 1940, sale of private collector, Sotheby Parke-Bernet, New York, lot 42. By 1941, Julius Weitzner, New York;1942, exchanged with and sold by Weitzner to the MFA. (Accession Date: June 9, 1942)
https://collections.mfa.org/objects/34371/pilate-washing-his-hands-and-saint-martin-of-tours-with-a-beBefore 1930, G. Stein, Paris (?) [see note 1]. June 1, 1932, anonymous sale, Dorotheum, Vienna, lot 1. By 1934, David Goldmann (b. 1887 - d. 1967), Vienna [see note 2], 1938, seized by Nazi forces and taken to the Kunsthistorisches Museum and stored at the Central Depot, Neue Burg, Vienna, where it was reserved for the Führermuseum [see note 3], transferred to Alt Aussee [see note 4], October 12, 1945, recovered by Allied forces and taken to the Munich Central Collecting Point (no. 8875) [see note 5], January 1, 1947, given to the custody of the Stichting Nederlandsch Kunstbezit (inv. no. 1557) [see note 6], 1948 until 1952, on loan from the Stichting Nederlandsch Kunstbezit to the Archbishop Museum, Utrecht (inv. no. ABM s212) [see note 7], March 10, 1952, removed from the Archbishop Museum and sent to Germany for restitution to David Goldmann, New York [see note 8], until 1979, by descent within Mr. Goldmann's family [see note 9], May 30, 1979, consigned anonymously by the family of David Goldmann to Sotheby Parke-Bernet, New York, lot 174, not sold, 1979, sold by the family to a private collector, New York [see note 10], 1980, sold by the private collector, through Richard J. Collins, Inc., New York, to the MFA. (Accession Date: October 15, 1980);NOTES;[1] According to notes in the MFA curatorial file.;[2] Published by L. Frölich-Bum, "Einige Werke des Meisters von Alkmaar in Wiener Privatbesitz" Oud-Holland 51 (1934), pp. 182-187, as belonging to David Goldmann. When they were in Mr. Goldmann's possession, the two panels formed a triptych, with a 17th-century Spanish relief sculpture of St. Anthony between them. On the collection of David and Lily Goldmann, see Sophie Lillie, Was einmal war, Handbuch der enteigneten Kunstammlungen Wiens (Vienna, 2003), pp. 409-415.;[3] With the Anschluss, or annexation of Austria to Nazi Germany in March, 1938, the possessions of David Goldmann were seized almost immediately by Nazi forces. Goldmann's panels appear in a Nazi-generated inventory of 1939 as no. DG (David Goldmann) 107: "Hausaltar mit zwei Altarflügeln. Werke eines Malers aus der Antwerpener Schule, auf dem einen Flügel Christus vor Kaiaphas, auf dem anderen Christus vor Pilatus, auf der einen Seite ein heiliger Bischof, auf der anderen der gegeisselte Christus. In dem Schrank ein Heiliger." Inventar der Sammlung D.G., in Katalog beschlagnahmter Sammlungen, inbesondere der Rothschild-Sammlungen in Wien, Verlags-Nr. 4938, Staatsdruckerei Wien, 1939, Privatarchiv, reproduced in Lillie, Was einmal war (as above, n. 1), p. 412, no. 107. The panels also appear in a Nazi inventory of July 31, 1940 of works reserved for the decoration of the Führermuseum, the art museum Adolf Hitler planned to build in Linz, Austria: Verzeichnis der für Linz in Aussicht genommenen Gemälde, p. 8: "Ferner als Reserve für dekorative Zwecke... Niederländisch, um 1500, Hausaltar.;[4] Many works of art stored elsewhere by the Nazis were moved to the abandoned salt mines of Alt Aussee in Austria, where they would be safe from wartime bombing.;[5] Allied troops established collecting points where looted works of art could be identified for eventual restitution to their rightful owners. These paintings came to the Munich Central Collecting Point from Alt Aussee (no. 4095), and were numbered 8875. This information is taken from inventory card 1557 A-B, Stichting Nederlandsch Kunstbezit Archive, no. 846, and Munich Central Collecting Point inventory card, National Archives and Records Administration, College Park, MD (Proprty Card 8875, Microfilm M1946, Reel 50).;[6] After World War II, the Stichting Nederlandsch Kunstbezit (SNK, Foundation for Netherlandish Art Property) was assigned the task of recuperating looted artworks from abroad and returning them to their rightful owners in the Netherlands.;[7] The panels were mistakenly believed to have come from the collection of O. Lanz of Amsterdam. For this reason, they were not returned to David Goldmann immediately following the war, but were taken to the Netherlands along with other works of art destined for restitution by the SNK (letter from Rudolf E. O. Ekkart, Head of the Origins Unknown Project (Bureau Herkomst Gezocht), The Hague, August 17, 2004).;[8] This information was made available through the generous assistance of Arno van Os, registrar at the Museum Catharijneconvent, Utrecht (letter of May 13, 2004). On February 21, 1952 the Archbishop Museum received a letter from the Bureau Herstelbetalings- en Recuperatiegoederen requesting the return of the panels to David Goldmann and on March 10 they left the museum for restitution to him. The panels were listed among the works still missing from Mr. Goldmann's collection in the Verzeichnisse gesuchter Kunstwerke aus österreichischem Besitz (n.d., [1950?]). Their restitution in 1952 to David Goldmann's family has been confirmed in a signed statement by his daughter (May 10, 2004), as well as in a letter from her to the MFA (June 26, 2004).;[9] According to the letter from Mr. Goldmann's daughter (as above, n. 8).;[10] According to an interoffice memorandum (September 20, 1981, in the MFA curatorial file).
https://collections.mfa.org/objects/469980/the-calenberg-altarpieceBy 1524, Duke Erich I von Braunschweig-Calenberg (b. 1470 - d. 1540) and his wife, Katharina von Saxonia (b. 1468 - d. 1524), chapel of Calenberg Castle, Pattensen, Germany (original commission) [see note 1], until about 1636, probably by descent within the family, Calenberg Castle, about 1636, probably transferred to Leine Castle, Hanover [see note 2], between 1803 and 1811, dismantled and removed from Leine Castle [see note 3]. 1811, acquired by Bernhard Hausmann (b. 1784 - d. 1873), Hanover [see note 4], 1857, sold by Hausmann to Georg V (b. 1819 - d. 1878), King of Hanover [see note 5], until 2005, by descent within the royal family of Hanover [see note 6], 2005, sold by the royal house of Hanover, through Sotheby's, New York, to the MFA. (Accession Date: April 27, 2005);NOTES;[1] The earliest recorded account of the altarpiece at Calenberg Castle is that of M. Heinrich Bünting (Braunschweigische Chronik, 1584). He specifies that the donors represented in the main panel are Princess Katharina and Duke Erich, the coats-of-arms confirm this. For Bunting's account, see endnote below, this is taken from the German transcription by Bernhard Hausmann, Verzeichniss der Hausmann'schen Gemählde-Sammlung in Hannover (Hanover, 1831), pp. 123-24, footnote. Katharina died in 1524, suggesting the altarpiece had been commissioned by that date.;[2] In 1636 Georg von Braunschweig-Calenberg moved the seat of power to the city of Hanover (subsequently, Calenberg Castle was abandoned and, in 1690, torn down). Presumably the altarpiece was moved to the new princely residence at this time.;[3] Hausmann 1831 (see above and below, nn. 1 and 4) states that he found the altarpiece in pieces in Hanover in 1811, that is, during the French occupation of the city (1803-1813). During this time, Leine Castle was occupied by French troops and plundered. The altarpiece must have been dismantled and discarded or sold as a consequence.;[4] Hausmann described the altarpiece in his collection catalogue of 1831, see Hausmann 1831 (as above, n. 1), pp. 123-125, cat. no. 215a-c. He states that in 1811 he discovered the altarpiece in pieces in two junk shops in Hannover, saved them, and made them part of his collection.;[5] In 1857, Hausmann closed his gallery and sold the collection to Georg V. See Klaus Mlynek, "Von Privaten zum Öffentlichen - Erste Museumsgründungen in der Residenzstadt Hannover," in 100 Jahre Kestner-Museum Hannover, 1889-1989, ed. Ulrich Gehrig (Hanover: Das Museum, 1989), 170.;[6] In 1861, Georg V used the works of art he purchased from Hausmann -- as well as other objects in the family's possession -- as the basis for the Welfenmuseum, the contents of which were entailed, or owned by and inherited within the family. In 1901 these objects formed the basis for the Fideikommissgalerie ("entailed gallery") at the Provinzialmuseum, Hanover. There the Calenberg Altarpiece was inventory no. 423. In 1924, it was removed by the family to their residence at the Schloss Blankenburg, Harz. This move coincided with the reorganization of the Provinzialmuseum, when parts of the Fideikommissgalerie were removed (and some were sold). In 1945, the family left Blankenburg and took its contents to the Schloss Marienburg, Hanover. See Hans Georg Gmelin, Spätgotische Tafelmalerei in Niedersachsen und Bremen (Munich and Berlin, 1974), p. 447, Mlynek 1989 (as above, n. 5), pp. 172-174, and Ines Katenhusen, "150 Jahre Niedersächsisches Landesmuseum Hannover," in Das Niedersächsische Landesmuseum Hannover, ed. Heide Grape-Albers (Hanover, 2002), pp. 29, 34-35.;ADDITIONAL INFORMATION;Translation of Heinrich Bünting, Braunschweigische Chronik, 1584, taken from Bernhard Hausmann, Verzeichniss der Hausmann'schen Gemählde-Sammlung in Hannover (Hanover, 1831), pp. 123-124, footnote;It was the Princess Catherine, wife of Duke Eric the Elder, born to a very high princely house, for she was the daughter of the warlike Duke Albrecht of Saxony, a very devout princess, for her Princely Grace had commissioned the chapel in the House Calenberg, and also had the panel made, which was placed upon the altar.;On that same panel appear also the arms of her Princely Grace, the little Saxon crown made up of lozenge shapes, and across from these the arms of Braunschweig, and so they are also both, the Duke and the Princess, painted on [the panel], and an image of Mary sits in the center, and holds the small child Jesus in her lap. The Princess is painted in her raiment, as it was customary at that time, with bare neck and chest, adorned with precious jewels, gemstones and golden chains, and so her Princely Grace's ladies-in-waiting are sitting beside her, also dressed in the same manner.;Duke Eric the Elder sits facing her on the other side, painted in his entire cuirass, with a long brown velvet mantle, in a red velvet cap, adorned with a handsome long white feather. And even though the painting is rather old, still one sees indeed even so still unto this very day, that it must have been a very beautiful panel, upon which the Princess is in particular very painstakingly painted, with her lovely countenance and beautiful red cheeks.
https://collections.mfa.org/objects/35483/saint-james-the-great-of-compostellaRichard von Kaufmann (b. 1849 - d. 1908), Berlin, December 4, 1917, Kaufmann sale, Cassirer and Helbing, Berlin, lot 133, to Walter von Pannwitz (d. 1920), Heemstede, The Netherlands [see note 1], transferred to The Aurora Trust [see note 2], July 6, 1966, Aurora Trust sale, Sotheby's, London, lot 72, to Thomas Agnew and Sons, Ltd., London, June 21, 1967, sold by Agnew to William A. Coolidge (b. 1901 - d. 1992), Topsfield and Cambridge, MA, 1993, bequest of William A. Coolidge to the MFA. (Accession Date: January 27, 1993);NOTES;[1] Der Cicerone, January, 1918, pp. 26-27, also see letter from Gerald G. Stiebel to the MFA (April 28, 2002, in MFA curatorial files) and Otto von Falke and Max J. Friedländer, "Die Kunstsammlung von Pannwitz" (Munich, 1925), cat. no. 8. [2] The Aurora Trust was set up in the late 1940s by Walter von Pannwitz's widow, Catalina, as a respository for the their art collection.
https://collections.mfa.org/objects/279049/assumption-of-the-virgin1948, E. J. Gooderham collection, December 10, 1948, posthumous Gooderham sale, Christie, Manson and Woods, London, lot 105, to Wiggins (probably Arnold Wiggins and Sons, Ltd.) [see note 1]. 1985, John Morton Morris and Co., London, April, 1985, sold by Morris and Co. to Azita Bina and Elmar W. Seibel, Boston, 2004, gift of Azita Bina and Elmar W. Seibel to the MFA. (Accession Date: December 15, 2004);NOTES;[1] The name of the buyer is inscribed in a copy of the auction catalogue (reproduction in MFA file). On the reverse of the frame is a label of Arnold Wiggins and Sons, Ltd., London, frame makers. While the earlier history of the painting has not been securely established, it is notable that an Assumption is recorded in the 1728 posthumous inventory of the artist: "Un quadro dell'assunta con cornice negra. palmi 4 e 6 mano della Buona Anima." Inventory of July 27, 1728, Naples, published by Gérard Labrot, "Collections of Paintings in Naples, 1600-1780" (Munich: Saur, 1992), p. 353 (f. 2v, no. 60). The dimensions given (about 135.8 x 90.5 cm) are larger than those of the MFA painting (102.2 x 76.8 cm), though it is not known if the frame was included. A painting of the Assumption by Matteis also appeared in the posthumous sale of Joseph Shapland, Tewkesbury Lodge, near Gloucestershire: September 12, 1837, Christie's, London (sale held at Tewkesbury Lodge), lot 142, "Assumption of the Virgin, with a choir of angels, a beautiful composition, full of sweet character," bought in.
https://collections.mfa.org/objects/33309/rue-de-la-bavole-honfleur1867, possibly Frédéric Bazille (b. 1841 - d. 1870), Paris [see note 1]. Until 1897, possibly Aimé Diot, Paris, March 8-9, 1897, possibly posthumous Diot sale, Hôtel Drouot, Paris, lot 102 [see note 2]. About 1901, with Arthur Tooth and Sons [see note 3], November 21, 1902, sold by Tooth to Durand-Ruel, Paris, August 12, 1912, sold by Durand-Ruel to Galerie Thannhauser, Munich [see note 4], 1915, probably sold by Thannhauser to Oscar Schmitz (b. 1861 - d. 1933), Dresden and Zürich [see note 5], 1936, sold by the estate of Oscar Schmitz to Wildenstein and Co., Paris and New York [see note 6], 1940, sold by Wildenstein to John Taylor Spaulding (b. 1870 - d. 1948), Boston, 1948, bequest of John Taylor Spaulding to the MFA. (Accession Date: June 3, 1948);NOTES;[1] This painting, or a closely-related variant (Mannheim, Städtische Kunsthalle), is depicted in Bazille's "The Artist's Studio, Rue Visconti, Paris" of 1867 (Richmond, Virginia Museum of Fine Arts).;[2] See Daniel Wildenstein, "Monet: catalogue raisonné" (1996), vol. 2, p. 21, cat. no. 33.;[3] The painting was probably with the Paris branch of this London-based gallery. The dates of the Durand-Ruel transactions are taken from Henri Loyrette and Gary Tinterow, "Origins of Impressionism, 1859-1869" (exh cat. Réunion des Musées Nationaux, Paris and Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1994-1995), p. 425. cat. no. 124.;[4] While with the Galerie Thannhauser, the painting was published by Georg Biermann, "Die Kunst auf dem internationalen Markt. Gemälde aus dem Besitz der modernen Galerie Thannhauser, München," Der Cicerone, no. 21 (May 1913), p. 325 and in the Katalog der Modernen Galerie Heinrich Thannhauser München (Munich, 1916), cat. no. 26, see below, n. 5.;[5] According to "La Collection Oscar Schmitz" (exh. cat., Wildenstein and Co., Paris, 1936), p. 90, cat. no. 40, Schmitz acquired the painting in 1915. Though it was illustrated in the Katalog der Modernen Galerie Heinrich Thannhauser München, published in 1916 (see above, n. 4), it is still quite possible that Schmitz purchased the painting from Thannhauser in 1915, after the gallery catalogue went to press but before its publication in 1916. In 1931, Schmitz left Germany and moved his collection to Switzerland. It was exhibited at the Kunsthaus, Zürich, "Sammlung Oscar Schmitz," January 14-February 14, 1932, cat. no. 45, as "Rue dans une ville de Normandie.;[6] A large portion of the Schmitz collection was for sale as early as 1934. In 1936, Wildenstein acquired it and held the exhibition "La Collection Oscar Schmitz" (as above, n. 5). See Heike Biedermann, "Die Sammlungen Adolf Rothermundt und Oscar Schmitz in Dresden," in "Die Modernen und ihre Sammler: Französische Kunst im deutschem Privatbesitz vom Kaiserreich zur Weimarer Republik," ed. Andrea Pophanken and Felix Billeter (Berlin, 2001), 213-222.
https://collections.mfa.org/objects/33599/ingeborg-kaurin-later-ingeborg-onsager1913, sold in Stockholm [see note 1]. 1913 until 1916, Carl Steinbart, Berlin. 1916, Galerie Thannhauser, Munich (stock no. 4268) [see note 2]. By 1927 until 1932, Gerd and Otto Nyquist, Oslo. 1932, Wangs Kunsthandel, Oslo. 1932, Thomas Olsen, Oslo [see note 3], 1957, sold by Olsen to Galleri Kaare Berntsen, Oslo, 1957, sold by Berntsen to the MFA. (Accession Date: December 12, 1957);NOTES;[1] Many thanks are due to Gerd Woll for helping to establish the provenance of this painting (e-mail correspondence in MFA curatorial file: January 12, 2005 and December 6, 2007). The picture was included in the exhibition "Edvard Munch," Konstnärshuset, Stockholm, September, 1913. A photograph of the exhibition shows a label marked "sold" hanging on the painting.;[2] See "Katalog der modernen Galerie Heinrich Thannhauser, München" (Munich, 1916), 154. The stock number is taken from a label on the reverse of the stretcher. [3] Olsen lent the painting to the exhibition "Edvard Munch. Utstilling malerier, akvareller, tegninger, grafik" (Kunstnernes Hus, Oslo, November 10 - December 16, 1951), cat. no. 89 (as "Ingeborg").
https://collections.mfa.org/objects/32816/portrait-of-a-man-and-woman-in-an-interiorFebruary 17, 1802, anonymous ("M. W...") sale, Rue de Bouloy, Paris, lot 27 [see note 1]. May 17, 1824, anonymous sale, Hôtel de Bullion, Paris, lot 48 [see note 2]. 1841, Charles-August-Louis Joseph (b. 1811 - d. 1865), Duc de Morny, April 27, 1841, Morny sale, G. Benou, Paris, lot 17, unsold, November 25, 1842, Morny sale, Paillet, Paris, lot 14, unsold, February 25-26, 1845, Morny sale, Hôtel des Ventes, Paris, lot 63 [see note 3], sold for 1,505 francs to Cousin. Désiré van den Schrieck (b. 1786 - d. 1857), Louvain, April 8-10, 1861, posthumous Schrieck sale, at his gallery, Louvain, lot 68, sold to Ferdinand Laneuville (d. 1866) for 3,500 francs, possibly for the Comte Duchâtel, Paris [see note 4]. By 1934, Robert Lebel (b. 1901 - d. 1986), Paris [see note 5], between 1934 and 1936, sold by Lebel to Walter Westfeld (b. 1889 - d. after 1942), Elberfeld (Wuppertal) and Düsseldorf, Germany [see note 6]. 1941, E. and A. Silberman Galleries, New York [see note 7], 1941, sold by Silberman to the MFA for $7500. (Accession Date: December 11, 1941);NOTES;[1] Described as a work on panel by Eglon van der Neer, 27 by 25 inches, depicting a Dutch couple whose black dress indicates they are a burgomaster and his wife, sitting in an interior with a fireplace and a table with fruit on it.;[2] Eddy Schavemaker kindly provided this information.;[3] The paintings included in the February 1845 sale were sold on Morny's behalf under the name of Jean-Jacques Meffre, who served as his art advisor and painting conservator. See Robin Emlein, "La Collection du duc de Morny, Étude du goût pour les écoles du Nord en France au XIXe siècle," Master's thesis, École du Louvre, 2007, vol. 1, pp. 41-44 and vol. 2, pp. 121-122 (cat. B100).;[4] Émile Leclercq, "Correspondance Particulière," Gazette des Beaux-Arts 1861, pp. 180-181. Laneuville, an expert at the sale, was also buying for the Comte Duchâtel. This painting, however, does not appear in subsequent sales of paintings from the Comte Duchâtel collection.;[5] The painting was included in the exhibition held at Robert Lebel's gallery at 13, rue de Seine, Paris, "Une Collection de Tableaux de Petits Maitres Hollandais & Flamands," December 11-28, 1934, cat. no. 25. An old photograph of the painting exists in Lebel's photographic archive, it is annotated on the back: "Eglon van der Neer.;[6] Robert Lebel visited the MFA on October 8, 1943 and told curator W. G. Constable that he had sold this painting to Walter Westfeld around 1937. According to a letter from Walter Westfeld's brother to the MFA (February 6, 1944), Lebel had written to him in the fall of 1943 as well, stating that around 1935/1936 he had sold the painting to Westfeld, who had it at the Galerie Kleucker and "at a time, in Amsterdam." A painting described as a Company Scene by Eglon van der Neer, which is probably the present painting, was exhibited at the Galerie August Kleucker, Düsseldorf, in mid-May, 1936.;[7] A photograph of the painting, supplied to the MFA by Silberman, bears W. R. Valentiner's authentication on the reverse, dated May 15, 1941. The painting was first offered to the MFA on June 3, 1941. A subsequent letter from dealer Abris Silberman to W. G. Constable of the MFA (June 3, 1942) states that "the painting was brought to this country by a refugee some time ago" but had never been in a U.S. collection. Attempts to determine when and how Silberman acquired the work have not been successful.;ADDITIONAL INFORMATION;In 1920 Walter Westfeld opened a gallery that bore his name in Elberfeld (present-day Wuppertal). However, under the Nazi regime he was forced to discontinue his business because he was Jewish, the Galerie Walter Westfeld officially closed on May 27, 1936. Several months later, his associate August Kleucker was put in charge of liquidating the gallery stock through the Galerie Kleucker in Düsseldorf. It is not known whether this painting had formed part of Westfeld's gallery stock or whether he owned it privately, thus it is not known if it was part of the 1936 liquidation through Kleucker. In the fall of 1937, Westfeld was forced to turn over to the Gestapo a list of all the works of art still in his possession, the Van der Neer does not appear on this list. Whether it was no longer in Westfeld's possession at this time, or had been deliberately left off the list, is uncertain.;In November 1938 Westfeld was arrested for foreign exchange violations. He was subsequently found guilty of having -- after the closure of his gallery -- illegally shipped works of art and other assets abroad, to Paris and Amsterdam, and of continuing to sell his own works of art through Kleucker. Whether the Van der Neer left his possession in one of these ways is not known. According to correspondence from a family member to the MFA (November 11, 2004), Westfeld had paintings and other valuables at the Rotterdamse Wisselbank in Amsterdam as late as 1939, again, it is not known if the Van der Neer could have been among these. The valuables were apparently taken unlawfully and sold during World War II, and remain untraced.;In 1939 Nazi authorities seized Westfeld's remaining art assets in Germany and auctioned them through Lempertz, Cologne, on December 12-13, 1939. The Van der Neer painting was not included in this sale.;After Westfeld's trial in Nazi Germany, he served a prison sentence at Lüttringhausen. In 1942 he was sent to the Theresienstadt concentration camp and, in 1943, to Auschwitz. He was declared deceased at the end of World War II.;In June, 2011 the MFA reached a financial settlement with the heirs and the estate of Walter Westfeld for the Portrait of a Man and Woman in an Interior, allowing the work to remain at the museum. This was based on a review of the above research, which outlines a limited number of ways the painting could have left his possession. It seems unlikely that Westfeld gave or sold the painting voluntarily after the closure of his gallery in May, 1936. Rather, as a Jewish art dealer living in Nazi Germany, he probably disposed of it due to persecution.;Bibliography: Herbert Schmidt, Der Elendsweg der Düsseldorfer Juden: Chronologie des Schreckens, 1933-1945 (Düsseldorf: Droste, 2005), pp. 273-278, Victoria S. Reed, "Walter Westfeld (1889-1943?), Art Dealer in Nazi Germany," in Vitalizing Memory: International Perspectives in Provenance Research (Washington, DC: American Association of Museums, 2005), Monika Tatzkow, in Verlorene Bilder, Verlorene Leben: Jüdische Sammler und was aus ihren Kunstwerken wurde (Munich, 2009), pp. 87-97, and Victoria Reed, "Walter Westfeld and the van der Neer Portrait in Boston: The Case Study of a Jewish Art Dealer in Düsseldorf," in Alfred Flechtheim: Raubkunst und Restitution, ed. Andrea Bambi and Axel Drecoll, Schriftenreihe der Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte, vol. 110 (Berlin: Walther de Gruyter, 2015), pp. 179-188.
https://collections.mfa.org/objects/33580/fountain-of-trevi-rome1926, A.S. Drey, Munich;1926, sold by Drey to M. Knoedler & Co., London (Knoedler stock no. 16461);1927, sold by Knoedler to Jay Cooke;1938, sold by Cooke back to Knoedler;1940, sold by Knoedler to Miss Lucy Turman Aldrich (d. 1955), Boston;1955, by inheritance to her brother, William Truman Aldrich, Brookline, MA;1957, gift of Aldrich to the MFA. (Accession date: January 10, 1957)
https://collections.mfa.org/objects/33319/portrait-of-a-man-seated-in-an-armchair-said-to-be-williamBy descent within the family of the sitter to Mrs. J. Cunningham, December 1, 1910, sold by Mrs. Cunningham to Thomas Agnew and Sons, London (stock no. 3523) [see note 1], August 11, 1911, sold by Agnew to Marczell von Nemes (b. 1866 - d. 1930), Budapest and Munich. 1913, acquired by a Mr. Brunner [see note 2]. 1915, Ehrich Galleries, New York [see note 3]. 1916, Doll and Richards, Boston, March 21, 1916, sold by Doll and Richards to John Taylor Spaulding (b. 1870 - d. 1948), Boston, 1948, bequest of John Taylor Spaulding to the MFA. (Accession Date: June 3, 1948);NOTES;[1] Sold as a portrait of "Mr. Fairlie of Fairlie.;[2] When John Taylor Spaulding acquired the portrait in 1916, Ehrich Galleries forwarded him a letter (December 20, 1913) from Raeburn scholar James Greig to a Mr. Brunner (no address) congratulating him on his "possession of the portrait of Mr. Fairlie.;[3] Included in the "Exhibition of Paintings by Gainsborough, Reynolds, Raeburn" (Ehrich Galleries, New York, March 22-April 10, 1915).
https://collections.mfa.org/objects/33143/hercules-as-heroic-virtue-overcoming-discord1904, Fontaine-Flament, Lille, France, June 10, 1904, Fontaine-Flament sale, Galerie Georges Petit, Paris, lot 47, to Charles Sedelmeyer, Paris, June 3-5, 1907, Sedelmeyer sale, Galerie Sedelmeyer, Paris, lot 42, to Giskoff [see note 1]. 1919, Marczell von Nemes, Budapest and Munich, March 19, 1919, Nemes sale, Hotel Drouot, Paris, lot 19, to François Monod (b. 1877), Paris. Dr. Fritz Rothman (b. 1893), London, by 1946, sold by Rothman to Agnew and Sons, London [see note 2], 1947, sold by Agnew to the MFA for £2000. (Accession Date: December 11, 1947);NOTES;[1] The buyer's name is annotated in a copy of the auction catalogue.;[2] According to correspondence from Agnew's to the MFA (August 31, 2004), Dr. Rothman sold the painting to the gallery. It was included in Agnew's Summer Exhibition (June, 1946), no. 18.
https://collections.mfa.org/objects/32718/view-of-alkmaar1824, Eugène de Beauharnais (b. 1781 - d. 1824), 1st Duke Leuchtenberg, Milan and Munich [see note 1], by descent within the family, until about 1904/1907, to Georg, 5th Duke Leuchtenberg (b. 1872 - d. 1929), St. Petersburg and Seeon Castle, Bavaria, Germany [see note 2]. By 1939, with Hans Gronau (b. 1904 - d. 1951), London, possibly representing Arnold Seligmann, Rey and Co., Paris and New York [see note 3], 1939, sold by Arnold Seligmann Rey and Co. to the MFA for $15,000. (Accession Date: December 14, 1939);NOTES;[1] First published in "Catalogue des Tableaux de la Galerie de son Altesse Royale, Monsieur le Duc de Leuchtenberg à Munich" (Munich, 1825), p. 41. cat. no. 108.;[2] The painting was published in “Les Tableaux de la collection du duc G. N. de Leuchtenberg,” Les Trésors d’art en Russie 4 (1904). It was mentioned as having been "until recently" in the collection of Georg von Leuchtenberg by A. Neoustroieff, "Niederländische Gemälde in der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Künste zu St. Petersburg," Zeitschrift für bildende Kunst, n. F., 18 (1907): 39.;[3] W. G. Constable saw the painting with Gronau in London in the summer of 1939, at which time Gronau quoted a sale price. The painting was then shipped to Arnold Seligmann, Rey and Co. in New York, whose representative stated that the Ruisdael "is our property." The reverse of the painting's stretcher has a French shipping label bearing Gronau's name and "A[rnold] S[eligmann] Rey.
https://collections.mfa.org/objects/35585/still-life-with-fruit-wanli-porcelain-and-squirrelSchaumburg-Lippe collection, Germany [see note 1]. December 16, 1929, Régine Chasles and others sale, Galerie Fievez, Brussels, lot 90. 1934, Kunsthaus A.G., Lucerne, Switzerland. By 1956, Edmond Meert, Saint-Nicholas-Waas, Belgium [see note 2]. Deschandau collection, Belgium [see note 3]. 1970, with Edward Speelman, Ltd., London, 1970, sold by Speelman to Robert H. Smith, Arlington, VA [see note 4], 1993, sold by Smith to the MFA. (Accession Date: September 22, 1993);NOTES;[1] The provenance given here (to 1956) is taken from Hella Robels, "Frans Snyders, Stilleben- und Tiermaler, 1579-1657" (Munich, 1989), p. 261, cat. no. 125.;[2] Edith Greindl, "Les peintres flamandes de nature morte au XVIIe siècle" (Brussels, 1956), p. 181, published the painting as in the collection of Edmond Meert, though when he acquired it and when it left his possession have not been established.;[3] According to information provided by Anthony Speelman of Edward Speelman, Ltd. (May 17, 2004). The dates of ownership are not known, nor has it been established whether Speelman acquired the painting directly from this collection.;[4] That the painting was purchased from Speelman in 1970 is information provided by Robert Smith in a letter to Peter C. Sutton of the MFA (July 14, 1993, in MFA curatorial file).
https://collections.mfa.org/objects/33670/portrait-of-a-manRobert Zahn (d. by 1917), Plauen, Germany, November 21, 1917, posthumous Zahn sale, Helbing, Munich, lot 38. Private collection, Italy, sold from private collection to Baron Detlev von Hadeln (b. 1878 - d. 1935), about 1931 or 1934, sold by Baron von Hadeln to Rudolf J. Heinemann (b. 1902 - d. 1975), New York [see note 1], 1960, gift of Rudolf J. Heinemann to the MFA. (Accession Date: December 14, 1960);NOTES;[1] A letter from Rudolph Heinemann to Thomas N. Maytham of the MFA (June 7, 1961, in MFA curatorial file) states that the picture had been in his possession "since about 1931 or 1934," when he purchased it from Hadeln, Hadeln was said to have acquired it from an Italian nobleman.
https://collections.mfa.org/objects/433123/woman-seated-in-bedBy 1913, Théodore Duret (b. 1838 - d. 1927), Paris [see note 1]. Bruno Cassirer (b. 1872 - d. 1941), Berlin. By 1931, Jakob Goldschmidt (b. 1882 - d. 1955), Berlin, December 22, 1931, transferred by Goldschmidt to the Darmstädter- und Nationalbank (Danatbank) but physically retained by Goldschmidt [see note 2], April 11, 1932, transferred to August Thyssen Iron and Steel Works but physically retained by Goldschmidt [see note 3], after 1933, ownership transferred back to Goldschmidt but remained in Berlin, 1941, confiscated by the Finance Ministry of the Nazi regime [see note 4], September 25, 1941, Goldschmidt auction, Hans W. Lange, Berlin, lot 53, sold for 64,000 RM to Baroness von der Goltz, Wannsee bei Berlin, 1955, restituted to Jakob Goldschmidt, New York, probably sold by Goldschmidt to Justin K. Thannhauser (b. 1892 - d. 1976), New York, sold by Thannhauser to Arthur K. Solomon (b. 1912 - d. 2002), Cambridge, MA, 2004, gift of the Arthur K. Solomon collection to the MFA. (Accession Date: June 23, 2004);NOTES;[1] Duret lent the painting to the exhibitions "Französische Kunst des XIX. Jahrhunderts," Galerie Heinemann, Munich, April 1913, no. 178, and "Exposition d'art français du XIXe siècle," Dansk Kunstmuseums Forening, Copenhagen, May 15 - June 30, 1914, no. 214.;[2] The Danat Bank obtained full legal ownership of Goldschmidt's art collection as security against his debts. Goldschmidt retained physical possession of the collection and insured and cared for it. Once his debts were paid off, ownership was to be transferred back to him.;[3] Ownership of the art collection was transferred in 1932, when Thyssen took over 3 million RM of Goldschmidt's debt at the Danatbank (taken over that year by the Dresdner Bank). The painting remained in Goldschmidt's home.;[4] Goldschmidt's assets were confiscated by the Finance Ministry and auctioned, with the proceeds going to the Nazi regime.
https://collections.mfa.org/objects/33534/breakfast-still-life-with-glass-and-metalwork1926, Linnartz, Schloss Schlesisch-Nettkow, Germany, March 23, 1926, Linnartz sale, Lepke, Berlin, lot 117 [see note 1], May 24, 1927, sold by Lepke, Berlin to Pieter de Boer, Amsterdam, 1927, sold by de Boer to Jacques Goudstikker, Amsterdam, November 14, 1927, sold by Goudstikker to Julius Böhler, Munich (stock no. 27,235), March 12, 1930, sold by Böhler to Böhler and Steinmeyer, Lucerne [see note 2], May 24, 1930, sold by Böhler and Steinmeyer to Charles Bain Hoyt (b. 1889 - d. 1949), Lucerne and New York, from Hoyt to an anonymous donor, 1954, anonymous gift to the MFA. (Accession Date: December 8, 1954);NOTES;[1] Attributed in the catalogue to W. C. Heda. [2] Julius Böhler co-founded Böhler and Steinmeyer.
https://collections.mfa.org/objects/83838/wiencyzyslawa-barczewksa-madame-de-jurjewicz1928, Comtesse Jean de Quélen, France [see note 1]. By 1936 until at least 1988, Bussière collection, France [see note 2]. 1998, Konrad O. Bernheimer, Munich, 1998, sold by Bernheimer to the MFA. (Accession Date: October 21, 1998);NOTES;[1] She lent this to "L'exposition Winterhalter (Portraits de Dames du Second Empire)" (Jacques Seligmann et Fils, Paris, May 25 - June 15, 1928), cat. no. 14. [2] The Baronne de Bussière lent this to the exhibition "Winterhalter" (Knoedler, London, December 3-16, 1936), cat. no. 19 and the Baron de Bussière lent it to the exhibition "Franz Xaver Winterhalter and the Courts of Europe, 1830-1870" (National Portrait Gallery, London, and Petit Palais, Paris, 1987-1988), cat. no. 62.
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/french-limoges-when-bought-considered-to-be-by-jean-ii-penicaud-and-about-1540-but-now-thought-to-be-19th-centuryAuction: Amsterdam: Muller 13/14 November 1928, sale of part of the collection of Marczell von Nemes (Hungarian art collector living in Munich 1866-1930). Said by F.A. Drey to have come from the "Pringsheim sale, Germany", and said by W.B. Honey to have been "formerly in the Pringsheim Collection". It is illustrated as plate 116 (wrongly captioned as Jean I Penicaud), in Willy Burger's "Abendlaendische Schmelzarbeiten" (1930) where it is described as being in a private collection.
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/giovanni-battista-tiepolo-38Francis Capel-Cure;by whom sold at Christie's, London, May 6 1905 (66);where bought by Hofantiquar J. Bohler, Munich;from whom bought by Baron von Stumm, Holzhausen in 1906.;Count Zoubow, Paris, by c.1932;from whom acquired by Seilern in 1952.
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/giovanni-battista-tiepolo-45Tomas Harris, London, 1928/9.;F. Rothmann, Berlin.;Caspari, Munich.;Frey, Paris.;A.C. Canessa, Rome;from whom acquired by Seilern in 1959.
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/lutma-the-elder-janus-ca-1584-1669Adalbert von Lanna, Prague (1836-1909), L.2773;his estate sale, H.G. Gutekunst (Stuttgart), 6 - 11 May 1910, lot 361;Hess (Munich);purchased there by Sir Robert Witt, London (1872-1952), L.2228b, n.d. (15 shillings);Witt Bequest 1952
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/lutma-the-elder-janus-ca-1584-1669-2Adalbert von Lanna, Prague (1836-1909), L.2773;his estate sale, H.G. Gutekunst (Stuttgart), 6 - 11 May 1910, lot 361;Hess (Munich);purchased there by Sir Robert Witt, London (1872-1952), L.2228b, n.d. (15 shillings);Witt Bequest 1952
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/lutma-the-elder-janus-ca-1584-1669-3Adalbert von Lanna, Prague (1836-1909), L.2773;his estate sale, H.G. Gutekunst (Stuttgart), 6 - 11 May 1910, lot 361;Hess (Munich);purchased there by Sir Robert Witt, London (1872-1952), L.2228b, n.d. (15 shillings);Witt Bequest 1952
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/lutma-the-elder-janus-ca-1584-1669-4Adalbert von Lanna, Prague (1836-1909), L.2773;his estate sale, H.G. Gutekunst (Stuttgart), 6 - 11 May 1910, lot 361;Hess (Munich);purchased there by Sir Robert Witt, London (1872-1952), L.2228b, n.d. (15 shillings);Witt Bequest 1952
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/lutma-the-elder-janus-ca-1584-1669-5Adalbert von Lanna, Prague (1836-1909), L.2773;his estate sale, H.G. Gutekunst (Stuttgart), 6 - 11 May 1910, lot 361;Hess (Munich);purchased there by Sir Robert Witt, London (1872-1952), L.2228b, n.d. (15 shillings);Witt Bequest 1952
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/lutma-the-elder-janus-ca-1584-1669-6Adalbert von Lanna, Prague (1836-1909), L.2773;his estate sale, H.G. Gutekunst (Stuttgart), 6 - 11 May 1910, lot 361;Hess (Munich);purchased there by Sir Robert Witt, London (1872-1952), L.2228b, n.d. (15 shillings);Witt Bequest 1952
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/oskar-kokoschkaMarcell von Nemes, Munich.;Grete Ring, London;from whom acquired by Seilern in 1939/45.
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/spitzweg-carl-1808-1885the artist's posthumous sale, H. Helbing (Munich), 9 April 1908, L.2307;Sir Robert Witt, London (1872-1952), L.2228b;Witt Bequest 1952
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/giovanni-battista-tiepolo-3possibly given by the artist’s son Domenico to Johann Dominik Bossi, Munich (1767-1853);by descent to his daughter Maria Theresa Caroline (1825-1881) and her husband, Carl Christian Friedrich Beyerlen (1826-1881);their estate sale, H.G. Gutekunst (Stuttgart), 27 March 1882;a 'foreign nobleman', possibly Prince Trivulzio, whose property was consigned by Pollak and Winternitz (Vienna) to Sotheby's (London), 13 July 1937, lot 52;purchased there by Dr Alfred Scharf, London (1900-1965), presumably on behalf of Count Antoine Seilern, London (1901-1978);Princes Gate Bequest 1978
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/tiepolo-giovanni-battista-1696-1770-4possibly given by the artist's son Domenico to Johann Dominik Bossi, Munich (1767-1853);by descent to his daughter Maria Theresa Caroline (1825-1881) and her husband, Carl Christian Friedrich Beyerlen (1826-1881);their estate sale, H.G. Gutekunst (Stuttgart), 27 March 1882;purchased there by Dr O. Eisenmann, Cassel, on behalf of Wilhelm Lübke (1826-1893);purchased from his estate by Joseph Baer & Sons (Frankfurt);purchased there by Dr Hans Wendland, Lugano, by 1925;acquired by Colnaghi (London) between May and November 1929;Christian M. Nebehay (Vienna);purchased there by Count Antoine Seilern, London (1901-1978), by April 1936;Princes Gate Bequest 1978
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/giovanni-battista-tiepolo-10possibly given by the artist’s son Domenico to Johann Dominik Bossi, Munich (1767-1853);by descent to his daughter Maria Theresa Caroline (1825-1881) and her husband, Carl Christian Friedrich Beyerlen (1826-1881);their estate sale, H.G. Gutekunst (Stuttgart), 27 March 1882;purchased there by Galerie-Inspektor Kräutle;a 'foreign nobleman', possibly Prince Trivulzio, whose property was consigned by Pollak and Winternitz (Vienna) to Sotheby's (London), 13 July 1937, lot 62;purchased there by Dr Alfred Scharf, London (1900-1965) presumably on behalf of Count Antoine Seilern, London (1901-1978);Princes Gate Bequest 1978
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/giovanni-domenico-tiepolo-2possibly given by the artist’s son Domenico to Johann Dominik Bossi, Munich (1767-1853);by descent to his daughter Maria Theresa Caroline (1825-1881) and her husband, Carl Christian Friedrich Beyerlen (1826-1881);their estate sale, H.G. Gutekunst (Stuttgart), 27 March 1882;Stephen Higgins (Paris);purchased from him by Colnaghi (London), 26 April 1957;purchased there by Count Antoine Seilern (1901-1978), 3 May 1957 (£350);Princes Gate Bequest 1978
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/tiepolo-giovanni-domenico-1727-1804-attributed-topossibly given by the artist’s son Domenico to Johann Dominik Bossi, Munich (1767-1853);by descent to his daughter Maria Theresa Caroline (1825-1881) and her husband, Carl Christian Friedrich Beyerlen (1826-1881);their estate sale, H.G. Gutekunst (Stuttgart), 27 March 1882;consigned by Nebehay (Vienna) to Gilhofer & Ranschburg (Lucerne), 28 June 1934, lot 294;purchased there by Count Antoine Seilern (1901-1978);Princes Gate Bequest 1978
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/tiepolo-giovanni-battista-1696-1770-attributed-to-alternatively-attributed-to-tiepolo-lorenzo-1736-1772possibly given by the artist's son Domenico to Johann Dominik Bossi, Munich (1767-1853);by descent to his daughter Maria Theresa Caroline (1825-1881) and her husband, Carl Christian Friedrich Beyerlen (1826-1881);their estate sale, H.G. Gutekunst (Stuttgart), 27 March 1882;a 'foreign nobleman', possibly Prince Trivulzio, whose property was consigned by Pollak and Winternitz (Vienna) to Sotheby's (London), 13 July 1937, lot 39;purchased there by Sir Robert Witt, London (1872-1952), L.2228b;Witt Bequest 1952
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/bowlLuigi Grassi, Florence, A.S. Drey, Munich, Alfred Pringsheim (1850-1941), Munich, before 1914, sold, Sotheby's, 19 June 1939, lot 250, bought by Louis C.G. Clarke, Cambridge
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/broad-rimmed-bowl-5Conte Ferdinando Pasolini Dall'Onda, Faenza, Paris, Ridel, 14 December 1853, lot 171, Andrew Fountaine IV (1808-73), his heir, Christie's, 16 June 1884, lot 39, Lowengard, Bourgeois Fr?res, Cologne, Heberle, 19-27 October 1904, lot 93, Alfred Pringsheim (1850-1941), Munich, before 1923, sold Sotheby's, 20 July 1939, lot 390, bought by Marmaduke Langdale Horn, Stoke Charity, near Winchester.
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/dish-12Andrew Fountaine IV, his heir, Christie's, 17 June 1884, lot 156, Prof. Hermann, Alfred Pringsheim (1850-1941), Munich, almost certainly before 1930, sold, Sotheby's, 7 June 1939, lot 74, bought by Louis C.G. Clarke, Cambridge
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/dish-13Alfred Pringsheim (1850-1941), Munich before 1923, sold Sotheby's, 19 July 1939,first part of lot 277, bought by H.S. Reitlinger (1885-1950), London, the Reitlinger Trust, Maidenhead
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/dish-with-scalloped-rimAlfred Pringsheim (1850-1941), Munich, almost certainly before 1930, sold Sotheby's, 20 July 1939, lot 379, bought by H.S. Reitlinger (1885-1950), London, the Reitlinger Trust, Maidenhead
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/emil-noldeSold, A. Weinmuller, Munich, 1967, bought Piccadilly Gallery, from whom purchased by the Friends of The Fitzwilliam Museum
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/globular-pharmacy-jarC. & S. Bourgeois Fr?res, Cologne, Heberle, 19-27 October, 1904, lot 110, Alfred Pringsheim (1850-1941), Munich before 1923, sold Sotheby's, 19 July 1939, lot 240, bought by H.S. Reitlinger (1885-1950), London, the Reitlinger Trust, Maidenhead
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/hans-rottenhammer-and-jan-i-brueghelE.Permann, Stockholm, sold Bukowski, spring 1980, bought David Carritt with Levie of Munich, from whom bought.
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/mauch-danielPurchased in Munich, 1934, by Otto Wertheimer, Paris;Sold to H Weiss, Sagen and London;Bought from them by Edith M. Mendelssohn Bartholdy.
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/one-handled-jarAlfred Pringsheim (1850-1941), Munich, almost certainly before 1930, sold Sotheby's, 19 July 1939, lot 203, E.L. Paget, sold Sotheby's, 11 October 1949, lot 7, bought by the Fitzwilliam Museum.
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/panel-the-adoration-of-the-shepherds-in-a-landscapeAlfred Pringsheim (1850-1941), Munich, before 1923, sold Sotheby's, 19 July 1939, lot 288, bought by H.S. Reitlinger (1885-1950), London., the Reitlinger Trust, Maidenhead
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/pharmacy-jar-waisted-albarello-formAlfred Pringsheim (1850-1941), Munich, almost certainly before 1930, sold Sotheby's, 7 June 1939, lot 45, bought by H.S. Reitlinger (1885-1950), London: the Reitlinger Trust, Maidenhead
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/plate-6Alfred Pringsheim (1850-1941), Munich, before 1923, sold, Sotheby's, 7 June 1939, lot 97, bought by the Fitzwilliam Museum.
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/plate-7Geremia Delsette, probably sold Paris, Delbergue, 12 April 1866. Andrew Fountaine IV (1808-73), his heir, Christie's, 16 June 1884, lot 45, Charles Mannheim, J. Pierpont Morgan, Alfred Pringsheim (1850-1941), Munich before 1929 when published, sold, Sotheby's, 7 June 1939, lot 33, bought by the Fitzwilliam Museum.
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/plate-8Alfred Pringsheim (1850-1941), Munich, before 1923, sold, Sotheby's, 19 July 1939, lot 256, bought by the Fitzwilliam Museum.
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/plate-9Comm. Giuseppe Cavalieri, Milan, Palazzo Cova, 25-30 May 1914, lot 192, uncertain, Alfred Pringsheim (1850-1941), Munich, before 1923, sold Sotheby's, 20 July 1939, part of lot 377(1), bought by H.S. Reitlinger (1885-1950), London, the Reitlinger Trust, Maidenhead
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/plate-10Alfred Pringsheim (1850-1941), Munich, almost certainly before 1930, sold Sotheby's, 20 July 1939, second part of lot 377, bought by H.S. Reitlinger (1885-1950), London, the Reitlinger Trust, Maidenhead
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/shallow-basin-for-a-ewerAlfred Pringsheim (1850-1941), Munich before 1923, sold, Sotheby's, 7 June 1939, lot 24, bought by Louis C.G. Clarke, Cambridge
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/spouted-vessel-with-handleProbably Conte Ferdinando Pasolini Dall'Onda, uncertain, Alfred Pringsheim (1850-1941), Munich, almost certainly before 1930, sold Sotheby's, 19 July 1939, part of lot 277, bought by H.S. Reitlinger (1885-1950), London, the Reitlinger Trust, Maidenhead
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/two-handled-pharmacy-jarAlfred Pringsheim (1850-1941), Munich, almost certainly before 1930, sold Sotheby's, 7 June 1939, lot 43, bought by H.S. Reitlinger (1885-1950), London, The Reitlinger Trust, Maidenhead
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/two-handled-vase-2Alfred Pringsheim (1850-1941), Munich before 1914, sold, Sotheby's, 7 June 1939, lot 22, bought by the Fitzwilliam Museum.
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/workshop-of-severo-calzetta-severo-da-ravenna-italy-ravenna-first-half-16th-centuryMargarete Oppenheim, Munich, her sale, Julius B?hler, Munich, 18 May 1936, lot 31, pl. 4;purchased Leitch & Kerin, London;from whom purchased on 13 April 1937 by Lt Col. the Hon. M.T. Boscawen, DSO MC;lent to The Fitzwilliam Museum in 1946
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/switzerland-3rd-quarter-of-the-15th-century-4English private collection', A.S. Drey, Munich (In Drey's collection by 1931, see article by Betty Kurth in Pantheon, 1931, 6, p.234), acquired by Burrell from John Hunt by 13 February (but insured by Burrell from 10 January) 1939.
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/upper-rhineland-early-15th-centuryBohler, Munich, Albert Figdor, Vienna (Cat. 1930, no. 15), acquired by Burrell from Robert Frank by or in October 1936.
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/eduard-gaertnerErnst-Jürgen Otto, Berlin, until c.1950 {1}. Private collection, Munich. Hildegard Fritz- Denneville Fine Arts (dealer), London;bought by the National Gallery from Hildegard Fritz-Denneville Fine Arts (dealer), 1989.
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/claude-monet-2Neue Staatsgalerie, Munich, 1907;De-accessioned by the museum (with other works) in January 1940 to Karl Haberstock, dealer in Berlin, in exchange for a painting by Hans Thoma {1}. Wildenstein (dealer), Paris {1}. Mr and Mrs Norman B. Woolworth, NY, 1954 {1}. Christie's, London, 19 June 1964. Agnew's (dealer), London;Sotheby's, London, 24 June 1996 (unsold);acquired by the National Gallery through Sotheby's, 1996.
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/master-of-the-borgo-crucifix-master-of-the-franciscan-crucifixesRuef, Munich, 14/15 December 1989 {1};Private collection;bought by the National Gallery 1998.
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/franz-anton-maulbertschBavarian private collection {1, 2}. Sold 5 December 2008 at Hampel Fine Art Auctions, Munich, lot 256. Ulrich Hofstaetter, Vienna. Bought by the National Gallery, 2013.
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/renoir-pierre-augusteAcquired by Georg Caspari, Munich (1878 - 1930). Acquired by Kojiro Matsukata, Japan (1865 - 1950). The painting was with Matthiesen, London in 1946 and with the Lefevre Gallery, London in 1948. Purchased by Captain R. A. Peto of Bembridge, Isle of Wight and passed by descent to his wife, Mrs. Rosemary Peto.
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/von-lenbach-franz-seraph-1836-1904C. 1887, given by the artist to the Countess Marie Kalckreuth, (1857-1897), MunichCollection of Waldemaar Croon Jr., Aix-la-Chapelle, Germany, from circa 1943 * +acquired by G.' Cramer, Javastraat 38, The Hague (art dealer), circa 1958 +
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/daddi-bernardo-active-by-1327-died-1348W. Fuller Maitland Collection, Stansted Hall, by 1854by whom sold to R. Langton Douglas, c.1907with Julius Böhler, Munich, by 1917with the Spanish Art Gallery, London, by 1938 *from whom purchased by the Gallery in that year
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/c-sigoniusCollection Graf von Firmian (ex libris);on upper cover pastedown in manuscript: '2037';bought: Karl & Faber, Munich, May 12, 1955 lot 486;Henry Davis, O.B.E., Belfast and London.
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/j-actuariusMarcus Fugger (on endleaf, manuscript note: 'Arc.134/Nro.2.54' [Fugger's library shelf mark);Princes fron Oettingen-Wallerstein (library stamp on title page;sold: Munich, Karl and Faber, Auktion IX (III Teil), May 11, 1934, lot 223);Bought: Breslauer, January 1956
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/loffice-de-la-semaine-sainte(Pierre) Du Cambout de Coislin (1636-1706);bought: Karl and Faber, Munich, May 12, 1955 lot 476;Henry Davis, O.B.E., Belfast and London.
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/le-vite-de-santi-padriSister Sulpitia (Sulpizia) Campeggi (historic, name inscribed on binding from period). Karl & Faber, Munich, May 12, 1955 lot 489;Henry Davis, O.B.E., Belfast and London, acquired at the above auction sale.
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/martin-luther-2Nikolaus von Ebleben (c.1514-1579);Karl & Faber, Munich (Fugger Sale, May 3, 1933 lot 104a);library stamp with initials EK;Lathrop Harper (sold: July 20, 1953);Henry Davis, O.B.E., Belfast and London.
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/petrus-faberJohannes Mahuet, prize given by Antoine de Leoncourt at the Jesuit College of Pont-a-Mousson (endleaf in manuscript: 'Ex liberalitate & munificientia (...?) ac Reverendissime Domini D. Antonii a Lenoncourt SRJ Comitis a Lotharingia Primatis Joannis Mahuet quod primas orationis solutae Latinae in Tertia anno 1622 tulisset. Hoc libro in praemium publice donatus est anno 1623');seal of the Jesuit College of Pont-a-Mousson;Off [ici]er D'artillerie, Villers (library label);bought: Karl & Faber, Munich, May 12, 1955 lot 466;Henry Davis, O.B.E., Belfast and London
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/beijeren-abraham-van-a535A.S. Drey, Munich (before 1930);with Dowes, Amsterdam, c. 1930.
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/karel-dujardinH. A. J. Munro, London 1854;Prince P. Demidoff sale, San Donato near Florence, 1880, no. 1065;Sold in Paris 4th June 1891 No.11;Purchased by Agnew in Munich 1966.
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/master-of-ulmHelbing sale, October 14, 1907 (174, as by Wolgemut).;Schwachenburg, Munich, c.1925.;L. Rosenthal, sale Sotheby's, April 29, 1937 (121, as Wolgemut);where accquired for Lee.
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/spitzweg-a872aLugt, Helbing- Munich 9 April 1909
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/beckmann-max-1884-1950I.B. Neumann,+ Berlin (later New York) 1920 owned for about 5 years;private collection c.1925*? Heinrich Fromm +;available for sale from Günther Franke,+ 23 June 1927 (Beckmann letter);exhibited in Max Beckmann: Gemälde und Graphik, Kestner-Gesellschaft, Hanover, January-February 1931 as 'private collection'*;Galerie Axel Vömel, Düsseldorf by 1938;Günther Franke,+ Munich, 1938;Klaus Hegewisch, Hamburg, 1971.
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/corinth-lovis-1858-1925A. Degner, Berlin;V. Hartberg, Berlin;Auktion Keller und Reimer, Berlin July 1923;shown in Berliner Sezession, Konigsberg 1924 (14) no collection cited;W. Gurlitt, Munich*;Herr Melsheimer*;Acquired through Kunstsalon Franke, Baden-Baden 1991.
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/paolo-veneziano-italian-venice-circa-1330from the Cathedral at Veglia, Croatia, sold early in 20th century to raise funds. Bernheimer, Munich, 1964
http://www.artic.edu/aic/collections/artwork/80570Parish church of San Andrés, Villamediana (Palencia) [based on their relation to paintings presumably from the same retable still in San Andrés]. Galerie Heinemann, Munich, probably by 1926 [this date is suggested by a paper label imprinted Galerie Heinemann, Munchen / 18734, and a customs label reading ZOLL / I-26]; sold to Joseph Winterbotham, Jr. (died 1954), Burlington, Vt., by 1936 [lent by him to the 1936 exhibition; an annotated list of loans gives Heinemann as the source for the picture; Silva Maroto 1990 stated that it was in the Winterbotham collection in 1933]; bequeathed to the Art Institute, 1954.
http://www.artic.edu/aic/collections/artwork/27309Reportedly in the Simonetti Collection, Rome. Walter Schackenberg, Munich, until 1938 [unsubstantiated note in curatorial file]. Dr. J. Schoenemann [unsubstantiated note in curatorial file]. Wentworth Green Field, Chicago, 1938; given to Art Institute, 1938.
http://www.artic.edu/aic/collections/artwork/12895Oliver Latham (d. 1850?), sold Christie's London, April 13, 1850, lot 27, to Mr. Hoare for 16 gns. William Lygon, 7th Earl Beauchamp, London (died 1936) [according to archival photograph and stockbook of Arthur Tooth and Sons; information kindly provided by Simon Matthews]. Arthur Tooth, London, 1939; sold to Karl Haberstock, Berlin, April 1, 1939 [according to Tooth stockbook cited above and Ein- und Verkaufsbuch for July 1936 - December 1939 preserved in the Haberstock Stiftung, Augsburg, copy in curatorial file; the pair of paintings are also documented in the Warenkontrollbücher of 1939, 1940, and 1941; in the last book it is listed as on deposit in the Dresdener Bank, Tegernsee]; consigned by Haberstock to Julius Böhler, Munich in 1950, [letter of January 29, 2001 from Jutte Fianke, Böhler]; sold by Böhler to E. and A. Silberman, New York, in January 1951 [according to the letter from Jutta Fianke cited above]. Arthur C. Tate, New Canaan, CT, 1957 [according to Hartford 1957 exhib. cat.]. E. and A. Silberman Galleries, New York, by 1960 [advertised in Burlington Magazine, December 1960]; sold to the Art Institute, 1961.
http://www.artic.edu/aic/collections/artwork/144969Bought by Friedrich Wilhelm III, King of Prussia from the artist in 1834 for 1000 Taler [acc. to records of Friedrich Wilhelm III’s acquisitions in Archiv der Verwaltung der Staatlichen Schlösser und Garten in Potsdam-Sanssouci: “28.11.1834 Blechen ‘Palmenhaus’ 200 Frd. Cour Die Kaiserinn” and “181. Journal Nr. 638. Blechen Palmenhaus 200 Frd. Cour,” see Uwe Simmons, research paper, ms, 1994, copy in curatorial file]; possibly given to his daughter Charlotte, the Tsarina Alexandra Fedorovna, wife of Tsar Nicholas I in November 1834; possibly part of the Russian imperial collection until after 1917. Swiss collection by c. 1920. Daxer and Marshall, Munich and James Mackinnon, London, by 1996; sold to the Art Institute, 1996.
http://www.artic.edu/aic/collections/artwork/100476Eberhard Freiherr von Bodenhausen (died 1918), Munich [according to Billeter 2001]; perhaps by inheritance to his wife Dora Freifrau von Bodenhausen. Martin Fabiani, Paris; sold to Gallery Fine Arts Associates (Otto Gerson), May 1951 [see Gallery Fine Arts Associates' stockcard, Otto Gerson Papers, Archives of American Art, copy in curatorial file]; sold to Mrs. Vincent Astor, Rhinebeck, New York, May 1951 [see stockcard citied above]. Mr. and Mrs. Werner E. Josten, New York, by 1964 [according to Compin 1964] until at least 1968 [New York 1968]. Private Collection, Maryland [information given by R. L. Feigen]. Richard L. Feigen and Co., by 1982; sold to the Art Institute, 1983.
http://www.artic.edu/aic/collections/artwork/79349Jack Aghion, Paris (died before 1914), by 1905 [lent by him to Paris 1905]. Carl Reininghaus, Vienna (died 1932), by 1909 to at least 1925 [lent by him to Vienna 1909, Berlin 1914, and Vienna 1925]. Probably Galerie Thannhauser, Munich and Berlin [according to annotated working list prepared for the Arts Club exhibition, Chicago 1936; copy in curatorial file]; probably sold by Galerie Thannhauser to Joseph Winterbotham, Jr. (died 1954), Burlington, Vt., by 1933 [purchase from Thannhauser is implied by context on working list cited above]; Joseph Winterbotham, Jr. (died 1954), Burlington, Vt., by 1933 to 1953 [Winterbotham placed the painting on deposit with Durand-Ruel Gallery, New York, on 13 November 1933, instructing that it be shipped to Chicago for temporary loan to the Art Institute, according to records of Durand-Ruel and Art Institute shipping receipt; the frame was sent separately from Burlington, Vt.]; given by Joseph Winterbotham to the Art Institute, 1953.
http://www.artic.edu/aic/collections/artwork/59891Hilmer Åberg, Sweden until 1928 [according to a letter of September 17, 1982, from Johan Norden, Bukowski-Auktioner, to Ilse Hecht in curatorial files]; sold Bukowski, Stockholm, September 13, 1928, no. 32, to Ball [according to letter cited above]; Max Ball, Berlin, and Z.M. Hackenbroch, Frankfurt, until at least 1930 [according to letter cited above; they lent it jointly to Cologne1930; since no owner is listed in Munich 1931, it was probably still on the market at that time]. Paul Tiocca, Paris, by 1936 [see Fraenger 1936; in a letter dated February 4, 1939 to Charles Worcester, Tiocca stated that the painting had been in his possession for many years]; sold to E. and A. Silberman Galleries, New York, 1937 [according to an article in the Chicago Tribune, May 5, 1937]; sold to Charles H. Worcester, Chicago, 1937 [invoice dated April 16, 1937, in curatorial files]; given to the Art Institute, 1947.
http://www.artic.edu/aic/collections/artwork/4896The second wife of the artist, Charlotte (Lolo) von Lenbach (died 1941), Munich, to at least December 1936 [see inscription on reverse]. General Heinrich Karl Knappstein, German Consul General, Chicago; given by Knappstein to Otto K. Eitel (died 1983), Chicago, sometime between 1950 and 1956 [see Paul Eitel letter of September 11, 1956, in curatorial file]; given by Mr. and Mrs. Otto K. Eitel to the Art Institute, 1956.
http://www.artic.edu/aic/collections/artwork/94144Sammlung Nell Walden, Berlin [verso]. Graphisches Kabinett, Munich, no earlier than 1935 and no later than 1939 [verso]. Marlborough-Gerson Inc. New York/ Marlborough Fine Art Ltd. London [letter in curatorial file]. Mr. and Mrs. Sigmund Kunstadter.
http://www.artic.edu/aic/collections/artwork/103139Sold by the artist to Durand-Ruel, Paris, May 11, 1904, for 9,000 francs. [1]

Sold by Durand-Ruel, Paris, to Paul Cassirer, Berlin, Nov. 28, 1904, for 11,500 francs. [2]

Acquired by Albrecht Guttmann, Berlin, by May 18, 1917. [3]

Sold at the Albrecht Guttmann, Berlin, sale, Paul Cassirer (Berlin) and Hugo Helbing (Munich), Berlin, May 18, 1917, lot 69. [4]

Acquired by Howard Young, New York. [5]

Acquired by Mrs. Potter Palmer, Chicago. [6]

Acquired by Anderson Gallery, Chicago, c. 1927. [7]

Sold by Anderson Gallery, Chicago, to William Redfield, Chicago, c. 1927. [8]

Given by William Redfield, Chicago, to his sister, Mrs. Mortimer B. (Ethel R.) Harris, Chicago, c. 1930. [9]

Given by Mrs. Mortimer B. (Ethel R.) Harris, Chicago, to the Art Institute of Chicago, beginning in 1984. [10]

NOTES

[1] The transaction is recorded in the Durand-Ruel, Paris, stock book for 1901–13 (no. 7643, as La Tamise, Waterloo Bridge, temps couvert, 1901): “Purchased from Monet by DR Paris on 11 May 1904 for 9 000 F / Stock DR Paris no. 7643; Photo Druet [sic] no. 22 / (no. 11 of the exhibition),” as confirmed by Paul-Louis Durand-Ruel and Flavie Durand-Ruel, Durand-Ruel Archives, to the Art Institute of Chicago, Feb. 21, 2013, curatorial object file, Art Institute of Chicago.

[2] The transaction is recorded in the Durand-Ruel, Paris, stock book for 1901–13 (no. 7643, as La Tamise, Waterloo Bridge, temps couvert, 1901): “Sold to Cassirer on 28 November 1904 for 11 500 F,” as confirmed by Paul-Louis Durand-Ruel and Flavie Durand-Ruel, Durand-Ruel Archives, to the Art Institute of Chicago, Feb. 21, 2013, curatorial object file, Art Institute of Chicago.

[3] See Paul Cassirer and Hugo Helbing, Moderne gemälde: Die sammlung Albrecht Guttmann und nachlass eines Berliner sammlers, sale cat. (Paul Cassirer and Hugo Helbing, May 18, 1917), lot. 69 (ill.), as Waterloo – Brücke in London.

[4] See Paul Cassirer and Hugo Helbing, Moderne gemälde: Die sammlung Albrecht Guttmann und nachlass eines Berliner sammlers, sale cat. (Paul Cassirer and Hugo Helbing, May 18, 1917), lot. 69 (ill.), as Waterloo – Brücke in London.

[5] According to Art Dealers Association of America, report, Mar. 8, 1995, curatorial object file, Art Institute of Chicago.

[6] According to Art Dealers Association of America, report, Mar. 8, 1995, curatorial object file, Art Institute of Chicago.

[7] See Art Dealers Association of America, report, Mar. 8, 1995, curatorial object file, Art Institute of Chicago. This information is further corroborated by a telephone conversation between Courtney Donnell, Art Institute of Chicago, and Jeanne Hansell (daughter of Mrs. Mortimer B. Harris), March 1999, see provenance worksheet, dated June 17, 1999, curatorial object file, Art Institute of Chicago.

[8] According to Jeanne Hansell (daughter of Mrs. Mortimer B. Harris), relayed to Courtney Donnell, Art Institute of Chicago, March 1999 telephone conversation; see conversation summary in provenance worksheet, June 17, 1999, curatorial object file, Art Institute of Chicago.

[9] According to Jeanne Hansell (daughter of Mrs. Mortimer B. Harris), relayed to Courtney Donnell, Art Institute of Chicago, telephone conversation, Mar. 1999, see conversation summary in provenance worksheet, June 17, 1999, curatorial object file, Art Institute of Chicago.

[10] The painting was given to the Art Institute of Chicago in undivided fractional interests beginning in 1984. The Art Institute received the final fractional interest for one hundred percent ownership in 2000.
http://www.artic.edu/aic/collections/artwork/49068Otto Pein, Müncheburg; sold J. M. Heberle, Cologne, October 29-30, 1888, lot 56. Sold Galerie Hugo Helbing, Munich, March 23, 1903, lot 61. Honoré Palmer, Chicago, by 1943; given to the Art Institute, 1943.
http://www.artic.edu/aic/collections/artwork/46382Sale, Sotheby’s, London, July 5, 1967, no. 88, the pair to Böhler; Julius Böhler, Munich from 1967 until sold to P. and D. Colnaghi, London [according to email of July 2002 from Georgina Duits to Martha Wolff, copy in curatorial file]; sold by Colnaghi to the Art Institute, 1974.
http://www.artic.edu/aic/collections/artwork/46383Sale, Sotheby’s, London, July 5, 1967, no. 88, the pair to Böhler; Julius Böhler, Munich from 1967 until sold to P. and D. Colnaghi, London [according to email of July 2002 from Georgina Duits to Martha Wolff, copy in curatorial file]; sold by Colnaghi to the Art Institute, 1974.
http://www.artic.edu/aic/collections/artwork/84709Probably in the artist’s possession, Toledo, before he retired to a Carthusian monastery, in August 1603 [inventory 1603, no. V, (“Un lienzo de frutas adonde está el ánade y otros tres pájaros ques de Diego de Valdivieso”; Jordan in Madrid 1992, pp. 41–43); Diego de Valdivieso, Toledo, 1603 [see 1603 inventory cited by Jordan 1992]. Cardinal Bernardo de Sandoval y Rojas, archbishop of Toledo and primate of Spain, Toledo or Huerta de Sandoval, near Madrid (died 1618); acquired from his estate with 4 other still lifes for the decoration of the Galería del Mediodía in the royal hunting lodge of El Pardo, the series completed by an additional still life commissioned for this purpose from Juan van der Hamen [according to a note of 10 September 1619 in the accounts of the royal household; see José María de Azcárate, “Algunas noticias sobre pintores cortesanos de siglo XVII” Anales de Instituto de estudios Madrileños, 6 (1970), p. 60; see also Jordan 2006, pp. 54-58,]; royal inventories of 1653, no. 145 (“145. Un frutero Pequeño Con su marco de oro y negro y un Melon abierto en medio”, A small fruit still life with its black and gold frame with an open melon in the middle; an inventory number 145 is inscibed in the lower left corner of the painting; see Jordan 2006, pp. 58, 300, n. 24) and 1701/03, no. 132 (Fernández Bayton 1981, vol. 2, p. 144, no. 132). August L. Mayer, Munich, by 1922 [see Mayer 1922]; sold, Munich, Hugo Helbing, November 24–25, 1933, lot 79, pl. 4, as Sánchez Cotán, Küchenstilleben for 380 Marks [the price based on Die Weltkunst 1933; that the picture belonged to Mayer can be deduced from the provenance of no. 74 in this sale, which later entered the Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen]. Private collection, Germany [according to 1955 receipt from Frederick Mont, in curatorial file]. Frederick Mont and Newhouse Galleries, New York, by 1955 [1955 receipt cited above and shipping invoice, in curatorial file]; sold to the Art Institute, 1955.
http://www.artic.edu/aic/collections/artwork/73054Thannhauser Gallery, Berlin and Munich [based on sticker on reverse; see also Daulte 1959]; Mrs. Kate Jarrett, Forest Hills, New York, consignor of painting at the Justin K Thannhauser Gallery, New York, sometime between September 1941 and 1952 [according to stock files attached to letter from Janet Briner, Thannhauser archives]; painting sold but unknown to whom. Mr. and Mrs. J.W. Block, by January 1952 [according to handwritten note on stretcher]; Mrs. Leopold Block (died 1973), Chicago, by at least 1963 [lent to Chicago 1963; see receipt 18943, 10 Sept. 1963, for Chicago 1963 exh.]; by descent to her son and his wife, Joseph L. Block and Lucille Block, Chicago; given to the Art Institute, 1988.
http://www.artic.edu/aic/collections/artwork/21934Private collection, Zurich [according to Mayer 1936]. Dr. L. von Buerkel, Munich [according to Mayer 1936]. Bottenwieser, Berlin [according to Mayer 1936]. J. Goudstikker, Amsterdam, by 1927, until 1935 [see Mayer 1927; Mayer 1936 mentions Mrs. Sterner, New York as owner between Goudstikker and the Art Institute, however, the painting was shipped directly from Goudstikker in Amsterdam to Chicago in November, 1925]; sold by Goudstikker to The Art Institute, 1935.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139135.html(sale, Karl & Faber, Munich, 23-24 November 1978, no. 210); Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.41642.htmlProfessor Wieser, Innsbruck, by 1891.[1] Lacher von Eisack, Bad Tölz, Oberbayern.[2] (Paul Cassirer, Berlin).[3] Baron Heinrich Thyssen-Bornemisza [1875-1947], Schloss Rohoncz, Hungary, and later, Villa Favorita, Lugano-Castagnola, Switzerland, by 1930;[4] by inheritance to his son, Baron Hans Heinrich Thyssen-Bornemisza [1921-2002], Villa Favorita; acquired 1950 by (M. Knoedler & Co., New York);[5] purchased February 1951 by the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, New York; gift 1952 to NGA.[1] As per Max Friedländer, Albrecht Altdorfer, der Maler von Regensburg, Leipzig, 1891: 56, no. 27.[2] Cited by Rudolf Heinemann, Stiftung Sammlung Schloss Rohoncz, Lugano-Castagnola, 1937: 2.[3] Information from annotated copy of Sammlung Schloss Rohoncz, Exh. cat. Neue Pinakothek, Munich, 1930, in the possession of Mrs. Walter Feilchenfeldt, Sr., Zurich, per letter of 28 January 1989 to John Hand in the object file (1952.5.31.a-c), NGA curatorial files. Colin Eisler, Paintings from the Samuel H. Kress Collection: European Schools Excluding Italian, Oxford, 1977: 35, erroneously listed Walter Feilchenfeldt as owning the picture.[4] Sammlung Schloss Rohoncz, Exh. cat. Neue Pinakothek, Munich, 1930: no. 4.[5] Knoedler commission book no. 4, p. 143, no. CA 3724 and sales book no. 16, p. 334, M. Knoedler & Co. Records, Getty Research Institute (copies NGA curatorial files).
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.41641.htmlProfessor Wieser, Innsbruck, by 1891.[1] Lacher von Eisack, Bad Tölz, Oberbayern.[2] (Paul Cassirer, Berlin).[3] Baron Heinrich Thyssen-Bornemisza [1875-1947], Schloss Rohoncz, Hungary, and later Villa Favorita, Lugano-Castagnola, Switzerland, by 1930;[4] by inheritance to his son, Baron Hans Heinrich Thyssen-Bornemisza [1921-2002], Villa Favorita; acquired 1950 by (M. Knoedler & Co., New York);[5] purchased February 1951 by the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, New York; gift 1952 to NGA.[1] As per Max Friedländer, Albrecht Altdorfer, der Maler von Regensburg, Leipzig, 1891: 56, no. 27.[2] Cited by Rudolf Heinemann, Stiftung Sammlung Schloss Rohoncz, Lugano-Castagnola, 1937: 2.[3] Information from annotated copy of Sammlung Schloss Rohoncz, Exh. cat. Neue Pinakothek, Munich, 1930, in the possession of Mrs. Walter Feilchenfeldt, Sr., Zurich, per letter of 28 January 1989 to John Hand in the object file (1952.5.31.a-c), NGA curatorial filess. Colin Eisler, Paintings from the Samuel H. Kress Collection: European Schools Excluding Italian, Oxford, 1977: 35, erroneously listed Walter Feilchenfeldt as owning the picture.[4] Sammlung Schloss Rohoncz, Exh. cat. Neue Pinakothek, Munich, 1930: no. 4.[5] Knoedler commission book no. 4, p. 143, no. CA 3724 and sales book no. 16, p. 334, M. Knoedler & Co. Records, Getty Research Institute (copies NGA curatorial files).
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.41643.htmlProfessor Wieser, Innsbruck, by 1891.[1] Lacher von Eisack, Bad Tölz, Oberbayern.[2] (Paul Cassirer, Berlin).[3] Baron Heinrich Thyssen-Bornemisza [1875-1947], Schloss Rohoncz, Hungary, and later, Villa Favorita, Lugano-Castagnola, Switzerland, by 1930;[4] by inheritance to his son, Baron Hans Heinrich Thyssen-Bornemisza [1921-2002], Villa Favorita; acquired 1950 by (M. Knoedler & Co., New York);[5] purchased February 1951 by the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, New York; gift 1952 to NGA.[1] As per Max Friedländer, Albrecht Altdorfer, der Maler von Regensburg, Leipzig, 1891: 56, no. 27.[2] Cited by Rudolf Heinemann, Stiftung Sammlung Schloss Rohoncz, Lugano-Castagnola, 1937: 2.[3] Information from annotated copy of Sammlung Schloss Rohoncz, Exh. cat. Neue Pinakothek, Munich, 1930, in the possession of Mrs. Walter Feilchenfeldt, Sr., Zurich, per letter of 28 January 1989 to John Hand in the object file (1952.5.31.a-c), NGA curatorial files. Colin Eisler, Paintings from the Samuel H. Kress Collection: European Schools Excluding Italian, Oxford, 1977: 35, erroneously listed Walter Feilchenfeldt as owning the picture.[4] Sammlung Schloss Rohoncz, Exh. cat. Neue Pinakothek, Munich, 1930: no. 4.[5] Knoedler commission book no. 4, p. 143, no. CA 3724 and sales book no. 16, p. 334, M. Knoedler & Co. Records, Getty Research Institute (copies NGA curatorial files).
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.100357.html(Katrin Bellinger, Munich); purchased by NGA, 1997.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.74168.htmlJan Pietersz. Zoomer (Lugt 1511); Jonathan Richardson, Sr. (Lugt 2184); John Campbell, 5th Duke of Argyll by 1784 (sale, London, T. Philipe, 21-23 May 1798); Walter Savage Landor, Florence; Private Collection, Zurich; Julius Böhler, Munich; sold to Armand Hammer Collection, 1977; gift to NGA in 1991.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.41613.htmlHigh altar of the church of San Marco, Florence, from about 1440 until about 1677.[1] Possibly in the passageway to the sacristy of the same church, by 1758,[2] or in the Spezieria of the Convent of San Marco (recorded here in the early 19th century).[3] possibly in the Galleria dell'Accademia, Florence, after 1810-1812, and from here (if not directly from the Spezieria) in private hands.[4] James-Alexander, comte de Pourtalès-Gorgier [1776-1855], Paris, by 1841; (his sale, Hôtel Pourtalès-Gorgier, Paris, 27 March-4 April 1865, no. 86, as by Masaccio); probably Edmond [1822-1896] and Jules Huot [1830-1870] de Goncourt, Paris.[5] (Julius Böhler, Munich).[6] Albert Keller [1879-1939], New York, by 1924; (Duveen Brothers, Inc., London and New York); sold 1944 to the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, New York;[7] gift 1952 to NGA.[1] Vasari, in the second edition of his Lives (1568), states that along with the main image, the predella of the altarpiece on the high altar of San Marco, representing "storie del martirio di San Cosimo e Damiano e degli altri" ("stories of the martyrdom of Saints Cosmas and Damian and of others"), is also the work of Fra Angelico; see Giorgio Vasari, Opere, ed. Gaetano Milanesi, 9 vols., Florence, 1878-1885: 2(1878): 508-509 (2nd ed. 1906, reprinted 1981, 1998). Another equally rare elaboration of the legend of the two saints was realized in Angelico's workshop in the so-called Annalena altarpiece (its main panel is now in the Museo di San Marco along with six elements of the predella; a seventh from the same series belongs to the Kunsthaus, Zurich; see John Pope-Hennessy, Fra Angelico, 2nd ed., London and New York, 1974: 211-212). The predellas of these two works have been confused in the literature (see note 4), but the one formerly completing the Annalena altarpiece cannot be related to the San Marco high altar because of the smaller size of the single scenes. It is now generally thought to be the work of an assistant, who has been identified as Zanobi Strozzi; see Licia Ragghianti Collobi, "Zanobi Strozzi Pittore," Part I: CdA 22 (1950): 463-464.The San Marco altarpiece was probably removed for a restoration of the church that was to take place in 1678-1679. On the restoration, see Giuseppe Richa, Notizie istoriche delle chiese fiorentine, 10 vols., Florence, 1754-1762: 7(1758): 136. Already Giovanni Cinelli in his edition of Francesco Bocchi, Le bellezze della città di Firenze, Florence (1591), 1677: 16, reported that the old altarpiece had been moved to the Convent.[2] This location is indicated for the first time by Richa, Notizie istoriche, vol. 7 (1758): 143, and then by others up to Vincenzo Follini and Marco Rastrelli, Firenze antica e moderna illustrate, 8 vols., Florence, 1789-1802: 3(1791): 225; however, none mentions the predella. The old altarpiece was probably transferred to the passageway immediately after it was removed from the church, and it might have remained there until the suppression of the Dominican order in 1810.[3] Father Vincenzo Marchese, in his Memorie dei più insigni Pittori, Scultori e Architetti Domenicani, 2nd ed., 2 vols., Florence, 1854: 1:249, reports that "innanzi l'abolizione dei Conventi in Firenze erano nella Farmacia di San Marco sette tavolette dell'angelico rappresentanti...il martirio de'Santi Cosma e Damiano, e un'altra con la Deposizione di Croce dello stesso pittore" ("before the abolition of the Convents in Florence there were in the Pharmacy of San Marco seven panels by Angelico representing...the martyrdom of Saints Cosimo and Damian, and another with the Deposition from the Cross by the same painter"). It could be that among the "bellissimi quadri" ("beautiful pictures") that Cambiagi Gaetano (L'Antiquario fiorentino o sia guida per osservar con metodo le cose notabili della città di Firenze, Florence, 1765: 38) said could be seen in the Spezieria, there were also elements of the predella, already separated from the main altarpiece and divided into individual panels. The transfer of the panels into the Spezieria is recorded also by a label glued to the back of the Deposition in the Alte Pinakothek in Munich (WAF 38a) which reads: "Copia. Il quadro di Fra Angelico che si trova presso lo Speziale di St. M.co"; see Briefwechsel zwischen Ludwig I von Bayern und Georg von Dillis, 1807-1841, ed. by R. Messerer, Munich, 1966: 356.[4] Neither the panel now in Washington nor its companions were ever in the Saint Luke chapel in Santissima Annunziata, where in the early nineteenth century there were six panels with stories of the same saints; these, belonging to the Annalena altarpiece, entered the Gallereia dell'Accademia in Florence in 1854 (Galerie des petits tableaux, no. 22; see Description des objets d'Art de la Royal Académie des Beaux-Arts de Florence, 12th ed., Florence, 1854: 29) and were subsequently transferred to the Museo di San Marco. The author of the Descrizione dell'Ie e R.e Accademia delle Belle Arti di Firenze , Florence, 1817: 22 n. 1; Maselli and Montani, 1832-1838, 307, n. 15; and other writers erroneously thought that six Cosmas and Damian panels then in Santissima Annunziata had originally belonged to the high altar of San Marco.The series that concerns us here probably stayed in the Spezieria of San Marco only a short time. Already in 1813 the Deposition now in Munich was sold by a group of persons who seem to have owned it jointly ("Das Bild von Fra Angelico... welches 14 Patronen hat.." ("the picture by Angelico, the property of fourteen persons"), as Georg von Dillis explained to the purchaser, Prince Ludwig of Bavaria; see Briefwechsel..., ed. Messerer, 1966: 356). The above-mentioned Descrizione... (1817: 22, 24) reports that in the Galleria di Quadri Piccoli of the Accademia delle Belle Arti there were three "istorie di cinque Martiri" ("histories of five martyrs"), while the second edition of the same work (1827: 28) mentions only two, as do all the subsequent editions of the catalogue. These are The Healing of the Deacon Justinian by Cosmas and Damian and The Burial of the Two Saints and Their Three Younger Brothers, now part of the collection of the Museo di San Marco. The third panel can probably be identified as The Beheading of the Saints (Louvre, RF 340); on its back is a label dated 10 October 1817, according to which the work was transferred to the Accademia from San Marco and then given in exchange to a Prof. Nicola Tacchinardi (see Thomas Bodkin, "A Fra Angelico Predella," The Burlington Magazine 58 [1931]: 188, 194). As for the remaining five panels, we have no record of their transfer to the Accademia, and like the Deposition, they apparently came onto the Florentine art market directly from the Spezieria of San Marco. Marchese (1854: 249) states that this was the provenance of the four panels in the Alte Pinakothek in Munich (WAF 36-38 and WAF 38a) and identifies them as "quattro quadretti dell'Angelico, rappresentanti storie del martirio dei santi Cosma e Damniano, ch'erano a San Marco...in Germania" ("four little paintings by Angelico, representing stories of the martyrdom of Saints Cosimo and Damiano, which were in San Marco [and now are] in Germany"), which were apparently restored in Florence in 1817 by Luigi Scotti. Of the paintings in the series now in Munich, The Saints before Lycias, Lycias Possessed by Devils, and The Saints Crucified reached their current destination only in 1827, and thus ten years earlier could still have been in Florence; see C. Syre, "Wirken Sie was Sie vermögen! Die Erwerbungen italienischer Gemälde in der Korrispondenz mit den Kunstagenten," 'Ihm, welcher der Andacht Tempel baut.' Festschrift zum Jubilaümsjahr 1986, Munich, 1986: 49. The fourth painting restored by Scotti in 1817 must therefore have been a different one from the Deposition by Fra Angelico, which was already in Munich in 1813. It might perhaps be The Saints Saved from Fire now in the National Gallery in Dublin (no. 249), which in 1848 was still in Florence, in the collection of Francesco Lombardi and Ugo Baldi (see Giorgio Vasari, Le vite de' più eccellenti pittori, scultori e architetti, 14 vols., Florence, 1568, ed. Le Monnier, 1846-1879: 4[1848]: 28-29 note 4); but it could also be the Washington painting, which is mentioned for the first time in Paris, in the Pourtalès-Gorgier collection, only in 1841 (see Léon-Jean-Joseph Dubois, Description des tableaux faisant partie des collections de M. le Comte de Pourtalès-Gorgier, Paris, 1841: 3, no. 3, as by Masaccio).[5] A handwritten note with the name of the purchaser in the sale catalogue has been read as "de Zincourt" (Fern Rusk Shapley, Catalogue of the Italian Paintings, 2 vols., Washington, D.C., 1979: 1:9), although with a question mark. Ellis Waterhouse (written communication to the Gallery, 22 July 1980) suggests instead the reading "de Goncourt," referring, obviously, to the two Parisian novelists, critics, and collectors, who were great admirers of quattrocento painting.[6] Adolfo Venturi (Studi dal vero: Attraverso le raccolte artistiche d'Europa, Milan, 1927: 12) reports that the work used to belong to the art dealer Böhler, probably at the beginning of the 1920s; see also Fern Rusk Shapley, Paintings from the Samuel H. Kress Collection: Italian Schools, XV-XVI Century, London, 1966: 94. There does not appear to be a stock card for this painting among the Böhler Gallery records at the Getty Research Institute.[7] The painting has been hanging in the National Gallery since 1945, when it was still part of the Kress collection (see Paintings and Sculpture from the Kress Collection, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., 1945 (reprinted 1947, 1959): 32).
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.107208.htmlPrivate collection, Göppingen, Baden-Württemberg, since about 1900; (sale, Auktionshaus Dr. Fritz Nagel, Stuttgart, 6-7 December 1996, no. 7176, as German, First Third of the 16th Century); (Dr. Hinrich Sieveking, Munich); purchased 1999 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.101681.htmlPrivate collection; (Daniel Katz, London); sold to (Julius Böhler Gallery, Munich); purchased 6 June 1997 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.103793.htmlAnton Schmid, Vienna. (Galerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich); purchased 2000 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.123018.htmlProbably the Cistercian convent of Kirchheim, near Nordlingen. Princes zu Oettingen-Wallerstein, Schloss Wallerstein, since the early 19th century;[1] purchased 7 February 2002 through (Alexander Rudigier, Munich) by NGA.[1] The convent of Kirchheim was closely connected with the Oettingen-Wallersteins, who had a crypt there in the 14th century. In the wake of secularisation during Napoleon's reorganization of Germany, the princely house received seven convents, including Kirchheim, together with all their possessions in compensation for lost territory on the left bank of the Rhine. The then prince, Ludwig, was one of the very earliest collectors of medieval art, and he seized this opportunity to secure everything of artistic value from the convents which had been transferred to him. Some of his collection of paintings now forms part of the core of the Alte Pinakothek in Munich, and other parts of his painting collection are at Hampton Court in England. The Holy Kinship was intended by Prince Ludwig for the main altar of the chapel of Saint Anne at Schloss Wallerstein, and he commissioned the neo-Gothic retable from which it was separated at the end of the 20th century. (Information provided by Alexander Rudigier, in NGA curatorial files)
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.41601.html(Van Diemen Gallery, Berlin).[1] Acquired 1926 in Berlin by Karl Rössler, until 1947.[2] (Van Diemen-Lilienfeld Galleries, New York); sold 1950 Samuel H. Kress Foundation, New York; gift 1952 by exchange to NGA.[1] The catalogue of the Exposition d'Art flamand ancien (Antwerp, 1930), no. 53, gives the owner as Dr. Benedict; this refers to Curt Benedict who was with the Van Diemen Gallery, part of a group of galleries under the umbrella organization of the Margraf Concern. The initial ownership of the painting by the Van Diemen-Margraf Gallery is verified in a letter of 27 January 1951 from Karl Lilienfeld to the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, in NGA curatorial files.[2] This picture was acquired from Rössler in 1940 by the dealer Walter Paech in Amsterdam. Paech sold the painting to Hans Posse, for Hitler's planned museum in Linz. (See Linz inventory no. 1368, as by Brueghel, National Archives RG260/Boxes 428, 430, copies NGA curatorial files). The records of the Munich Central Collecting Point indicate that the painting was recovered at Alt Aussee and restituted to the Netherlands on 4 March 1946 (See Munich property card #4347/2996, National Archives RG260/Munich Central Collecting Point/Box 501 and Dutch Receipt for Cultural Property no. 8A, dated 7 March 1946, National Archives RG260/Munich Central Collecting Point/Box 288, both copies NGA curatorial files.) The painting was restituted to Rössler on 23 May 1947 (see documentation provided by the Dutch Inspectie Culuurbezit in letter dated 5 February 2002, in NGA curatorial files.)
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.39795.htmlEugene Schweitzer [1845-1918]; (sale, Berlin, Kunstsalon Paul Cassirer, Berlin, and Hugo Helbing, Munich, 6 June 1918, lot 60).
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.43727.htmlFriedrich Augustus I, King of Poland and Elector of Saxony;[1] presented 1826 to Baron Wittinghoff [Vietinghoff], Adjutant General, Dresden; Camillo Castiglioni, Vienna, 1923; (his sale, Frederik Muller & Co., Amsterdam, 18 November 1925, no. 10). (Jacob Hirsch Antiquities, New York); sold 1944 to the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, New York; gift 1957 to National Gallery of Art.[1] The first known reference to ownership by Friedrich Augustus I and an 1826 presentation to Wittinghoff is in the Jacob Hirsch sale receipt to the Kress Foundation, dated 24 April 1944, copy in NGA curatorial files; that receipt also declares that “According to tradition in the Baron Wittinghoff family” the sculpture was acquired in Siena around 1740 by Guarienti on behalf of Augustus I. The 1925 Castiglioni sale catalogue simply cites “Freiherr von Vittinghof [Vietinghoff], Dresden” as the former owner. An alternate early provenance is suggested by Dorothea Diemer, who proposed that the Washington group might be identical with a version listed as no. 2433 (2393) in the inventory of the Münchner Kunstkammer in 1598: “Ein alte Lupa Romana den Romulum und Remum saugent, auf einem hochen Posament in metal gossen.” (See Dorothea Diemer, Peter Diemer, Lorenz Seelig, Peter Volk, Brigitte Volk-Knüttel et al., eds., Die Münchner Kunstkammer. Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, philosophisch-historische Klasse, Abhandlungen, NF, Heft 129, 3 vols., Munich, 2008: 2:723).
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.46198.htmlReportedly from the chapel of the Château de Sassangy, Saône-et-Loire. Reportedly Dr. Simon Meller, former curator of sculpture, Szépmüvészeti Múzeum [Museum of Fine Arts], Budapest, possibly in his Munich house before 1934, or at an unknown date in Paris;[1] Dr. Jacob Hirsch, New York, by 1935; (Jacques Seligmann et Cie, New York);[2] purchased 1957 by the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, New York; gift 1961 to NGA.[1] The references to the sculpture's provenance from the chapel of the Château de Sassangy and Simon Meller's Paris collection are in an undated text presumably provided either by Seligmann or the Kress Foundation, in NGA curatorial files. On the Château de Sassangy, its owners and construction phases since the fifteenth century, see Françoise Vignier, Bourgogne, Nivernais (Dictionnaire des château de France, ed. Yvan Christ, vol. 9) (Paris, 1980), 285. In the nineteenth century the château belonged to the La Roche La Carelle family, at least one of whose members was reputedly a great collector of works of art. No inventories or sale records for their collection are known to survive. This information was supplied by the Service Régional de l'Inventaire Général des Monuments et des Richesses Artistiques de la France en Bourgogne, letter to Alison Luchs, 18 December 1986, in NGA curatorial files. The reference to Meller's Munich house is inscribed on a photograph in the possession of William Forsyth, curator emeritus of medieval art, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, bearing a date 1935 and inscribed "New York, Hirsch Collection." In a letter to Alison Luchs, 14 February 1986, Prof. Willibald Sauerländer of the Zentralinstitut für Kunstgeschichte, Munich, reported that Meller had come to Munich after 1920 and emigrated in 1934, and that Professor Theodor Müller, who had visited his home there, did not recall seeing the marble Madonna there or elsewhere in Munich. Anthony Geber has pointed out that a limestone Virgin and Child with a jewel-encrusted crown, strikingly similar to the marble example now in Washington, once belonged to Meller. Conceivably the source that placed the Washington sculpture in Meller's house had confused the two. For the limestone Virgin and Child see Régi Egyházmüvészet Országos Kiállítása [Ausstellung Alter Kirchlicher Kunst], exh. cat., Országos Magyar Iparmüvészeti Muzeum, (Budapest, 1930), no. 5, pl. 2. This work at the time belonged to Baron Móric Kornfeld. Notes of c. 1952-1962 by Anthony Geber's father (typescript copy in NGA curatorial files), Antal Geber, on the Kornfeld collection indicate this sculpture was "from Meller, but returned."[2] Raphael Stora was also "involved in the sale" to Seligmann (letter, Perry Cott to Mme Georges Bouchot Saupique, 9 October 1964, in NGA curatorial files).
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139136.html(sale, Christie's, London, 4 July 1995, no. 374, as attributed to Lorenzo de Ferrari). David Lachenmann, Munich; Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased by NGA, 2007.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139319.htmlUnknown private collector (the so-called "double-numbering collector"). P. O. Dubaut, Paris (1886 - unknown). (Hans Calmann [1899-1982], London); Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139316.htmlNicolo Sagredo [1606-1676], Venice; Zaccaria Sagredo [1653-1729], Venice, the so-called "Sagredo-Borghese Album"(1); Jacques Petithory [1929-1992) (not in Lugt), Paris; Wolfgang Ratjen [1943-1997], Vaduz and Munich; purchased by NGA, 2007.(1) See Palais des Congrès, Catalogue de l'exposition de dessins italiens du XVe au XVIIIe s. de la collection H. de Marignane, Monte Carlo, 1966.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139300.htmlHerbert List, Munich [1903-1975] (Lugt 4063); Ursula and Adolf Ratjen, Vaduz, for Wolfgang Ratjen; Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139292.htmlfrom an album belonging to Veuve Galippe (sale, de Vries, Amsterdam, 27-29 March 1923, lot 515, as Anton Raphael Mengs); Fritz Haussmann, Berlin; Carmen, Countess Finckenstein, Zurich and Ascona. Herbert List, Munich (not in Lugt); Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139134.html(sale, Phillips, London, 7 July 1993, no. 111). Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.111835.htmlGerman private collection, near Munich, by 19th century - until 1994; (Galerie Siegfried Billisberger, Munich, 1994); purchased 2000 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.111834.htmlGerman private collection, near Munich, by 19th century - until 1994; (Galerie Siegfried Billisberger, Munich, 1994); purchased 2000 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.80924.htmlCommissioned by Friedrick Augustus III, king of Poland and elector of Saxony [1696-1763];[1] Henry Temple, 2nd viscount Palmerston [1739-1802], London; Henry John Temple, 3rd viscount Palmerston [1784-1865], London;[2] who gave it, perhaps to pay a debt, to William Lygon, 1st earl Beauchamp [1747-1816], Madresfield Court, Worcestershire;[3] by inheritance to Else, Countess Beauchamp [1895-1989];[4] (sale, Sotheby's, London, 11 December 1991, no. 18); (Bernheimer Fine Arts Ltd., London and Munich, and Meissner Fine Art Ltd., Zurich and London); sold 3 June 1993 to NGA.[1] Five views of Königstein were commissioned, executed on canvases of the same size and format, and intended to complete the earlier views of Dresden and Pirna painted for the king and placed in the Stallgebäude, the wing of the royal palace that housed the paintings collection after about 1731. The commission was interrupted, however, by the hostilities of the Seven Years' War, and the paintings were never delivered to the royal collection. Efforts to establish the early history of the views have not been successful. The paintings might have been seized by the Prussians during the seige of Dresden, Pirna, and Königstein. Alternatively, following the disarray of the Saxon court and the depletion of its treasury, Bellotto might have retained the canvases and sold them privately. Two of the paintings came to light twenty years later in England, in a sale at Christie's, London, 7 March 1778, lots 79 and 80, described as "Canaletto. A View of the fortress of Koningstein [sic] in Saxony, painted for the King of Poland. A ditto, its companion" (sale catalogue, Sotheby's London, Old Master Paintings, 11 December 1991: 36). They passed to the collection of the marquess of Londonderry, Wynyard Park, Durham, and were acquired by the City Art Gallery, Manchester, in 1983 (Byam Shaw, James, "Two Views of the Castle of Königstein by Bernardo Bellotto," National Art Collections Fund Review [1984]: 139-140). The other two exterior views of the fortress of Königstein, now (1993) in the collection of the earl of Derby, Knowsley Hall, were published in various nineteenth-century catalogues at Knowsley, without any indication of earlier provenance. However, a loose note, written by the 13th earl of Derby and inserted into an 1846 Catalogue of pictures at Knowsley records: "Königstein Castle 2 Canaletti (Palmerston) 200 Pounds" (Sotheby's 1991 sale catalogue, 36). Since the National Gallery's painting and the Knowsley paintings were once identically framed, it is reasonable to believe that the 2d lord Palmerston had owned at least three of the Königstein views. Thus he may have been responsible for bringing them to England in the later eighteenth century.[2] The earliest reference to the National Gallery's painting occurs at the end of the eighteenth century when it belonged to Henry Temple, 2d viscount Palmerston (Scharf, George, A Descriptive and Historical Catalogue of the Collection of Pictures at Knowsley Hall, London, 1875: 10). The painting hung in Lord Palmerston's London House in Hanover Square. He acquired the property in 1790, but alterations were still being made in 1796, when he moved in, so it is unlikely that the painting was there before that date (Connell, Brian, Portrait of a Whig Peer. Compiled from the Papers of the Second Viscount Palmerston 1739-1802, London, 1957: 208-209, 259-260, 346). The painting is listed in an undated inventory (paper watermarked 1796), "Catalogue of Pictures belonging to Lord Palmerston in Hanover Square," in the Dressing Room and described as a "View of Keenigsteen: Cannaletti" and valued at 250 pounds. The painting is recorded after Lord Palmerston's death in an undated manuscript (paper watermarked 1804) of "Pictures in Stanhope Street and Hanover Square" as "Cannaletti Koningstein 105 pounds" (Sotheby's 1991 sale catalogue, 37, citing Broadlands Papers, Southampton University Library Archives and Manuscripts, BR 126/11 and BR 126/15).[3] This family tradition is recounted in Sotheby's 1991 sale catalogue, 37. George Scharf mentions the painting as in the Beauchamp collection in his 1875 publication describing the Derby collection, A Descriptive and Historical Catalogue of the Pictures at Knowsley Hall, p. 10, under no. 17.[4] Presumed to be the following owners: the first Earl's son, William Beauchamp, 2nd Earl Beauchamp (1782-1823); his brother, John Reginald, 3rd Earl Beauchamp (1783-1853); his brother, Henry Beauchamp, 4th Earl Beauchamp (1784-1863); his son, Henry, 5th Earl Beauchamp (1829-1866); his brother, Frederick, 6th Earl Beauchamp (1830-1891); his son, William, 7th Earl Beauchamp (1872-1938); his son, William, 8th Earl Beauchamp (1903-1979); his wife, Else, Countess Beauchamp (1895-1989).
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.46163.htmlPrivate collection, Saxony.[1] Possibly (Sabin, London); sold 1928 to (Karl Haberstock, Berlin), possibly until 1936.[2] Acquired during World War II by Dr. Gustav Mez, Switzerland;[3] (Rosenberg and Stiebel, New York); purchased 1951 by the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, New York; gift 1961 to NGA.[1] A photograph of the painting in the Witt Library, London, is inscribed on the reverse with the information that the painting was once in the collection of Augustus III, elector of Saxony.[2] Karl Haberstock appears to have handled two Bellotto views of Munich: the Gallery version and one which was sold to the Sonderauftrag Linz, processed through the Munich Central Collecting Point (no. 7573) in 1945, transferred in 1949 to the German government, and sent to the Auswärtig Amt in 1962 (see photocopies from the Bundesarchiv, Koblenz, in NGA curatorial files). One of the Bellottos was acquired by Haberstock from Sabin in London in 1928 (see photocopies from Haberstock-archiv in NGA curatorial files), and at least one was still in his possession as of 1936, per Hellmuth Allwill Fritzsche, Bernardo Bellotto, genannt Canaletto, Burg-bei-Magdeburg, 1936: 116.[3] According to Saemy Rosenberg (letter of 7 December 1955 in NGA curatorial files), the painting was acquired by Mez from a Dresden collection during World War II. It is, however, possible that both this painting and its companion (NGA 1961.9.63) were acquired by Gustav Mez in 1929, when the third painting of the group (replicas of the originals in the electoral palace painted for Elector Maximilian III Joseph) was sold.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.125520.htmlAnonymous sale; (sale, Sotheby's Amsterdam, 14 November 1988, no. 137). (sale, Christie's London, 9 July 2002, no. 31); (Katrin Bellinger, Munich); purchased 2002 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.130607.htmlDr. C. Gaa, Mannheim (1871 - c. 1925) (Lugt 538a)(his sale, C. G. Boerner, Leipzig, 9-10 May 1930, no. 30). (Galerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich); purchased 2004 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139218.htmlHeinrich Wallraff (1858-1930), Nuremberg. (sale, Helmut Tenner, Heidelberg 6-8 May 1976, no. 5127). Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.320.html(Walter Schnackenberg, Munich), by April 1925.[1] (F. Kleinberger, Paris and New York), by 1927.[2] Private collection, New York.[3] (Count Alessandro Contini-Bonacossi, Florence), by 1929;[4] sold 26 June 1935 to the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, New York;[5] gift 1939 to NGA.[1] According to a hand-written notes by Bernard Berenson on the back of a photograph of the painting in the I Tatti archive in Florence (copy in NGA curatorial files).[2] Kleinberger lent the painting to a 1927 exhibition at The Lotos Club.[3] Raimond Van Marle, The Development of the Italian Schools of Painting, The Hague, 1931: 13:180, fig. 119, relates that he saw the painting "in a private collection in New York," but does not specify when.[4] An opinion written by Roberto Longhi and dated October 1929 was addressed to Contini-Bonacossi (copy and translation in NGA curatorial files).[5] The bill of sale was for seven paintings and a number of decorative art objects; NGA 1939.1.179 was identified as "Florentine about 1475" (copy in NGA curatorial files).
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139315.htmlFrancesco Dubini, Milan (Lugt 987a). (sale, Sotheby's London, 7 December 1976, no. 55); Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139108.html(sale, Hollstein & Puppel, Berlin, 27-28 February 1933, no. 688; ill.). Alice Hanile, née Bloem, Wistinghausen; Angelika von Lüttichau-Haniel, Bad Godesberg. Acquired 1979 by Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139202.htmlBlechen's studio stamp (Lugt 263b). H. Wilhelm F. Brose, Berlin (Lugt 307c); (his sale, Hollstein & Puppel, Berlin, 8 November 1928, no. 36). Carl Heumann, Chemnitz [1886-1945] (Lugt 555b and 2841a); Stuttgarter Kunstkabinett. (Roman Norbert Ketterer, 29 November 1957, no. 18). Richard Tüngel, Ahrensburg; Beatrice Tüngel-Disclez, Niederweiler; sold 1972 to Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.71099.html(Galerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich); acquired 1989 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.129262.htmlDidier Aaron, Paris; (Daxer & Marschall, Munich); purchased 2004 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.75766.htmlChevalier de Damery, Paris [d. 1803] (Lugt 2862); (sale Paris, May 14, 1906, no. 10); Baron Nathaniel Mayer von Rothschild [1836-1905], Vienna; by inheritance to his nephew, Baron Alphons de Rothschild [1878-1942];[1] his widow Baroness Clarice de Rothschild [1894-1967]. Arthur Liebman [d. 1991], Lake Forest, IL; bequest 1992, to NGA[1] This drawing was among the Rothschild collections confiscated by the Nazis in Austria in 1938 and stored at the monastery in Kremsmünster, from where it was later evacuated to the salt mine at Alt Aussee. It was discovered there and in July 1945 sent to the Munich Central Collecting Point (Munich Central Collecting Point Property Card no. 4804, US National Archives, copy NGA curatorial files). On 15 December 1945 it was returned Kremsmünster and placed under the control of the Landeskonservator of Land Oberoesterreich. It was restituted to the Rothschild family on 4 October 1947 (AR 711, export license Zl 5905/47 dated 3 October 1947, Bundesdenkmalamt, Vienna, copies in NGA curatorial files).
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.52157.htmlLevy de Benzion, Paris.[1] (sale, Hôtel Drouot, Paris, 29 November 1949, no. 80). E. Slater; sold 1950 to (Alex Reid and Lefevre, Glasgow and London); sold 1951 to Capt. Edward H. Molyneux [1891-1974], Paris;[2] sold 15 August 1955 to Ailsa Mellon Bruce [1901-1969], New York; bequest 1970 to NGA.[1] This painting was confiscated by the Nazi Einsatzstab Reichsleiter Rosenberg (ERR) from the Levy de Benzion collection in France. The painting was selected by Hermann Goering on 25 November 1942 from the Jeu de Paume (OSS Consolidated Interrogation Report #2, The Goering Collection, 15 September 1945, Attachment 5, Liste der für die Sammlung des Reichsmarschalls Hermann Göring abgegebenen Kunstgegenstände, dated 20 October 1942, 1. Nachtrag, no. 67, National Archives RG239/Entry 73/Box 78, copy in NGA curatorial files). The records of the Munich Central Collecting Point indicate that the painting was recovered in Berchtesgaden and restituted to France on 18 April 1946 (Munich property card no. 5914; French Receipt for Cultural Objects no. 6A, item no. 950, National Archives RG260/Ardelia Hall/Box 286 copies NGA curatorial files). The painting was returned to the Levy de Benzion family on 10 May 1946.[2] See letter from Alex Reid & Lefèvre, dated 18 August 1977, in NGA curatorial files.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.56210.htmlJulius Böhler, Munich; purchased 1976 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.12118.htmlMonastery of San Cerbone, near Lucca, by 1706 until no later than 1845;[1] possibly Carlo Lasinio [1759–1838] or his son, Giovanni Paolo Lasinio [c. 1796-1855], Pisa; probably Monsignor Gabriele Laureani [d. 1849], Rome;[2] Giulio Sterbini [d. 1911], Rome, by 1905; (Pasini, Rome).[3] (Godfroy [sometimes spelled Godefroy] Brauer, Paris and Nice), by 1921;[4] his estate; (sale, Christie, Manson & Woods, London, 5 July 1929, no. 29); half shares purchased by (Kunsthandel A.G., Lucerne) and (antique dealer, Amsterdam); sold 18 October 1932 to (Julius Böhler, Munich);[5] sold 4 September 1937 to (Duveen Brothers, Inc., London, New York, and Paris);[6] sold 1940 to the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, New York; gift 1943 to NGA.[1] The church of San Cerbone near Lucca is mentioned for the first time in a document of 1059. Another document, of 1140, also records the Benedictine monastery annexed to the church. In 1234 the community of nuns assumed the Cistercian rule. They abandoned the monastery in 1442, when a community of Franciscan Observants was established in its place. See Enrico Lombardi, San Cerbone nella leggenda, nel culto e nell’arte, Massa Marittima, n.d. [c. 1970-1975]: 34-35. Antonio da Brandeglio (Vita di S. Cerbone Vescovo di Populonia e confessore, Lucca, 1706: 214-218) described the painting as extant in the chapel of the Madonna. Michele Ridolfi (“Sopra i tre più antichi dipintori lucchesi dei quali si conoscono le opere: cenni storici e critici,” Atti dell'Accademia lucchese di scienze, lettere ed arti 13 [1845]: 349-393) does not find the NGA painting; it was probably dispersed after the 1806 Napleonic suppression of religious orders.[2] David Farabulini (La pittura antica e moderna e la Galleria del cav. Giulio Sterbini, Rome, 1874), who does not cite the painting now in Washington, states that the central nucleus of the Sterbini collection was formed of paintings collected by Monsignor Gabriele Laureani, custodian of the Biblioteca Vaticana from 1838 to 1849. Laureani is known for having acquired a large number of “primitives” for what is now the Pinacoteca Vaticana. Probably this prelate also collected paintings for himself and, following his death, his collection passed into that of Sterbini. It is also known that Laureani purchased Tuscan paintings of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries from Carlo Lasinio, keeper/curator of the Camposanto in Pisa from 1807, whose collection was swollen in large part by paintings amassed at the time of the suppression of the convents in the early nineteenth century. It seems plausible to assume, therefore, that the panel now in the National Gallery of Art reached Rome through the intermediary of Carlo Lasinio (who in addition to being an engraver, is known to have been an art dealer as well as a collector) or his son Giovanni Paolo Lasinio (see Christopher Lloyd, “A note on Carlo Lasinio and Giovanni Paolo Lasinio,” The Bodleian Library Record 10 [1978-1982]: 51-57; Donata Levi, "Carlo Lasinio, curator, collector and dealer," The Burlington Magazine 135 [1993]: 133-148). For the paintings in the Biblioteca Vaticana with a provenance from the collection of Lasinio or his son through that of Laureani, see Wolfgang Fritz Volbach, Catalogo della Pinacoteca Vaticana. Vol. 2. Il Trecento. Firenze e Siena, Vatican City, 1987: 23, 24, 40; Francesco Rossi, Catalogo della Pinacoteca Vaticana. Vol. 3. Il Trecento. Umbria, Marche, Italia del Nord, Vatican City, 1994: 139, 142.[3] Adolfo Venturi (“La quadreria Sterbini,” L’Arte 8 (1905): 422-440; La Galleria Sterbini in Roma, Rome, 1906: no. 6) first mentions the panel, together with two companion pieces now in the collection of the Pinacoteca Capitolina in Rome, as belonging to the Sterbini collection, but it had probably been there for several decades by then. After the collector’s death, at least part of the works formerly belonging to him passed to the Pasini collection in Rome (Raimond van Marle, The Development of the Italian Schools of Painting, 19 vols., The Hague, 1923-1938: 4[1924]:288, 378; 13[1931]:454 n. 1) and, possibly, to other collectors as well. Federico Zeri wrote to Robert O. Parks that Pasini was the dealer who sold the entire Sterbini collection; Parks in turn passed this information on to John Walker (letter, Parks to Walker, 27 December 1949, in NGA curatorial files). [4] The painting was in Brauer’s collection at least by 20 May 1921, when the Paris office of Duveen Brothers describes it in a letter to their New York office: “A picture of ‘Saint Catherine,’ about 18 inches by 14, which he attributes to Ambrogio Lorenzetti.” The dimensions are more accurate in their description two years later (31 March 1923): “1 picture ‘St-Catherine of Alexandria.’ Pointed top. Gold background. Red cloak. Large gold plaque on breast. School of LORENZETTI. About 28 inches high.” Brauer died in December 1923, and Duveen Brothers remained in contact with his widow, Lina Haas Brauer (1868-1936), although they made no purchases from her. Duveen Brothers Records, accession number 960015, Research Library, Getty Research Institute, Los Angeles: reel 82, box 227, folders 26–28, and reel 115, box 260, folder 24 (copies in NGA curatorial files).[5] Newspaper coverage of the 1929 sale, as well as an annotated copy of the sale catalogue (copies in NGA curatorial files), record Böhler as purchaser of the painting. Inventory card no. 164-32, in the Records of Julius Böhler Munich, Research Library, Getty Research Institute, Los Angeles (copy in NGA curatorial files), documents instead the 1932 purchase by Böhler and the half shares owned by the other dealers. The Lucerne and Munich firms, however, were intimately connected, as the Lucerne firm had been founded in 1920 by a son of the founder of the Munich firm.In 1930, Emilio Cecchi (Pietro Lorenzetti, Milan, 1930: 7) stated that the panel of Saint Catherine “è ora passata alla raccolta Ringling in Monaco.” Fern Rusk Shapley (Catalogue of the Italian Paintings, 2 vols., Washington, D.C., 1979: 1:271), as well as the prospectus assembled by Duveen Brothers (in NGA curatorial files), also speak of an otherwise unspecified Ringling collection in Munich. However, in view of the fact that the painting had been publicized as having been purchased by Böhler’s in Munich, the possible new owner was presumably the circus tycoon John Ringling (1866-1936), who is known to have used Böhler’s services in building up his art collection (now the Ringling Museum) in Sarasota, Florida, since the late 1920s. By 1930-1931, however, Ringling’s collecting had come to a rather abrupt halt as a consequence of the economic crisis (Peter Tomory, Catalogue of the Italian Paintings before 1800. The John Ringling Museum of Art, Sarasota, 1976: ix–xiii). Possibly for this reason the painting never in fact joined the rest of the Ringling collection. Instead, it must have remained in Europe, and Andrea Péter (“Ugolino Lorenzetti e il Maestro d'Ovile,” Rivista d'Arte 13 (1931): 2-44) also cites it as being with Böhler’s, whereas its two companion pieces were still in a private collection, presumably one of Sterbini’s heirs. It is noted in the 1929 newspaper coverage that Ringling was a purchaser at the sale, and perhaps because of this his name was linked with the painting by mistake.[6] See the Böhler inventory card cited in note 5. The card also notes that the painting was first sold to Carl Hamilton in May 1937, but was then returned. Hamilton (1886-1967) was a client of Duveen Brothers; the dealer had offered him a large collection of Italian paintings on approval by 1920, but Hamilton did not purchase them and returned the paintings to Duveen the following year. .
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.46085.htmlPossibly Bartolomeo Cavaceppi [c. 1716-1799], Rome.[1] Outside wall of a house on the Lungarno delle Grazie, Florence; acquired from there by Baron Reinhold von Liphart, Dorpat and Munich-Grafeling, by 1891;[2] on consignment from September 1947 with (Paul Drey, New York);[3] sold 1948 to the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, New York; gift 1961 to NGA.[1] Johann Joachim Winckelmann, History of Ancient Art, translated by Alexander Gode, New York, 1969[1764]: 258.[2] The sculpture had been discovered in Florence by Liphart's grandfather, Karl Eduard von Liphart (1808-1891), and the grandson's acquisition of the sculpture is described by Wilhelm von Bode, "Eine Marmorkopie Michelangelos nach dem antiken Cameo mit Apollo und Marsyas," Jahrbuch des preussischen Kunstsammlungen 12 (1891): 167. Liphart is also listed as the owner in Amtliche Berichte aus den Königlichen Kunst Sammlungen, 1 July 1891: IV, no. 3, and he is cited as the lender of the sculpture in the catalogue of a 1935 exhibition at the Drey galleries in New York.[3] A statement by Drey in the dealer's prospectus for the sculpture (in NGA curatorial files) states that it had been "continuously" in his custody from the time it was shipped to New York in 1935 for exhibition, but that the "official permit for sale" was granted in September 1947. Charles de Tolnay's 1943 book, The Youth of Michelangelo (vol. 1 of 5, Princeton, pp. 233-234), lists the sculpture as with a New York dealer at that time, but a note in Drey's prospectus specifically refutes this fact, indicating the sculpture belonged to von Liphart.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.45888.htmlA church in Bruges.[1] Imbert de Mottelettes, Bruges, by 1831.[2] Jonkheer de Potter-Soenens, Ghent, by 1839.[3] Countess de Oudemard.[4] (Wildenstein and Co., New York), 1946-1949; purchased June 1949 by the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, New York;[5] gift 1959 by exchange to NGA.[1] According to J.D. Passavant, Kunstreise durch England und Belgien (Frankfurt-am-Main, 1833), 349.[2] Passavant saw the picture on his journey through England and Belgium in 1831.[3] F.A. Spyers, "Beschryving van twee merkwaerdige Schilderyen uit de School der Gebroeders Van Eyck," Belgisch Museum voor der Nederduitsche Tael- en Letterkunde en de Geschiedenis des Vaderlands (Ghent, 1839), 188. Shortly after entering the De Potter-Soenens collection, the picture was cleaned and disfiguring overpaint, which had caused Passavant to consider it a pre-Eyckian tempera painting, was removed; see J.D. Passavant, "Beiträge zur Kenntniss der altniederländischen Malerschulen bis zur Mitte des sechzehnten Jahrhunderts," Kunst-Blatt 55 (1843), 230, and Georg Kasper Nagler, Die Monogrammisten, 5 vols. (Munich and Leipzig, 1858), I: I, no. 1. The first of these references was offered by Lorne Campbell.[4] According to William E. Suida, Paintings and Sculpture from the Kress Collection Acquired by the Samuel H. Kress Foundation 1945-1951, Washington, D.C., 1951: 168, no. 74.[5] The Wildenstein invoice to the Kress Foundation for 16 items, including this painting, is dated 23 June 1949 (copy in NGA curatorial files). The painting is described as "Madonna and Child with saints" by Master of Flemalle.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139341.htmlLodovico Furnletto, Venice; Sir Richard Colt Hoare [1758-1838], Stourhead, Wiltshire; by decent to Henry Ainslie Hoare, Stourhead; (sale, Christie's London, 2 June 1883, no. 32); Rothschild Family, Mentmore; Eva, Countess of Rosebury; (sale, Sotheby's London, 11 December 1974, no. 10); P. & D. Colnaghi & Co. Gallery, London; Robert H. and Clarice Smith, Bethesda, MD; (John and Paul Herring & Co., New York); Wolfgang Ratjen [1943-1997], Vaduz and Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139343.htmlauction Finarte Milan, 9-10 June 1976, 175; purchased by Giuseppe Patitucci Gallery, Venice; purchased by Joseph and Maria Matzker, Bensberg; Wolfgang Ratjen [1943-1997], Vaduz and Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139335.htmlStephan List, Munich. Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.66406.html(Ambroise Vollard [1867-1939], Paris); sold to (Etienne Bignou, Paris and New York).[1] (Dalzell Hatfield Galleries, Los Angeles). Aline Barnsdall [1882-1946], Los Angeles, by 1941.[2] Mr. and Mrs. Walter Bareiss, Greenwich, CT, by 1956, until at least 1965.[3] (Eugene Victor Thaw and Co., New York); sold April 1973 to Mr. Paul Mellon [1907-1999], Upperville, VA; gift 1985 to NGA.[1]Exhibited at the Bignou Gallery in New York in 1940. [3]Lent by Barnsdall to 1941 exhibition in Los Angeles, in the catalogue of which Hatfield is listed as a prior owner. The picture was not included in the 24 April 1952 sale of Barnsdall's estate held at Kende Galleries, New York. [3]Lent by Bareiss to exhibitions at Yale in 1956, New York in 1958, and Munich in 1965.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.41648.htmlPossibly (Wildenstein & Co., Paris, New York, and London);[1] David David-Weill [1871-1952], Neuilly-sur-Seine, France, by 1925;[2] purchased February/March 1937 with the David-Weill collection by (Wildenstein & Co., Paris, New York, and London);[3] sold 1946 to the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, New York; gift 1952 to NGA.[1] Eisler 1977: 314 indicates that David-Weill acquired the painting from Wildenstein, whose Paris office no longer has records to confirm this transaction (see letter from Ay-Whang Hsia to David Rust, 8 August 1978, in NGA curatorial files).[2] The painting appears in the background of a portrait of David-Weill painted by Edouard Vuillard in 1925, and was catalogued in the David-Weill collection by Georges Henriot in 1926.[3] "Sale of the David-Weill Collection." Art News 35 (27 February 1937), p. 12 and "David-Weill Pictures Come to New York." Art Digest 12 (1 November 1937), p. 13. David-Weill, head of Lazard Frère Bank and Chairman of the Conseil des Musées de France, had an extraordinary collection of art which was dispersed in several ways during the World War II era. Some of the collection was consigned to Wildenstein's in London, who in turn sent some of the paintings, including this Chardin, to their New York branch where they were exhibited in 1937. Despite complications of nationality during the war, David-Weill managed to ship a large part of the collection via Lisbon to New York. Unfortunately another portion of the collection, which had been safeguarded in Sourches by French museum administration officials, was confiscated by the Nazis in July 1941. Much of the collection was recovered and processed through the Munich Central Collecting Point after the War by the Allies.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.61219.html(Julius Böhler, Munich). (Hermann Schickman Gallery, New York), 1966. Christian Humann [1929-1981]; (his estate sale, Sotheby's, New York, 30 April 1982, no. 49). GIft 1982 to the National Gallery of Art.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139121.htmlWilhelm Engelmann [1808-1878], Leipzig. Margarete Stechow, Berlin. (sale, C.G. Boener, Leipzig, 10-13 December 1919, no. 13). (Claude Kuhn, Basel) in 1985. Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; acquired 2007 by the NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139342.htmlLouis Deglatigny, Rouen (1854 - 1936) (Lugt1768a). P. and N. de Boer, Amsterdam; De Boer Foundation, Amsterdam; (their sale, Christie's London, 4 July 1995, no. 25). Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.53126.htmlGift from the artist to Clément Laurier [1831-1878].[1] Private collection, Poitiers, France, by 1935.[2] (Paul Rosenberg et Cie., Paris), by 1937;[3] (Paul Rosenberg and Co., New York); sold June 1947 to Marie N. Harriman [1903-1970] and W. Averell Harriman [1891-1986], New York;[4] The W. Averell Harriman Foundation, New York; gift 1972 to NGA.[1] Letter from Robert Fernier to David Rust, dated 31 July 1972, in NGA curatorial files.[2] Lent to Gustave Courbet, Kunsthaus, Zurich, 1935, no. 44, from a private collection in Poitiers.[3] Exhibited at Paul Rosenberg Galleries in Paris in 1937. It was deposited with part of the Rosenberg collection at the Banque Nationale pour le Commerce et l'Industrie in Libourne, from which it was confiscated by the Nazi's ERR on 28 April 1941 (see Rosenberg claim file, National Archives RG260/OMGUS/Records of the Museum, Fine Arts and Archives Section/Cultural Property Claims Applications/ Box 743, copies in NGA curatorial files). Documents from the National Archives in Washington indicate that the painting had been selected by Hermann Goering on 14 September 1941 from the Jeu de Paume (OSS Consolidated Interrogation Report #2, The Goering Collection, 15 September 1945, Attachment 5, Liste der für die Sammlung des Reichsmarschalls Hermann Göring abgegebenen Kunstgegenstände, dated 20 October 1942, no. 52, National Archives RG239/Entry 73/Box 78, copy in NGA curatorial files). The records of the Munich Central Collecting Point indicate that the painting was recovered at Berchtesgaden and restituted to France on 29 January 1946 (Munich property card #5836/788; French Receipt for Cultural Objects no. IIIa, item no. 167, National Archives RG260/Box 503 and RG260/Box 287, copies in NGA curatorial files). The painting was returned to the Rosenbergs on 17 May 1946 (see correspondence dated 23 June 2000 from the French Ministere des Affaires Étrangeres in NGA curatorial files.)[4] See Harriman collection cards in NGA curatorial files.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139333.htmlJacques Petithory, Paris (not in Lugt). (sale, Nouveau Drouot, Paris, 1-2 March 1983, no. 42, as "attributed to Lodovico Carracci). Private collection, Zurich; Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.45886.htmlDr. Friedrich Campe [1777-1846], Nuremberg, by 1844.[1] Bernhard von Lindenau, Altenburg; by inheritance to his niece, Mrs. von Watzdorf-Bachoff, Altenburg.[2] (Paul Cassirer, Berlin, by 1921).[3] Private collection, possibly von der Heydt.[4] August and Serena Lederer, Vienna, possibly by 1923, but certainly before 1932;[5] Lederer family; sold by 1954 to (Rosenberg & Stiebel, Inc., New York); purchased January 1954 by the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, New York;[6] gift 1959 to NGA.[1] The 1995 NGA systematic catalogue entry on the painting stated that it was only possibly owned by Dr. Campe. Although Joseph Heller, Das Leben und die Werke Lucas Cranach's (Bamberg, 1844), 89, lists "Ein männliches und ein weibliches Brustbild, bezeichnet mit 1522 und der Schlange" as belonging to the art and book dealer Dr. Friedrich Campe of Nuremberg, the painting is not mentioned in other descriptions of the collection, such as Ritter C. Heideloff, Verzeichniss der Friedrich Campe'schen Sammlung von Oelgemälden und geschmeltzen Glasmalereien, (Nuremberg, 1847). However, correspondence from Dr. Dieter Gleisberg (letters of 27 July and 1 November 1999, in NGA curatorial files) does confirm Campe's ownership and provides his life dates.[2] H.-C. v.d. Gabelentz, Director, Staatliche Lindenau Museum, Altenburg, letter of 19 July 1968 to Dr. Ilse Franke, Munich, in curatorial files. As Gabelentz notes in his letter, Bernhard von Lindenau ordered all his papers destroyed after his death, so it is not possible to determine, for example, when he acquired the painting.[3] Karl Scheffler. "Kunstausstellungen." Kunst und Künstler 19 (1921), 298, cites the painting as being with Cassirer. Gabelentz, letter of 19 July 1968 cited above, says that Mrs. von Watzdorf-Bachoff sold the portrait to Cassirer.[4] Not verified. Gabelentz, letter of 19 July 1968, cited in note 2, states that the portrait was in the von der Heydt collection, but it has not been possible to locate it in any catalogues associated with the name von der Heydt.[5] Curt Glaser. Lukas Cranach. (Leipzig, 1923), 179, reproduces the portrait as being in a private collection, Vienna; this is not included in the 1921 edition. Scheffler 1921, 298, reports only that the portrait went from Cassirer into a private collection and so it is possible, although not verified, that Lederer owned it as early as 1921. Max J. Friedländer and Jakob Rosenberg. Die Gemälde von Lucas Cranach. (Berlin, 1932), 53-54, nos. 123-124 (Rev. ed. The Paintings of Lucas Cranach. Amsterdam, 1978, 99, nos. 145-146, repro.), are the first to mention Lederer as owner.This painting was confiscated by the Nazis in 1938 with others in the Lederer collection. It was discovered in the Alt Aussee salt mine after the war and restituted to the Austrian government in 1947. [Receipt for objects of Austrian origin, dated 14 July 1947, item no. 841, National Archives RG 260/USACA/Box 1, copy in NGA curatorial files.] According to a letter dated 10 April 1987 from Gerald G. Stiebel to John Hand, in NGA curatorial files, this and 1959.9.2 were acquired from the Lederer family by the firm of Rosenberg & Stiebel, who sold the paintings to the Kress Foundation in 1954.[6] Invoice of 29 January 1954 and letter of 30 January 1954 from Saemy Rosenberg to John Walker, in NGA curatorial files.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.45887.htmlDr. Friedrich Campe [1777-1846], Nuremberg, by 1844.[1] Bernhard von Lindenau, Altenburg; by inheritance to his niece, Mrs. von Watzdorf-Bachoff, Altenburg.[2] (Paul Cassirer, Berlin, by 1921).[3] Private collection, possibly von der Heydt.[4] August and Serena Lederer, Vienna, possibly by 1923, but certainly before 1932;[5] Lederer family; sold by 1954 to (Rosenberg & Stiebel, Inc., New York); purchased January 1954 by the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, New York;[6] gift 1959 to NGA.[1] The 1995 NGA systematic catalogue entry on the painting stated that it was only possibly owned by Dr. Campe. Although Joseph Heller, Das Leben und die Werke Lucas Cranach's (Bamberg, 1844), 89, lists "Ein männliches und ein weibliches Brustbild, bezeichnet mit 1522 und der Schlange" as belonging to the art and book dealer Dr. Friedrich Campe of Nuremberg, the painting is not mentioned in other descriptions of the collection, such as Ritter C. Heideloff, Verzeichniss der Friedrich Campe'schen Sammlung von Oelgemälden und geschmeltzen Glasmalereien, (Nuremberg, 1847). However, correspondence from Dr. Dieter Gleisberg (letters of 27 July and 1 November 1999, in NGA curatorial files) does confirm Campe's ownership and provides his life dates.[2] H.-C. v.d. Gabelentz, Director, Staatliche Lindenau Museum, Altenburg, letter of 19 July 1968 to Dr. Ilse Franke, Munich, in curatorial files. As Gabelentz notes in his letter, Bernhard von Lindenau ordered all his papers destroyed after his death, so it is not possible to determine, for example, when he acquired the painting.[3] Karl Scheffler. "Kunstausstellungen." Kunst und Künstler 19 (1921), 298, cites the painting as being with Cassirer. Gabelentz, letter of 19 July 1968 cited above, says that Mrs. von Watzdorf-Bachoff sold the portrait to Cassirer.[4] Not verified. Gabelentz, letter of 19 July 1968, cited in note 2, states that the portrait was in the von der Heydt collection, but it has not been possible to locate it in any catalogues associated with the name von der Heydt.[5] Curt Glaser. Lukas Cranach. (Leipzig, 1923), 179, reproduces the portrait as being in a private collection, Vienna; this is not included in the 1921 edition. Scheffler 1921, 298, reports only that the portrait went from Cassirer into a private collection and so it is possible, although not verified, that Lederer owned it as early as 1921. Max J. Friedländer and Jakob Rosenberg. Die Gemälde von Lucas Cranach. (Berlin, 1932), 53-54, nos. 123-124 (Rev. ed. The Paintings of Lucas Cranach. Amsterdam, 1978, 99, nos. 145-146, repro.), are the first to mention Lederer as owner.This painting was confiscated by the Nazis in 1938 with others in the Lederer collection. It was discovered in the Alt Aussee salt mine after the war and restituted to the Austrian government in 1947. [Receipt for objects of Austrian origin, dated 14 July 1947, item no. 841, National Archives RG 260/USACA/Box 1, copy in NGA curatorial files.] According to a letter dated 10 April 1987 from Gerald G. Stiebel to John Hand, in NGA curatorial files, this and 1959.9.2 were acquired from the Lederer family by the firm of Rosenberg & Stiebel, who sold the paintings to the Kress Foundation in 1954.[6] Invoice of 29 January 1954 and letter of 30 January 1954 from Saemy Rosenberg to John Walker, in NGA curatorial files.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.407.htmlEugen Miller von Aichholz [1835-1919], Vienna.[1] Camillo Castiglioni, Vienna, by 1924;[2] (his sale, Frederik Muller & Co., Amsterdam, 17-20 November 1925, no. 10); purchased by (P. & D. Colnaghi & Co., London and New York) for Mme E. ten Cate, Enschede, The Netherlands; purchased April 1930 by (Duveen Brothers, Inc., London and New York);[3] sold 1937 to the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, New York;[4] gift 1939 to NGA.[1] Collections Camillo Castiglioni de Vienne, 3 vols., Frederik Muller & Cie., Amsterdam, 1925: 1:3. According to a memorandum of 7 April 1949 (in NGA curatorial files), William Suida recalled that about 1910 von Aichholz told him he had bought this picture, perhaps around 1890, from a nobleman in a castle in the Romagna, Italy.[2] Castiglioni lent the painting to the 1924 exhibition in Vienna.[3] The negotiations for the painting were begun in February 1930, and are documented in a series of messages between Duveen Brothers' offices in New York, Paris, and London. The sale was concluded by 15 April 1930, when the Paris office cabled New York: "Concluded Crivelli...plus 10 percent for Venturi. Funds must be paid immediately...as are warned if payment delayed after holidays lady may change her mind." (Copies are in NGA curatorial files; Box 234, Folder 10, Duveen Brothers Records, accession number 960015, Research Library, The Getty Research Institute, Los Angeles). See also Franz Drey, Carlo Crivelli und seine Schule. Munich, 1927: 122-123, and Pietro Zampetti, Carlo Crivelli, Florence, 1986: 287.[4] The Duveen Brothers letter confirming the sale of twenty-four paintings, including NGA 1939.1.264, is dated 9 March 1937; the provenance is given as "Ten Cate Collection" (copy in NGA curatorial files; Box 474, Folder 5, Duveen Brothers Records, accession number 960015, Research Library, The Getty Research Institute, Los Angeles).
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.119136.htmlFreiherr von Heyl zu Herrnsheim, Darmstadt (b. 1844) (Lugt 2879); (his sale, Darmstadt, May 1903); Dr. Güterbock, Berlin; E. A. Veltman, Bloemendael; Fritz Lugt, 1938 (his paraph on the verso); (Hans Calmann, London,1948); Private collection (sale, Christie's Amsterdam, 15 November 1993, no. 93); Pfeiffer collection; (Galerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich); purchased 2001 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.46113.htmlBequeathed in 1826 by the sitter, Marguerite-Charlotte David, née Pécoul [1764-1826],[1] to her daughter, Baronne Claude-Marie Meunier, née Laure-Emilie-Félicité David [1786-1863], Calais;[2] her daughter-in-law, Baronne Jules Meunier, née Pauline Derode [1824-1903], Calais; the artist's great-granddaughter, Mme. Marius Bianchi, née Mathilde Jeanin, by 1913;[3] her daughter, Caroline-Pauline-Thérèse, Comtesse Joachim Murat [1870-1940], by 1930;[4] her sister, Renée, vicomtesse de Fleury [1869-1948]; (Pierre Cailleux, Paris), 1948-1953.[5] Jointly owned from 1953 by (Otto Wertheimer [Galerie les Tourettes], Paris) and (M. Knoedler & Co., Inc., New York);[6] sold 1954 to the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, New York; gift 1961 to NGA.[1] In a chronological list of his works which David drew up in about 1815 ("Liste B"), Madame David figures in next-to-last place as "Le portrait de Me David mon épouse" (Schnapper, Antoine, et al., Jacques-Louis David 1748-1825, exh. cat. Louvre and Versailles, Paris, 1989: 20).[2] Mme David's last will, dated 6 March 1826 (Paris, Archives Nationales, Minutier Central, CVIII, 1013; Wildenstein, Daniel, and Guy Wildenstein, Documents complémentaires au catalogue de l'oeuvre de Louis David, Paris, 1973: 239, no. 2045), and the posthumous inventory of her possessions, dated 27 June 1826 (CVIII, 1014; Wildenstein and Wildenstein 1973: 247, no. 2071; Schnapper et al. 1989: 636), both mention this portrait and indicate that it had been bequeathed to Baronne Emilie Meunier, her daughter.[3] David et ses elèves, Petit Palais, Paris, 1913, no. 56.[4] Richard Cantinelli, Jacques-Louis David, Paris, 1930: 113, no. 132.[5] The painting was lent by Cailleux to the 1952-1953 exhibition Meisterwerke de französichen Malerei von Poussin bis Ingres, shown at the Kunsthalle, Hamberg, and the Alter Pinakothek, Munich.[6] Knoedler stock book no. 10, p. 115, no. A5477, and sales book no. 17, both as Portrait of Mme David, M. Knoedler and Co. Records, Getty Research Institute (copis NGA curatorial files).
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139305.htmlThomas Tomkins (1743 - 1816). (sale, Mr. Hickman's Gallery, London, 25-28 February 1818, no. 289). Robert Stayner Holford [1808-1892]; his son, Sir George Lindsay Holford, K.V.O.C. [1860-1926]; (his sale, Sotheby's London, 22 May 1928, no. 29B). (sale, Christie's London, 18 March 1975, no. 80). Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139306.htmlThomas Tomkins (1743 - 1816). (sale, Mr. Hickman's Gallery, London, 25-28 February 1818, no. 289). Robert Stayner Holford [1808-1892]; his son, Sir George Lindsay Holford, K.V.O.C. [1860-1926]; (his sale, Sotheby's London, 22 May 1928, no. 29B). (sale, Christie's London, 18 March 1975, no. 80). Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139340.htmlSir Bruce Ingram, Chesham (1877 - 1963) (Lugt 1405a). Carl Winter. Mrs. Don Forrest. (sale, Sotheby's London, 5 December 1977, no. 10). (Hazlitt, Gooden & Fox, London); Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139250.htmlEstate of the artist. H.W. Fichter, Frankfut am Main, 1997. Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139222.htmlPrinces of Liechtenstein, Vienna and Vaduz (Lugt 4398). Richard Tüngel [1893-1970], Ahrensburg. Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased by NGA, 2007.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139102.html(sale, Hugo Ruef, Munich, 23 November 1972, no cat.). Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139128.htmlHildegard Fritz-Denneville, London; (Katrin Bellinger, Munich) 1989. Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139221.htmlJoseph Fach, Frankfurt-am-Main, 1976. Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139260.htmlRichard Huber, Heidelberg. (sale, Bernd Rieber, Stuttgart, 22 September 1990, no. 966). Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139212.htmlBruno de Bayser, Paris, 1975. Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.98397.htmlHelmut Domizlaff (1902-1983)(his mark[?], HD in a circle [Lugt undesc.]); by inheritance to his nephew; (Galerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich); purchased by NGA, 1997.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.132365.html(Galerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich); NGA purchase in 2005.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.117428.htmlGalerie Ambaum, Cologne, 1976; Dr. Hans Hellmut Klihm (sale, Ketterer Kunst, Munich, 6 May 2000, no. 710); (Jörg Maas Kunsthandel, Berlin); purchased 2001 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139307.htmlArthur Sambon [1867-1947], Paris (Lugt 3519); (Hans Calmann [1899-1982], London); Herbert List [1903-1975], Munich (Lugt 4063); Ursula and Adolf Ratjen, Vaduz, for Wolfgang Ratjen; Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.111718.htmlPurchased 1670 by Lorenzio Onofrio Colonna, Roma;[1] Colonna family, Rome, likely until at least 1802.[2] Barberini family, Rome, by 1844;[3] sold 1948 through (Studio d'art Palma, Rome) to Machado Coelho [member of the Chamber of Deputies], Rio de Janeiro; sold 1976 to private collection, Rio de Janeiro; (sale, Sotheby's, New York, 4 June 1987, no. 96); (Richard L. Feigen & Co., New York); sold July 1989 to Saul P. Steinberg, New York; (sale, Sotheby's, New York, 28 January 2000, no. 63); purchased 8 February 2000 through (Kate Ganz, New York) by NGA.[1] The NGA painting certainly corresponds to the "original painting by Domenichino with the figure of Adam" that Lorenzo Onofrio Colonna bought from two Roman dealers in 1670 for 700 scudi; see Natalia Gozzano, La Quadreria di Lorenzo Onofrio Colonna. Prestigio nobiliare e collezionismo nella Roma barocca, Rome, 2004: 111, 147, 192, and 238. It is described as a painting of Adam and Eve chased from the Garden of Eden by Domenichino in the 1679 inventory of Colonna's collection, and, having only been purchased in 1670, does not appear in the family's inventory drawn up in 1664; see Eduard A. Safarik, Collezione dei dipinti Colonna: Inventari 1611-1795, Munich, 1996: 124, item 61, described as "Un Quadro di p.mi 5 1/4, e 6 1/2 con Adamo, et Eva scacciati dal paradiso terrestre con cornice intagliata e dorata opera del Domenichini."[2] A report drawn up in 1802 by C. Dufourny in preparation for the shipment of works of art from Italy to France discusses the cartoon (now in the Louvre, Paris) for the NGA painting, and indicates that the painting was still in the possession of the Colonna family: "Cartons. . .5. Adam et Eve, chassés du Paradis terrestre, fig. demi-nat., carton du tableau de la Gallerie [sic] Colonna par le Dominiquin" (cited by Sylvie Béguin, "Tableaux provenant de Naples et de Rome en 1802 restés en France," Bulletin de la Société de l'Histoire de l'Art français (1959): 194). Unless Dufourny's information was based on outdated hearsay, this would confirm continued ownership by the family to at least the year of the report. A later entry for the cartoon ("notice de Musée Napoléon") reiterates this information.[3] The painting appears in an unpublished 1844 inventory of the Barberini family collection.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.362.htmlRichard Lovell Edgeworth [1744-1817], Edgeworthstown, co. Longford, Ireland; by inheritance to his daughter, Maria Edgeworth [1767-1849], Edgeworthstown; by inheritance to her half-brother, Charles Sneyd Edgeworth [d. 1864], Edgeworthstown; by inheritance to Maria's and Charles' half-nephew, Prof. Francis Ysidro Edgeworth [1845-1926];[1] Acquired 1929 by (Julius Böhler, Munich);[2] purchased 1930 by (Duveen Brothers, Inc., London and New York);[3] sold May 1936 to the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, New York;[4] gift 1939 to NGA.[1] The catalogue of the 1930 exhibition in London gives the provenance as "Professor Edgeworth, Edgeworthstown, Ireland." A more detailed list of the previous owners is given in Duveen Pictures in Public Collections of America, New York, 1941: no. 42. On the Edgeworth family see The Dictionary of National Biography. The Concise Dictionary, Part 1, Oxford, 1953: 384, and Part 2, Oxford, 1961: 131. Julius Böhler sent Joseph Duveen a postcard of "Edgeworthstown House" and wrote in the postscript to the accompanying letter: "I am sorry I cannot give you more than the enclosed postcard regarding the pedigree of the Domenico Veneziano. This is the place and the people the picture comes from. I know nothing more and the picture was the only picture in the place." (Copy in NGA curatorial files; Box 299, Folder 1, Duveen Brothers Records, accession number 960015, Research Library, The Getty Research Institute, Los Angeles).[2] Böhler Inventory card no. 226-29, Getty Research Institute gives source as "Sarasota." (copy NGA curatorial file).[3] Correspondence between Böhler and Joseph Duveen in the Duveen Brothers Records documents the purchase from the 1930 exhibition (copies in NGA curatorial files; Box 299, Folder 1, Duveen Brothers Records, accession number 960015, Research Library, The Getty Research Institute, Los Angeles).[4] The Duveen Brothers letter confirming the sale of thirteen paintings and one sculpture, including NA 1939.1.221, is dated 18 May 1936; the provenance is given as "Prof. Edgeworth Coll'n" (copy in NGA curatorial files; Box 474, Folder 5, Duveen Brothers Records, accession number 960015, Research Library, The Getty Research Institute, Los Angeles).
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.281.htmlMain altar of the church of Santa Lucia de' Magnoli, Florence, probably until the early 18th century.[1] Sacristy of the same church, by 1728.[2] Third altar on the right of the nave of the same church, by 1762 and probably until the early 1800s.[3] Possibly Osvald Sirén [1879-1977], Stockholm; purchased 6 May 1921 by (Julius Böhler, Munich);[4] sold 17 September 1921 to (Count Alessandro Contini-Bonacossi, Rome and Florence);[5] purchased December 1933 by the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, New York;[6] gift 1939 to NGA.[1] The altarpiece is cited as being on the main altar (erroneously, as a work of Andrea del Castagno) by Giovanni Cinelli in Francesco Bocchi, Le bellezze della città di Firenze, ed. Giovanni Cinelli, Florence, 1677 (originally 1591): 280, reprinted Bologna, 1973. It was probably moved on the occasion of restoration work done in the church between 1712 and 1715 (see W. and E. Paatz, Die Kirchen von Florenz, Frankfurt am Main, 1941: 2:607).[2] Cited as being there by Filippo Baldinucci, Notizie dei professori del disegno da Cimbaue in qua, ed. F. Ranalli, 5 vols., Florence, 1845-1847 (originally 6 vols., 1681-1728): 3:95 n. 1.[3] The altarpiece was described there by both Giuseppe Richa, Notizie istoriche della chiese fiorentine), 10 vols., Florence, 1754-1762: 10(1762): 294, and Vincenzo Follini and Modesto Rastrelli, Firenze antica e moderna, 8 vols., Florence, 1789-1802: 8(1801):254). Among early writers, Luigi Lanzi (Storia pittorica della Italia, 3 vols., Bassano, 1795-1796: 1(1975):58) is the only one who mentions the predella, which at that time must still have been attached to the main panel. The fact that in 1827 the usually careful Rumohr, the first to read and transcribe the signature of Domenico Veneziano on the altarpiece, did not mention the predella, leads one to suppose that by this date it was no longer in the church. See Carl Friedrich von Rumohr, Italienische Forschungen, 3 vols., ed. by J. von Schlosser, Frankfurt am Main, 1920 (originally Berlin, 1827-1831): 387. In fact, Rumohr presumably saw the panel during his second stay in Italy, between 1816 and 1820. (See E. Sigismund, "R.C.F. Freiherr von Rumohr," in Ulrich Thieme, Felix Becker, and Hans Vollmer, Allgemeines Lexikon der bildenden Künstler von der Antike bis zur Gegenwart, 37 vols. Leipzig, 1907-1950: 29[1935]:202, reprinted 1970-1971.)[4] According to the Getty Index, the NGA painting is probably the same painting as a "Picture of Two Saints. Stigmatizing of St. Francis in a hilly mountain landscape," listed in the Böhler records as acquired from Sirén on that date. Roberto Longhi ("Un frammento della pala di Domenico Veneziano per Santa Lucia de'Magnole," L'Arte 28 [1925]: 31-35, reprinted in Edizione delle opera complete di Roberto Longhi, 14 vols., Florence and Milan, 1956-2000: 2[1967]) and other writers of the 1920s indicate the painting as belonging to Böhler. It was presumably also for Böhler that Georg Gronau wrote his expertise, dated 10 August 1921 (copy in NGA curatorial files), recognizing the authorship of Domenico Veneziano.[5] A. Chiapelli, "Una nuova opera di Domenico Veneziano," L'Arte 27 (1924): 93 note 6, is wrong in stating that the panel was "recently acquired by Longhi in Germany"; Longhi himself (1925: 31) states clearly that the purchaser was, on his advice, Count Contini-Bonacossi. Contini lent the picture to the 1930 exhibition in London.[6] The bill of sale for the painting is dated 27 December 1933 (copy in NGA curatorial files).
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.391.htmlCommissioned by Alfonso I d'Este, Duke of Ferrara, Castello, Ferrara, by c. 1521; by inheritance through the Este Collection, in Camerino d'Alabastro, until 1608; Borghese collection, Rome, until at least 1693. (Kunsthandel A.G., Lucerne); sold 1926 to (Julius Böhler, Munich and Luzerne).[1] (Count Alessandro Contini-Bonacossi [1878-1955], Florence and Rome, from the early 1920s); sold 1936 to the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, New York;[2] gift 1939 to NGA.[1] Inventory card no. 55-26, Böhler records, Getty Research Institute (copy, NGA curatorial files)[2]According to Kress files in NGA curatorial files.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.46032.htmlProbably Kurfürst Karl Albrecht [1697-1745], Munich, by 1742.[1] (Kurfürstliche Galerie, Munich);[2] Alte Pinakothek, Munich, by the mid-eighteenth century; deaccessioned in 1927;[3] sold to (Galerie van Diemen, New York and Berlin);[4] William R. Timken [1866-1949], New York; by inheritance to his wife, Lillian S. Guyer Timken [1881-1959], New York; bequest 1960 to NGA.[1] On the back of the painting are two wax seals that were detached from the original panel when it was cradled and then reapplied. According to Dr. Susan Neuburger (letter, 6 November 1981, in NGA curatorial files), one of these seals is that of Kurfürst Karl Albrecht, and this seal was used until 1742. The other seal may also be that of Karl Albrecht, or alternatively of Kurfürst Maximillian II Emmanuel (1662–1726). [2] Franz von Reber, Katalog der Gemälde-sammlung der kgl. Älteren Pinakothek in München, Munich, 1884: 86, no. 399 (also reprint, 1904: 93, no. 399).[3] Dr. Susan Neuburger (letter, 6 November 1981, in NGA curatorial files) wrote that a painting by Dou that appeared in an auction in Amsterdam in 1779 (May 19, no. 49; a sale by Van der Schley, De Winter, Hosteyn, and Yver for a “Mr. V…”), traditionally thought to be The Hermit, was another work, as the NGA painting must have already been owned by the Alte Pinakothek. She also provided the information about the deaccession and sale of the painting.[4] In 1935 the Berlin branches of van Diemen and its affiliated galleries were liquidated by order of the Nazis, with sales organized by Graupe on January 25 and April 26. This painting was not in either of those sales, and thus had been sold from the Berlin branch or sent to the New York branch before 1935.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139256.htmlEstate of the artist. Professor Georg Schöne, Berlin; Professor Wolfgang Schöne [1910-1989], Hamburg; Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139263.htmlEstate of the artist. Professor Georg Schöne, Berlin; Professor Wolfgang Schöne [1910-1989], Hamburg. (sale, Galerie Gerda Bassenge, Berlin, 31 May 1991, no. 5741) Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.140072.htmlWalter Bareiss [1919-2007]; (sale, Karl und Faber, Munich, 30 November 2007, no. 290); (via C. G. Boerner, New York); purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.73852.htmlPrince Heinrich Lubomirski, Przeworsk, Poland [1770-1850], by 1823; transferred by his heirs to the Lubomirski Museum in the Ossolinski Library, Lemberg (now Lviv, Ukraine) 1869 (inv. 8296); on 2 January 1940, by decree of the People's Commissars of the Ukranian Soviet Socialist Republic, the Ossolinski Library ceased as a separate institution and was combined with other libraries into the L'vov branch of the Library of the Ukranian Academy of Sciences; German troops took L'vov in June 1941, and in July K. Muhlmann, the German special representative for works of art, took the Lubomirski Dürer drawings to Adolf Hitler in Berlin; in the possession of the German military until 1945, mainly at the Reich Chancellery; discovered in a salt mine near Salzburg, Austria, and taken to the Munich Central Collecting Point, April 1945; restituted to Prince Georg Lubomirski, Switzerland, 1950; (Colnaghi's, London, 1954); Dr. and Mrs. Vitale Bloch (sale, London, Sotheby's, 28 June 1962, lot 87); private collection, Nuremberg; (Rolf Kistner, Nuremberg); purchased by Ian Woodner, New York, 14 May 1985; by inheritance to his daughters, Andrea and Dian Woodner, New York, 1990; gift to NGA, 1991.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.62604.htmlArt Market, Munich; purchased 1975 by Julius S. Held; Peter Mark Held; purchased by National Gallery, 1983.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139219.htmlBernhard Funck [1895-1993], Munich; acquired 1976 by Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.33253.htmlProbably in El Greco's possession at his death;[1] his son Jorge Manuel Theotócópuli, Toledo, in 1621.[2] The Infante Antonio María Felipe Luis de Orleáns, Duque de Montpensier [1824-1890], Seville;[3] by inheritance to his son, the Infante Don Antonio de Orleáns, Duque de Galliera, Sanlúcar de Barremada, Cádiz.[4] (Durand-Ruel, Paris) by 1910.[5] (Paul Cassirer, Berlin) by October 1915.[6] The pianist Edwin Fischer [1886-1960], Basel and Berlin, by 1923;[7] Eleanora Irme von Jeszenski von Mendelssohn, Berlin, who was divorced from Fischer in 1925, by 1926.[8] T.R.H. Prince and Princess Paul of Yugoslavia, Belgrade, Johannesburg, and Paris by May 1934;[9] consigned by Prince Paul in 1946 to (M. Knoedler and Co., London, Paris, and New York), who sold it later that year to the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, New York;[10] gift 1946 to NGA.[1] The inventory made of the artist's estate in 1614 included two examples of "a small Laocoön" ("Un laocon pequeño) and one large painting of this subject ("Un laocon grande"). Francisco de Borja de San Román y Fernández, El Greco en Toledo (Madrid, 1910): 193. Because the measurements of the Kress painting correspond most closely to those of the smallest of the versions cited in the inventory of 1621 (see n. 2 below), it seems likely that the Kress painting was one of the two small versions recorded in 1614. [2] The inventory made of the possessions of Jorge Manuel in 1621 includes the following items: "41 Un laocon, de dos baras de largo y bara y dos terzias de alto" ("A Laocoön of two varas in width and one and two-thirds of a vara in height"). "179 Un laocon grande, de tres baras y media en quadrado" ("A large Laocoön, three and one-half varas square"). "180 Otro laocon, casi del mismo Tamaño" ("Another Laocoön, almost the same size"). Francisco de Borja de San Román y Fernández, "De la vida del Greco," Archivo Español de Arte y Arqueologia 3 (1927), 291, 301. Because a vara equals approximately 84 cm., the measurements of no. 41 correspond closely to those of the Kress painting. The difference in the numbers of large and small versions of the subject mentioned in the two inventories suggest that Jorge Manuel sold one of the two smaller paintings in his father's estate and that he or another artist in the workshop produced another large copy of the composition before 1621. Alternatively, a mistake may have been made in one of the inventories. Many previous scholars have maintained that the Kress painting was in the Spanish royal collection in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Manuel B. Cossío, El Greco (Madrid, 1908), 362; Emilio H. del Villar, El Greco en España (Madrid, 1928), 132; Walter S. Cook, "El Greco's Laocoön in the National Gallery," Gazette des Beaux-Arts 26 (1944), 262, n. 1; José Camón Aznar, Domenico Greco (Madrid, 1950) 2: 921; Harold E. Wethey, El Greco and His School (Princeton, 1962) 2: 84, no. 127; Colin Eisler, Paintings from the Samuel H. Kress Collection: European Schools Excluding Italian (Oxford, 1977), 198, no. K1413; William B. Jordan, El Greco of Toledo [exh. cat.] (1982-1983), 257, no. 56. However, it is likely that the royal inventories refer not to the Kress painting but to one of the larger versions cited in the 1621 inventory (nos. 179 and 180). The relevant entries are as follows: Alcázar, Madrid, Inventory of 1666, no. 520: "3 varas casi en quadro de Lauconte y sus hijos de mano del Greco en 300 dicadps de plata" ("3 varas, almost square, of Laocoön and his sons, by the hand of El Greco, at 300 silver ducados"). Harold E. Wethey, letter, 22 June 1969, NGA curatorial files. Alcázar, Madrid, Inventory of 1686, no. 310: "Un quadro de tres baras de largo casi quadrado de la Oconte y sus hijos de blanco y negro de mano del Griego, tiene Marco negro como las demas pinturas de esta pieza" ("A painting, three varas in width, almost square, of Laocoön and his sons, in white and black by the hand of El Greco, has a black frame like the other paintings in this room"). Yves Bottineau, "L'Alcázar de Madrid et l'inventaire de 1686: aspects de la cour d'Espagne au XVIIe siècle," Bulletin Hispanique 60 (1958), 164. Alcázar, Madrid, Inventory of 1701-1703, no. 119: "Un cuadro de tres varas de largo quasi quadrado de laoconte y sus hijos de blanco y negro de mano del Griego con marco negro tasado en cien Doblons" ("A painting three varas in width, almost square, of Laocoön and his sons, in white and black by the hand of El Greco, with a black frame valued at 100 doblones"). Gloria Fernández Bayton, ed., Inventarios reales: Testamentario del Rey Carlos II, 6 vols. (Madrid, 1975-), 1:29. The dimensions given in all these inventories correspond to the now lost larger versions of the Laocoön but not to the Kress painting. The dimensions given in all these inventories correspond to the now lost larger versions of the Laocoön but not to the Kress painting. The Kress painting has also been related to references in the royal inventories of 1701-1703 and 1791 to an approximately square painting of Laocoön, about two varas across, said to be a copy of Titian. The width of this painting approximates that of the Kress painting. However, it seems most unlikely that the Kress painting would have been described as a copy of Titian, especially because an original Laocoön by El Greco and the copy after Titian were recorded in the royal collections at the same time (Fernández Bayton 1975-, 1:29, no. 119; 2:324, no. 581). Spanish critics of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries carefully distinguished the styles of Titian and El Greco, and the compilers of the royal inventories probably would not have confused them. See, e. g. Antonio Palomino de Castro y Velasco, El Museo pictórico y escala óptica (1715 and 1724, reprint ed., Madrid, 1947), 841; and Antonio Ponz, Viaje de España, ed. C. María de Rivero (Madrid, 1947), 640. [3] Catalogo de los cuadros y esculturas pertenecientes á la galeria de SS. AA. RR. los Serenísmos Señores Infantes de España, Duques de Montpensier (Seville, 1866), 44, no. 155. [4] Manuel B. Cossío, El Greco (Madrid, 1908), 579, no. 162. [5] Colin Eisler, 1977 (see n. 2 above), 198, 201, n. 163, no. K1413. On loan to the Alte Pinakothek, Munich, July 1911-1913. The ownership of the painting from 1911 to October 1915 is uncertain. [6] Ludwig Burchard, "Werke alter Kunst aus Berliner Privatbesitzer," Kunst und Kunstler 13 (1915), 525. Recorded in 1914 and again in 1915 as on loan to the Kaiser Friedrich Museum, Berlin. [7] "Die Zeit und der Markt: Sammlungen," Der Cicerone 15 (1923), 1156-1157; H. U. Schmid, "Über das Jahr 1923," Jahresbericht der öffentlichen Kunstsammlungen, Basel 20 (1923), 6; H. U. Schmid, Über das Jahr 1924: Gemäldegalerie," Jahresbericht der öffentlichen Kunstsammlungen, Basel 21 (1924), 6. [8] R. Riggenbach, "Über das Jahr 1926: Gemäldegalerie," Jahresbericht der öffentlichen Kunstsammlungen, Basel 23 (1926), 27; Otto Fischer, "Bericht über das Jahr 1928: Gemäldegalerie," Jahresbericht der öffentlichen Kunstsammlungen, Basel (1928), 6; Otto Fischer, "Bericht über das Jahr 1929," Jahresbericht der öffentlichen Kunstsammlungen, Basel (1929), 34. Basic biographical information about Fischer and Von Jeszenski von Mendelssohn is given in Neue Deutsche Biographie 5 (Munich, 1961), 180. Walter S. Cook, "El Greco's Laocoön in the National Gallery," Gazette des Beaux-Arts 26 (1944), 262, n. 1 maintains that the Laocoön was purchased before 1914 by Fischer's wife, whom he misidentifies as Frau von Schwabach. Because this painting was owned by the dealer Cassirer in 1915, this supposition is unlikely. However, the painting may have been purchased by ischer's wife before their marriage in 1919. Frau von Schwabach may possibly have been an earlier owner, unrelated to Fischer. [9] Kenneth Clark, , "Report: National Gallery, 1935," National Gallery and Tate Gallery Directors' Reports 1935 (London, 1935), 4. On loan to the National Gallery, London, May 1934-December 1935. During the Second World War, Prince Paul, then resident in Johannesburg, arranged to have the painting at the National Gallery, Washington, for safekeeping (David Edward Finley, A Standard of Excellence: Andrew W. Mellon Founds the National Gallery of Art at Washington, [Washington, DC, 1973], 89). [10] John Walker, Self Portrait with Donors (Boston, 1974), 144-146, presents a lively discussion of the negotiations involved in the sale.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.112155.htmlPrivate collection, Munich; (sale, Ketterer Kunst Hamburg, 3 December 1999, no. 146); (Martin Moeller Kunsthandel, Hamburg); purchased 2000 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139127.htmlJohann August Gottlieb Weigel [1773-1846], Leipzig; Theodore Oswald Weigel [1812-1881], Leipzig; (J.A.G. Weigel sale, Gutekunst, Stuttgart, 15 May 1883, no. 285). Richard von Kühlmann [1873-1948], Germany. Richard Holtkott [1866-1950], Bedburg. (sale, Stephan List, Frankfurt am Main, 10-11 October 1969, no. 120, as Elsheimer School). Kurt Meissner, Zurich. David Lachenmann, Munich; Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139223.htmlSiegfried Laemmle [1863-1953]. (sale, Weinmüller, Munich, 9-10 March, 1939, no. 726, as Leitkrath); Bernhard Funck, [1895-1993] Munich (not in Lugt), until 1977; Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139273.htmlSiegfried Laemmle [1863-1953], Munich and Los Angeles; his son Walter Laemmle, Munich and Los Angeles. (Blumka Gallery, New York); sold 2004 to Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139232.htmlPrinces of Liechtenstein, Vienna and Vaduz (Lugt 4398). Richard Tüngel [1893-1970], Ahrensburg. Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139261.htmlPrivate collection, Hamburg. Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139299.htmlHeinrich Beckmann, Bremen (1874 - 1940) (Lugt 2756a); (his sale, R. Puppel Berlin, 27-28 February 1941, no. 118). Bernhard Funck [1895-1993], Munich. Herbert List [1903-1975], Munich (Lugt 4063). Ursula and Adolf Ratjen, Vaduz, for Wolfgang Ratjen; Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139286.htmlEberhard Jabach, Paris [1610 - 1695]; (Lugt 960a) and (Lugt 2959c); Bernhard Funck [1895-1993], Munich (not in Lugt); Herbert List [1903-1975], Munich (Lugt 4063); Ursula and Adolf Ratjen, Vaduz, for Wolfgang Ratjen; Wolfgang Ratjen [1943-1997], Vaduz and Munich; purchased by NGA, 2007.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139238.htmlDagomar Fleischmann, Munich. Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139287.htmlAchille Ryhiner, Basel (1731 - 1788) (Lugt 2164 and 3004b). Johann Kaspar Lavater. Falkeisen & Huber, Basel (under Lugt 1008). Unidentified private collector "i." (sale, Stephan List, Frankfurt am Main, 10 April 1970, no. 86); Herbert List [19803-1975], Munich (Lugt 4063); Ursula and Adolf Ratjen, Vaduz, for Wolfgang Ratjen; Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139298.html(sale, Stephan List, Frankfurt am Main, 3 April 1971, no. 340, as "Italienisch 18. Jahrhundert"); Herbert List [1903-1975], Munich (Lugt 4063); Ursula and Adolf Ratjen, Vaduz, for Wolfgang Ratjen; Wolfgang Ratjen [1943-1997], Vaduz and Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.71461.html(P. & D. Colnaghi & Co. Gallery, London, 1978); (Galerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich); (Paul Prouté, Paris); acquired 1990 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139124.htmlPossibly a gift of the artist to an ancester of Adolf Gruis, Berlin and inherited by him by 1939. (sale, Gerd Rosen, Frankfurt am Main, 11-13 October 1961, no. 60). Fritz Busche, Dortmund. (Galerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich) 1987. Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.130555.html(Estate sale, Munich, 2003, as by an anonymous artist); private collection, Germany; (sale, Sotheby's, London, 15 June 2004, no. 26); (French & Company, Inc., New York); purchased 20 October 2004 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139280.htmlKühlmann Collection, Berlin. Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139241.htmlBy descent to Anny von Rittinger, granddaughter of the artist, Innsbruck. Carl Heumann, Chemnitz [1886-1945] (Lugt 2841a); (his sale, Roman Norbert Ketterer, 29 November 1957, no. 78). Gustav Stein, Cologne. (Galerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich); 1984 to Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139209.htmlBy descent to Anny von Rittinger, Innsbruck, granddaughter of the artist. (sale, C.G. Boerner, Leipzig, 28 April 1939, no. 72, repro.). Bernhard Funck, Munich. Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased by the NGA 2007.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139210.htmlBy descent to Anny von Rittinger, Innsbruck, granddaughter of the artist. Bernhard Funck [1895-1993], Munich; acquired 1974 by Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased by the NGA 2007.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.98941.html(Galerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich); purchased by NGA, 1997.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139288.htmlHerbert List [1903-1975], Munich (Lugt 4063). Ursula and Adolf Ratjen, Vaduz, for Wolfgang Ratjen; Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139289.htmlConrad M. Metz (Lugt 598a); E. Parsons & Sons, London, by 1947, as "Lombard School circa 1500. The Ascension of Our Lord" [as per Hugo Chapman]; (sale, Karl & Faber, Munich, 14 October 1964, no. 178, as "Italienischer Meister"). Herbert List [1903-1975], Munich (Lugt 4063); Ursula and Adolf Ratjen, Vaduz, for Wolfgang Ratjen; Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139325.htmlJacques Petithory, Paris; Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139100.htmlDr. Gustavo Frizzoni [1840-1919], Bergamo and Milan. Eva Denker-Winkler, Zurich; Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.118598.htmlProbably Cardinal Ludovico Ludovisi [1595-1632], Villa Ludovisi at Porta Pinciana, Rome, by 1623, and Niccolò Ludovisi, Prince of Piombo [1613-1664], until 1664.[1] Prince Joseph Poniatowski [1816-1873], Paris; (his sale, Hôtel Drouot, Paris, 25 March 1867, no. 6); probably purchased by (François Niewenhuys, Paris); purchased 21 May 1870 by Alfred Louis Lebeuf de Montgermont [1841-1918], Paris;[2] by descent in his family; (sale, Sotheby's, Monaco, 7-8 December 1990, no. 5); private collection; (sale, Sotheby's, New York, 11 January 1996, no. 44, bought in); private collection; purchased 28 February 2001 through (Hall & Knight Ltd., New York and London) by NGA.[1] This provenance is the result of a collaborative research effort by Peter Humfrey and Burton Fredericksen, who kindly shared their work with the Gallery. When the painting was on the art market in the 1990s, and initially in the Gallery's records, it was identified with one formerly in the collections of the Empress Josephine at Malmaison, of her son Eugène de Beauharnais, and then of his heirs, the Dukes of Leuchtenberg, in Munich and St Petersburg. Supporting evidence was provided by the fact that the engraving of this picture by J. N. Muxel included in the luxurious 1851 catalogue of the Leuchtenberg collection compiled by J. D. Passavant, shows a composition that is near-identical (J.N. Muxel and J.D. Passavant, Galerie Leuchtenberg. Gemälde-Sammlung seiner kaiserl. hoheit des Herzogs von Leuchtenberg in München, 2 vols., Frankfurt am Main, 1851: 8, no. 35, repro.). However, the Leuchtenberg picture was recorded as still in St. Petersburg by Harck in 1896 ("Notizien über italienische Bilder in Petersburger Sammlungen," Repertorium für Kunstwissenschaft 19 [1896]: 413-438; Die Russischen Bestimmungen über Nachtmärsche und Nachtgefechte: Uebersetzt von Harck, Leipzig, 1896: 423) and by Néoustroieff in 1903 (A. Néoustroieff, "I Quadri Italliani nella collezione del Duca G.N. von Leuchtenberg dit Pietroburgo," Arte, Anno VI, November/December 1903: 329-346, repro. 333), whereas the Gallery's picture had been sold at the Poniatowski sale in Paris in 1867. Indeed, while the photograph of the Leuchtenberg picture reproduced by Néoustroieff corresponds to Muxel's engraving, both show minor but distinct differences from the Washington picture, as is particularly evident in the treatment of the haloes. Furthermore, it was Harck's opinion that the Leuchtenberg picture -- unlike other works by Garofalo in the same collection -- was no more than a copy. This judgement cannot be definitely confirmed until the real Leuchtenberg picture re-emerges, and can be compared with the Gallery's picture. Suspicions that the now missing Leuchtenberg picture was a copy of the Gallery's picture were also raised by Alain Pougetoux (La collection de peintures de l'impératrice Joséphine, Paris, 2003: 148), and by Burton Fredericksen in an annotation to the Getty Index. Another circumstantial argument for suspecting that the two pictures are not identical is the fact that the Gallery's version retains its original wooden support, whereas in nineteenth-century Russia panel paintings were transferred to canvas almost as a matter of routine.Instead, the Gallery's painting is likely to correspond to one described in the posthumous inventory of Cardinal Ludovisi of 1633 as follows: "Un Christo che lava li Piedi alli Apostoli quadro alto pmi due lono pmi tre cornice nera rabescata d'oro di mano del Garofano" (Klára Garas, "The Ludovisi Collection of Pictures in 1633," The Burlington Magazine [1967]: 343, no. 37). The stated dimensions (= 44.68 x 67.02 centimeters) are slightly larger than those of the Gallery's painting, but the measurement in palms is clearly not precise, and as pointed out by Garas 1967, 289 n. 2, it probably included the orginal black frame. The same picture is listed (but with no attribution) in an earlier inventory of the cardinal's collection of 1623, and in the posthumous inventory of 1665 of his brother and heir Niccolò, Prince of Piombino (Carolyn H. Wood, "The Ludovisi collection of paintings in 1623," The Burlington Magazine 134 [1992]: 521, no. 218). Cardinal Lodovisi was a Bolognese, and his collection was rich in pictures acquired directly from Ferrara.[2] An old label on the reverse of the painting records this part of the provenance: "Reçu de Monsieur L. Lebeuf de Mongermont [sic] la somme / de neuf mille francs pour payment d'un tableau / peint par Garofalo représentant le lavement des / pieds des apôtres, dont quittance Paris le 21 Mai 1870 / Provenant de la vente du Prince Poniastowski [sic] -- F. Nieuwenhuys".
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139251.htmlFürstlich Hohenzollernsches Museum, Sigmaringen (Lugt 2759). Konrad Diepolder, Munich; purchased 1984 by Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.71624.htmlBusch Collection, Dortmund. Galerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich; gift 1990 to NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.162261.htmlMillard F. Tompkins, Esq.;[1] (sale, American Art Gallery, New York, 5 March 1915, no. 27); Ruppert. private collection, Maryland; (sale, Parke-Bernet Galleries, New York, 17 October 1956, no. 52). Woodford; P. Tretyakov. Sordoni collection, Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania.[2] (Mathaf Gallery, London), 1978; sold 1982 to private collection; purchased 14 June 2013 through (Galerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich) by NGA. [1] The provenance given here is based on Gerald M. Ackerman, The Life and Work of Jean-Léon Gérôme, with a catalogue raisonné, London, 1986: 228, no. 205.[2] This is probably the collection of Andrew J. Sordoni [d. 1963], Pennsylvania state senator and founder of the Sordoni Construction Company.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.115437.htmlJan Pietersz. Zoomer, Amsterdam (1641 - 1724); (his sale, Amsterdam, 5 April 1725, no. 56); Jan Goeree, Amsterdam; (his sale, Amsterdam, 12 March, 1731). Probably Swiss private collection; (Katrin Bellinger Kunsthandel, Munich; acquired from Hazlitt, Gooden & Fox, 11 November 1991); purchased 2000 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139338.htmlUnidentified collector, Italy; Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139326.htmlUnidentified private collector of Luca Giordano(1). Jacques Petithory, Paris; Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.1. See David Lachenmann, Italian Drawings from the Ratjen Collection, Vaduz, Bern, 1996, no. 35, note 1.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139303.htmlPierre Crozat [1665-1740], Paris. Pierre-Jean Mariette, Paris [1694 - 1774](Lugt 1852). Marquis de Lagoy, Aix en Provence [1764 - 1829] (Lugt 1710). Thomas Dimsdale London [1758 - 1823](Lugt 2426). Sir Thomas Lawrence, London [1769 - 1830](Lugt 2445). Lord Francis Egerton, 1st Earl of Ellesmere, London [1800 - 1857] (Lugt 2710b), and by descent; (his sale, Sotheby's London, 5 December 1972, no. 17); Herbert List [1903-1975], Munich (Lugt 4063); Ursula and Adolf Ratjen, for Wolfgang Ratjen; Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139278.html(Galerie Fischer, Lucerne). David Lachenmann, Munich, 1996. Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139225.htmlNathan Chaikin [b. 1887], Vaud, Switzerland. David Daniels [1907-2002], New York; (his sale, Sotheby's London, 25 April 1978, no. 45). Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139220.htmlDr. Benno Griebert, Munich. Peter Griebert, Munich, 1976. Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139282.htmlCarl Heumann [1886-1945], Chiemnitz. Helmut Domizlaff [1902-1983], Munich. (Galerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich); sold 1997 as "near Reinhart" Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.408.htmlGrand Duke Georg II Saxe-Meiningen [1826-1914], who possibly acquired it during the third quarter of the nineteenth century in Florence;[1] by 1900 in his castle at Meiningen, Saxony;[2] sold in the mid- or late 1920s.[3] (Duveen Brothers, Inc., London and New York); sold March 1937 to the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, New York;[4] gift 1939 to NGA.[1] Although it does not appear among the ten early Italian panels described by Max Jordan in the collection of the Duke of Saxe-Meiningen in 1872 (see Joseph Archer Crowe and Giovanni Battista Cavalcaselle, A New History of Painting in Italy, from the II to the XVI Century, German ed. trans. Max Jordan, 6 vols. in 8 parts, Leipzig, 1869-1876: 4:592-593), it is likely that at that time the collection had already assumed its definitive aspect. Two of the more important items, the pair of Saints by Perugino now in New York (see Pietro Scarpellini, Perugino, Milan, 1984: 114) were still in Florence in 1850, with the dealer Metzger (see Giorgio Vasari, Le vite de'più eccellenti pittori, scultori e architetti, ed. Le Monnier, 14 vols., Florence, 1850 (originally 1568): 6:47 n. 2), and it is likely that Johann Metzger and his son, Ludwig, suppliers of early Italian pictures to the Berlin and Munich galleries, also provided paintings of the same kind to Meiningen Castle. On the Metzgers see John Fleming, "Art Dealing in the Risorgimento-II," The Burlington Magazine 121 (1979): 497 n. 2.[2] See Bernard Berenson, The Florentine Painters of the Renaissance, 2nd ed., New York and London, 1900: 106.[3] The collection was probably broken up in the 1920s. A triptych by Bernardo Daddi, now in the Frick Art Museum in Pittsburgh (no. 1973.27), was sold in 1920 (see Richard Offner, A Critical and Historical Corpus of Florentine Painting, sec. 3, 2nd ed., Florence, 1991: 4:234), and Filippino Lippi's Adoration of the Child (NGA 1937.1.18), left the Saxe-Meiningen collection in 1929. In any case, Gozzoli's panel, recorded by Bernard Berenson, "Quadri senza casa: Il Quattrocento fiorentino. Part 3," Dedalo 12, no. 11 (November 1932): 837, as on the market, obviously must have changed ownership sometime before that date.[4] The Duveen Brothers letter confirming the sale of twenty-four paintings, including NGA 1939.1.265, is dated 9 March 1937; the provenance is given as "Saxe-Meiningen Coll'n" (copy in NGA curatorial files; Box 474, Folder 5, Duveen Brothers Records, accession number 960015, Research Library, Getty Research Institute, Los Angeles).
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.137697.htmlArtist friend of Greiner. (Amsler and Ruthardt, Berlin). Dr. Michaelik, Munich. Private collection, Amsterdam; (D. Moeller & Cie. KG, Hamburg); purchased by NGA, 2007.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139243.html(sale, C.G. Boerner, Leipzig, 19 June 1937, no. 57). (sale, Karl & Faber, Munich, 5 June 1984, no. 352); Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.46118.htmlWilhelm V, duke of Bavaria [d. 1597], Munich. Maximilian I, duke of Bavaria [d. 1651], Munich.[1] Private collection, western Germany, possibly Westfalia.[2] Dr. Friedrich Schöne, Essen and Stettin (now Szczecin), by 1922; purchased 27 September 1927 by Franz Wilhelm Koenigs [1881-1941], Haarlem;[3] sold 1953 by his heirs to the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, New York; gift 1961 to NGA.[1] Joachim von Sandrart, Teutsche Academie der edlen Bau-Bild-und Mahlerey-Künste (Der Teutschen Academie. Zwenter theil/von der alt/und neu-beröhmten Egyptischen/Briechischen/ Römischen/Italiänischen/hoch-und Niederteutschen Bau-Bild-und Mahlerey Künstlere Lob und leben.) (Nuremberg, 1675), 236; Alfred R. Peltzer, Joachim von Sandrarts Academie der Bau-Bild-und-Mahlerey-Künste von 1675 (Munich, 1925), 82, "Ferner haben ihre Fürstl. Durchl. Herzog Wilhelm in Bayern hochseligsten Andenkens als vernünftiger Urtheiler und Liebhaber der edlen Kunst ein klein Crucifix mit unser Lieben Frauen und S. Johann samt einer niederknienden und andächtig betenden Maria Magdalena so fleissig gemahlt von dieser Hand gehabt, auch sehr geliebt, ohne dass sie gewust, von wem es sey. Selbiges ist wegen des verwunderlichen Christus am Creutz, so ganz abhenkend auf den Füssen ruhet, sehr seltsam, dass es das wahre Leben nicht anderst thun könte, und gewiss über alle Crucifix natürlich wahr und eigentlich ist, wann ihm mit vernünftiger Gedult lang nachgesonnen wird, solches ist deswegen halb-Bogen gross auf gnädigen Befehl hochgedachten Herzogs Anno 1605 von Raphael Sadler in Kupfer gestochen worden, und erfreute ich hernachmalen Ihre Churfürstl. Durchl. Maximilian seligster Gedächnis höchlich, da ich des Meisters Namen geoffenbaret."[2] Max J. Friedländer, "Grünewalds einst beim Bayernherzog bewahrte Kreuzigung." Jahrbuch der Preussischen Kunstsammlungen 43 (1922): 60; Alfred Scharf, "Alte Malerei aus Rheinisch-Westfälischem Privatbesitz. Die Jubiläumsausstellung des Kunstvereins für die Rheinlande und Westfalen in Düsseldorf." Der Cicerone 21 (1929): 370.[3] Statement by Mrs. Christie van der Waals, daughter of Franz Koenigs, in NGA curatorial files.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.83993.htmlJ.D. Gocking (sale, London, Christie's, 27 November 1973, no. 350); (Katrin Bellinger, Munich, by 1990); purchased 1994 by David Thomson, Toronto; by exchange to William B. O'Neal, Charlottesville, VA, 1994; gift to NGA, 1995.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139311.htmlJohn Clerk, Lord Eldin; (his sale, Winstanley & Sons, Edinburgh, 14-29 March 1833, no. 594. Sir Archibald Campbell; Sir George Campbell; Sir Ilay Campbell [1769-1848]; (sale of his collection, Christie's London, 26 March 1974, no. 70). Herbert List [1903-1975], Munich, (Lugt 4063); Ursula and Adolf Ratjen, Vaduz, for Wolfgang Ratjen; Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139094.htmlChute Collection at The Vyne, Basingstoke. (P. & D. Colnaghi & Co., Ltd., London, 1950). Dr. Walter Feilchenfeldt, Zurich; Ursula and Adolf Ratjen, Vaduz; Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139125.htmlBaron von Freiherr von Freyberg-Eisenberg. (Kunsthaus Julius Böhler, Munich) in 1989. Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139235.html(sale, Buch- und Kunstantiquariat Franz Malota, Vienna, 1919, no. 99). (sale, Christies, London, 7 July 1981, no. 112). Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139231.htmlDr. Herbert Dreyer, Berlin. Richard Tüngel [1893-1970], Ahrensburg. Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139237.htmlWolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.103794.html(Galerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich); purchased by NGA, 1998.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139205.htmlUnknown collection, possibly Kunstverein Munich (KVM, not in Lugt). (sale, Hugo Ruef, Munich, 23 November 1972). Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.111633.htmlPrivate collection; (Katrin Bellinger Kunsthandel, Munich); purchased 2000 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.73844.htmlCornelis Ploos van Amstel [1726-1798] (Lugt 3002-3), Amsterdam; (possibly sale, Amsterdam, van der Schley ... Roos, 3 March 1800, part of Album BBB, lot 49); Rudolph Weigel, Leipzig, 1838, no. 1187; J.A.G. Weigel, (sale, Stuttgart, Gutekunst, 8-15 May 1883, lot 445); William Mitchell [d. 1908] (Lugt 2638), London; (sale, Frankfurt am Main, Prestel, 7 May 1890, lot 54); A.W. Thibaudeau, Paris; A.S. Drey, Munich; F.A. Drey, London; (A. Strölin, Lausanne); purchased (via de Bayser) by Ian Woodner, New York, 25 July 1985; by inheritance to his daughters, Andrea and Dian Woodner, New York, 1990; gift to NGA, 1991.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139120.htmlPrivate collection, Israel; (sale, Christie's London, 12 April 1983, no. 171). Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.96655.htmlBaron Louis de Rothschild [1882-1955], Vienna.[1] his niece, Baroness Reininghaus [née Bettina Rothschild Springer, 1912-1974]; her husband, Baron Kurt Reininghaus [d. 1984]; sold to (Galerie Sanct Lucas, Vienna); sold c. 1994 to Mr. and Mrs. Philip Cunningham, Alexandria, Virginia; partially sold and partially given 1996 through (Otto Naumann, New York) to NGA.[1] This painting was confiscated by the Nazis from the Louis de Rothschild collection in Vienna in 1938 and was destined for Adolf Hitler's planned museum in Linz, Austria. It is listed on the 20 October 1939 Vorschlag sur Verteilung der in Wien beschlagnahmte Gemaelde: Für das Kunstmuseum in Linz prepared by Hitler's curator, Hans Posse, and also Posse's Verzeichnis der für Linz in Aussicht genommenen Gemälde dated 31 July 1940 (OSS Consolidated Interrogation Report #4, Linz: Hitler's Museum and Library, 15 December 1945, Attachments 72 and 73, U.S. National Archives RG226/Entry 190B/Box 35, copy in NGA curatorial files). The records of the Allies' Munich Central Collecting Point indicate that the painting was recovered by the Allies and restituted to Austria on 11 May 1948. It was returned to Louis de Rothschild in 1949 (Munich property card #1665; Austrian Receipt for Cultural Property dated 11 May 1948; copies in NGA curatorial files.). The painting is listed and illustrated in Birgit Schwarz, Hitlers Museum: Die Fotoalben Gemäldegalerie Linz: Dokumente zum “Führermuseum”, Vienna, 2004: no. V/1. See also Sophie Lillie, Was Einmal War, Vienna, 2003: 113-116.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.108721.html(Katrin Bellinger Kunsthandel, Munich); (sale, Christie's, New York, 28 January 1999, no. 43); NGA purchase (via W.M. Brady & Co., Inc., New York), in 1999.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139272.htmlAnna Koenigs, daughter of the artist, Haarlem; by descent to her sister, Christine Gräfin Kalckreuth [b. 1898], Munich; by descent to Kornelia van Eyck-Koenigs, daughter of Anna Koenigs, Munich. Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139247.htmlAnna Koenigs, daughter of the artist [1890-1946], Haarlem; her daughter Kornelia van Eyck-Koenigs, Munich; Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.71239.htmlThe artist [1880-1938]; his estate; (Galerie Wolfgang Ketterer, Munich);[1] purchased by Ruth and Jacob Kainen, Chevy Chase, Maryland; gift 1989 to NGA.[1] according to Art for the Nation: Gifts in Honor of the 50th Anniversary of the National Gallery of Art, Exh. cat., Washington, D.C., 1991.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139111.html(sale, Hollstein und Puppel, Berlin, 26 February 1932, no. 119). (Galerie Barrsch & Chariau, Munich) 1980. Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.103790.htmlHelmut Domizlaff, Munich. (Galerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich); purchased 1998 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139270.htmlGeorg Hirzel [1868-1924], Leipzig. (sale, Villa Grisebach, Berlin, 4 June 1993, no. 69); Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.79327.htmlsale, Sotheby's, Munich, 10 December 1992, lot 119; via Galerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich; purchased 1993 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.125190.htmlBaron Feury, Munich. (David Tunick, Inc., New York); purchased by NGA, 2002.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.79325.htmlHildegard Domizlaff, Cologne; sale, Sotheby's, Munich, 10 December 1992, no. 122; via Galerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich; purchased 1993 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139246.htmlKonrad Diepolder, Munich, 1985. Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139255.html(Galerie Biedermann, Munich) 1988. Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139214.htmlLeo von Klenze, Munich. (sale, Karl & Faber, 28 November 1975, no. 474). Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.79326.htmlsale, Sotheby's, Munich, 10 December 1992, lot 108; via Galerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich; purchased 1993 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139211.htmlHenry Aceland, England; (sold, Sotheby's London, 15 November 1973, no. 110). (Herner & Weingraf, London) 1974. Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139276.htmlPossibly Baron von Bernus, Heidelberg. (Galerie Dr. H. Burg, Cologne). Dr. Georg S.Hirschland [1885-1942], Essen and New York;[1] his son-in-law, Fred Triest [1914-1999], San Francisco; sold 1996 to Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.[1] In 1938 Georg Hirschland, a patron of the Museum Folkwang, Essen, emigrated to the United States with his family, but was not permitted by the Nazi government to bring his art collection with him. In 1939 the Museum Folkwang and the city of Essen raised the funds to purchase the collection to keep it together; the funds were paid to an estate administrator. The collection consisted of 27 paintings and drawings including this by Koch, described as a pencil and India ink drawing of Tivoli. Eleven Hirschland paintings were evacuated, with other paintings from the Folkwang, to a mine near Siegen, where they were recovered by Allied forces and taken in June 1946 to the Collecting Point at Marburg, in the American zone of Occupied Germany. Other Hirschland objects were discovered in a convent in the French zone, and several drawings, including the Koch, were identified as being in a palace Hugenpost bei Kettwig, near Essen, in the British zone, in 1947. (List of location of objects from the Hirschland estate enclosed in letter from Riegelman, Strasser, Schwarz & Spiegelberg to the US Secretary of State dated 22 March 1947, National Archives RG260/Records of the Wiesbaden Central Collecting Point/Restitution Claim Records/ External Claims Case Files and Internal Claims Case Files, Boxes 116-123, M1947 reels 45 and 48)Georg Hirschland died in New York in 1942. After the war his heirs, represented by a New York law firm, made claims for the collection. The 11 paintings in Marburg were transferred by September 1946 to the Collecting Point in Wiesbaden, and in October 1948 were transferred to the British zone (Receipt for Interzonal Exchange dated 19 October 1938, NARA M1941/reel 45). The objects in the French zone could not be transferred as there was no interzonal agreement in place. By 1951 it appears that all but one of the Hirschland objects in the British zone had been released to the estate in the United States. The sole holdout was an El Greco for which there was difficulty in obtaining an export permit. (Letter dated 20 August 1951 from the Senior Finance Officer, British Control Council for Germany, National Archives, Kew, FO 1014/668.)
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.45890.htmlPart of the high altar in the abbey church of the Cistercian Cloister at Marienfeld, near Münster, completed in 1456/1457, installed 6 February 1457, until 1803.[1] Charles Léon Cardon, Brussels, by 1912.[2] Rudolph Chillingworth, Lucerne, Brussels, and Nuremberg; (sale, Galeries Fischer and Frederik Muller & Cie., Lucerne, 5 September 1922, no. 47); acquired by Jacob Walter Zwicky [d. 1956], Freiburg and Arlesheim-Basel;[3] acquired 1955 by (M. Knoedler & Co., New York); jointly owned with (Pinakos, Inc. [Rudolph Heinemann], New York);[4] purchased 1957 by the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, New York; gift 1959 by exchange to NGA.[1] Alb. Wormstall, "Zur Geschichte der Liesborner und Marienfelder Altargemälde," Zeitschrift für vaterländische Geschichte und Alterthumskunde 55 (1897), 90-92, Rincklake's "Gutachten" is cited, 99-102. See also Johannes Sommer, Johann Koerbecke. Der Meister des Marienfelder Altares von 1457 (Münster 1937), 11-12, 17-18. Jochen Luckhardt, Der Hochaltar der Zisterzienserklosterkirche Marienfled. (Bildhefte des Westfälischen Landesmuseums für Kunst und Kulturgeschichte, Nr. 25) (Münster 1987), 24, 34, notes the tradition of reliquary altars in the Cistercian order and reproduces two examples from the fourteenth century.[2] Exhibited with the Cardon collection in Brussels, 1912: Exposition de la Miniature [exh. cat., Palais Goffinet] (Brussels, 1912), no. 2051, as "Anonyme (Ecole de Souabe, XV siècle)".[3] Per letter from Zicky's son, dated 20 May 1989 (NGA curatorial files). The painting was exhibited at Julius Böhler, Munich, in 1934. Böhler no. 37-34, per index to card file, Böhler Gallery Records, Getty Research Institute. No card appears to exist. Böhler likely had the picture on consignment and returned it to Zwicky.[4] Knoedler stock book no. 10, p. 146, no. A5951, sales book no. 17, p. 314, M. Knoedler & Co. Records, Getty Research Institute (copies, NGA curatorial files).
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139271.htmlFürst Leopold von Anhalt-Dessau (1676 - 1747) or Herzog Leopold Friedrich Franz von Anhalt-Dessau (1740 - 1817) (Lugt 1708b). Einsiedel Collection. Galerie Gerda Bassenge, Berlin, June 4, 1993, lot 5424. Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.54383.htmlAcquired 1917 from the artist by Sally Falk [1888-1962], Mannheim; gift August 1921 to the Städtische Kunsthalle, Mannheim;[1] (Buchholz Gallery, Berlin and New York);[2] sold 1939 to Walter P. Chrysler, Jr. [1909-1988], New York; sold May 1971 to (Dr. Claude Virsch, Kiel); sold 1974 to NGA.[1] On loan from Falk to the Kunsthalle Mannheim from 1917 until 1921, when the gift became official.[2] Removed from the Städtische Kunsthalle on 8 July 1937 by the German government as "degenerate art," shipped to Munich, and possibly exhibited at the Degenerate Art show at the Haus de Kunst in Munich that year. Acquired c. 1938 by Curt Valentin, of the Buchholz Gallery in New York, probably through the Buchholz Gallery in Berlin, which was one of the agents appointed by the German government's Commission for the Exploitation of Degenerate Art to sell objects purged from German museums.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139213.htmlMax Silberberg [d. 1944], Breslau; (sale, Paul Graupe, Berlin, 12 October 1935, no. 64). (Sale, Karl und Faber, Munich, 30 May 1975, no. 448); Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; repurchased 2003 by Ratjen Foundation from the heirs of Max Silberberg; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139239.htmlRichard von Schnitzler [1855-1938], Cologne. Private collection, Hamburg. (Galerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich); Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.73839.html(Katrin Bellinger, Munich); NGA purchase in 1991.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.107158.htmlJerome Zipkin, New York; (Arnoldi Livie, Munich, by 1987); (Thomas Williams, London); purchased 1998 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139130.htmlDr. Ernst Wolffsohn. Dr. Wolf Stubbe [1903-1994], Hamburg. Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139249.htmlEgon Meilicke, Berlin. (sale, Neumeister, Munich, 10 December 1986, no. 844); Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139309.html(sale, Sotheby's London, 13 December 1973, no. 23); Herbert List [1903-1975] (Lugt 4063), Munich; Ursula and Adolf Ratjen, Vaduz, for Wolfgang Ratjen; Wolfgang Ratjen [1943-1997], Vaduz and Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139295.htmlRichard von Kühlmann [1873-1948], Ohlstadt. (sale, Karl & Faber, Munich, 14-16 May 1962, no. 153, as "unbekannter italienischer Meister, wohl piemontesisch"). Herbert List [1903-1975], Munich (Lugt 4063];Ursula and Adolf Ratjen, Vaduz, for Wolfgang Ratjen; Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.258.htmlLeuchtenberg Collection, Munich and Leningrad, by 1843;[1] sold 1933 through (Heinemann Galerie, Munich) to (Count Alessandro Contini-Bonacossi, Florence and Rome);[2] sold 1933 to the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, New York;[3] gift 1939 to NGA.[1] The painting was catalogued in 1843 and 1852 by J. D. Passavant as part of the Leuchtenberg collection. [2] Heinemann Galerie no. 18964 (sold paintings card; copy in NGA curatorial files).[3] Fern Rusk Shapley, Paintings from the Samuel H. Kress Collection: Italian Schools, XV - XVI Century, London, 1968: 68.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.46126.html(Van Diemen Gallery, Berlin, by 1923); (sold, Christie's, London, 20 May 1926, no. 269, as by Van Leyden); bought by Asscher and Welker, London). [1] Acquired from "Sarasota" 19 November 1928 by (Galerie Julius Böhler, Munich).[2] (Tomas Harris Gallery, London, by 1935).[3] Private Collection, Switzerland, by 1945.[4] (Frederick Mont, New York); sold 18 October 1951 to the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, New York; gift 1961 to NGA.[1] Van Diemen listed as seller and Asscher as buyer in the annotated auctioneer catalogue, Christie's Archive, London. [2] Böhler card no. 309-28, Böhler Gallery Records, Getty Research Institute.[3] Tomas Harris Gallery, Exhibition of Early Flemish Paintings, (London, 1935), no. 19, as Lucas van Leyden.[4] Basel, Offentliche Kunstsammlung (Kunstmuseum), 1945, Meisterwerke hollandischer Malerei des 16. bis 18. Jahrhunderts, no. 43, as Lucas van Leyden.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.293.htmlDuke of Leuchtenberg, Munich and Saint Petersburg, by 1852;[1] sold 1933 through (Heinemann Galerie, Munich) to (Count Alessandro Contini-Bonacossi, Florence);[2] sold December 1934 to the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, New York;[3] gift 1939 to NGA.[1] See J.D. Passavant, The Leuchtenberg Gallery. Collection of Pictures...of ...the Duke of Leuchtenberg at Munich, Frankfurt and London, 1852: no. 44, repro.; A. Néoustroïeff, "I quadri italiani nella collezione del duca G.N. von Leuchtenberg di Pietroburgo," Arte (1903): 338 (fig. 10), 341.[2] Heinemann Galerie no. 18999 (sold paintings card; copy in NGA curatorial files).[3] The bill from Contini-Bonacossi to the Kress Foundation for five paintings, including Madonna and Child by Bernardino Luini "from the Coll. of Prince Leuchtenberg, Petrograd," is dated 27 December 1934 (copy in NGA curatorial files).
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139297.htmlUnidentified private collector TB (Lugt 416a). Herbert List [1903-1975], Munich (Lugt 4063]; Ursula and Adolf Ratjen, Vaduz, for Wolfgang Ratjen; Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139321.htmlAlessandro Maggiori, Faenza and Rome, 1804 (Lugt 3005b). (sale, Sotheby's London, 15 June 1983, no. 53); Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.62640.html(Kunshandlung Brakl, Munich); acquired 1910 by Dr. Ludwig Hopf [1884-1939], Aachen.[1] Acquired by the Kellen family before 1953; Mr. and Mrs. Stephen Kellen, New York; gift 1983 to NGA.[1] According to Annagret Hoberg and Isabelle Jansen, Franz Marc: The Complete Works Volume 1, The Oil Paintings, London, 2004: 100, no. 79.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139265.htmlEstate of the artist. Conrad Fiedler [1841-1895], Munich; his heir, Mary Balling [1854-1919], Partenkirchen. (sale, Christie's, London, 21 June 1991, no. 66); Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139266.htmlEstate of the artist. Conrad Fiedler [1841-1895], Munich; his heir, Mary Balling [1854-1919], Partenkirchen. (sale, Christie's, London, 12 June 1991, no. 66); Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.9.htmlPossibly from the Strozzi Sacrati family, Mantua. Said to have been acquired in Italy by Prince Leopold-Emmanuel-Louis Croy Dülmen [1827-1894], Vienna, by 1886;[1] by inheritance to his widow, Princess Rosa Anne von Sternberg [1836-1918], Vienna; by inheritance to her son-in-law, Count Albert Lónyay [1850-1923], Vienna;[2] by inheritance to his son, Count Carl Lónyay [b. 1886], Vienna; sold April 1929 to (Duveen Brothers, Inc., London and New York);[3] purchased 15 December 1936 by The A.W. Mellon Educational and Charitable Trust, Pittsburgh;[4] gift 1937 to NGA.[1] Relating the results of a 1930 trip to investigate the painting's provenance, Edward Fowles, of Duveen's Paris office, wrote to Bernard Berenson on 7 April 1930 (Biblioteca Berenson, Villa I Tatti, near Florence; copy in NGA curatorial files): "It comes from the Lonyays, a very good family. They inherited it from Princess Anna de Croy who was of German origin but married a Hungarian who was a general in the Austrian Army. The family's idea is that he 'commandeered' the picture in one of the Austro-Italian wars..." This information seems trustworthy, although not precise. According to the Almanach de Gotha (1877: 103, and 1895: 136), in 1864 Prince Leopold-Emmanuel-Louis Croy Dülmen married Béatrice, widow of the Count Laval de Nugent, and after her death married a second time, in 1881, Rosa Anne von Sternberg, widow of Count Hohenlohe Bartenstein. Prince Leopold was in the Austrian military service, but it seems unlikely that the painting could have come from the spoils of war. More probably it belonged to his first wife, the daughter of Massimiliano Strozzi Sacrati of Mantua; she was a descendant of an old Florentine family, and one of her forebears, Giulio Cesare, is said to have had an art collection that included fragments of Michelangelo's cartoon of the Battle of Cascina (see Pompeo Litta, Famiglie celebri italiane, ser. 1, vol. 5 [n.d.], pl. xiv). Fowles, in any case, reports "testimony of people of the family that the picture has been known in the family as far back as 1886."[2] Count Albert Lónyay, general of the Austrian Army, in 1885 married Marie Henriette Hohenlohe Bartenstein, daughter of Princess Rosa Anne von Sternberg from her first marriage (see Almanach de Gotha, ed. 1895: 159).[3] On 2 April 1929 the Paris office of Duveen Brothers wrote to the New York office, sending a photograph "of the Masaccio 'Madonna' which we have purchased from a private family in Hungaria [sic]. The picture is on panel and will need carefully [sic] cradling and cleaning before shipment" (copy in NGA curatorial files; Box 264, Folder 13, Duveen Brothers Records, accession number 960015, Research Library, The Getty Research Institute, Los Angeles).Early in 1930 the painting was sent to Florence for examination by experts of the Soprintendenza there. This came about because, according to Martin Porkay, Auf dem Karussell der Kunst, Munich, 1956: 178, "the restorer P. [Porkay himself?] who had left the Vienna 'Atelier' on account of financial controversies with the proprietor, took revenge by going to Duveen himself and telling him that the picture had been faked." Actually, the "betrayal" of the restorer was probably only one of the reasons for which Sir Jospeh Duveen was "in the dumps over the Masaccio," as Nicky Mariano, Berenson's secretary, put it in a letter of 2 April 1930 (copy in NGA curatorial files; Biblioteca Berenson, Villa I Tatti, near Florence). In correspondence dated 16 March 1930 Raimond van Marle advised Duveen's New York office that, "Professor [August L.] Mayer just wrote me that he is going to publish number of faked pictures of which he says to know the origin...amongst which the Madonna which Berenson has published as by Masaccio," and this message was relayed by the New York office to the Paris office on 28 March. The situation quickly changed: on 18 April 1930 Duveen wrote to the dealer Julius Böhler, "I understand that Dr. Mayer had a doubt, but has since told my Paris people that he was in error and that he is now quite satisfied." (Copies of this correspondence in NGA curatorial files; Box 264, Folder 13, Duveen Brothers Records, accession number 960015, Research Library, The Getty Research Institute, Los Angeles). Presumably Duveen convinced Mayer that the examination at the Soprintendenza earlier that year had confirmed the painting's authenticity; Carlo Gamba, in a letter of 20 February 1930 to Berenson (copy in NGA curatorial files; Biblioteca Berenson, Villa I Tatti, near Florence), recognized Masaccio's authorship and lamented the seriously repainted condition of the panel, commenting very acutely: "forse le carni wono tutte ripasste e non ci rimane che la preparazioneverdastra e rosea come nella Madonna di Londra, ma togliendo i pasticci, resta il modellato di Masaccio con tutto il suo vigore" ("the flesh tones may all be retouched and all that is left is the greenish and pinkish preparation as in the Madonna in London [that is, in the central panel of the Pisa altarpiece in the National Gallery], but taking away the pastiches there remains the modeling of Masaccio in all its vigor"). Subsequently the painting was kept in Duveen's London office (see Samuel N. Behrman, Duveen, New York, 1952: 171, and Porkay 1956: 178).The account given of the painting's provenance by Porkay 1956: 177 is different and seems less reliable. He claims that the painting was acquired by an unnamed dealer in Vienna in 1927 and was cleaned and repainted in Masaccio's style in the dealer's atelier. Subsequently, the dealer took the result of his efforts to the Kunsthistorisches Museum in Vienna to be examined by the Museum's experts and, having obtained a positive response, sold the picture to Duveen "durch den ungarischen Grafen Lónyay, der als Besitzer fungierte" ("through the Hungarian Count Lónyay who appeared as the owner"). Although it is sometimes stated that the painting came from Hungary, this apparently is not the case. Although the Lónyays were of Hungarian origin, they resided mainly in Vienna, and the painting probably remained there even after the the death of Princess Rose Croy Dülmen in 1918.[4] The original Duveen Brothers invioce is in Gallery Archives, copy in NGA curatorial files.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.52622.htmlProbably Steven Wils the younger [d. 1628], Antwerp.[1] Probably Herman Neyt [d. 1642], Antwerp.[2] James-Alexandre, comte de Pourtalès-Gorgier [1776-1855], Paris; his heirs; (Pourtalès-Gorgier sale, his hôtel, Paris, 27 March-4 April 1865, no. 176). Comtesse de Pourtalès;[3] Comte Edmond de Pourtalès [d. 1895], Paris, by 1888;[4] by descent to Comtesse de Pourtalès, Paris.[5] Count Bismarck, Paris and New York, by the late 1940's.[6] (Spencer A. Samuels, New York), by 1969; purchased 7 October 1971 by NGA.[1] Inventory of 6 July 1628, no. 62. Jan Denucé, The Antwerp Art Galleries: Inventories of the Art-Collections in Antwerp in the 16th and 17th Centuries, (The Hague, 1932): 49, "Item. een stucxken van Meester Quinten, daer een honge brouwe den ouden man om de bourse vryt." Several authors, beginning with Henri Hymans, "Quentin Matsys," Gazette des Beaux-Arts, 2e per., 38 (1888), 205, and including Walter Cohen, Studien zu Quentin Metsys (Munich, 1904), 71-72; S. Speth-Holterhoff, Les Peintres flamands de cabinets d'amateurs au XVIIe siècle (Brussels, 1957), 16 and Andrée de Bosque, Quentin Massys (Brussels, 1975), 194, have associated the Ill-Matched Lovers with the Card Players by Massys, which was in the collection of Peeter Stevens, Antwerp, in the first half of the seventeenth century and is described in Alexander van Fornenberg's 1658 biography of Massys, Den Antwerpschen Protheus, ofte Cyclopschen Apelles.... From Van Fornenberg's careful description, which reads in part, "Het Derde is een Stuck van vier Figuren twee Mans-persoonen, ende twee Vroukens, staende om een Tafel, sijn doende met een uytheyms spel meest in Polen en Duyts-landt bekent" (quoted from J. Briels, "Amator Pictoriae Artis. De Antwerpse kunstverzamelaar Peeter Stevens (1590-1688) en zijn Constkamer," Jaarboek van het Koninklijk Museum voor Schone Kunsten Antwerpen (1980): 192, n. 149), it is clear that another painting was in Stevens' collection.[2] Inventory of 15-21 October 1642, no. 4. Jan Denucé, The Antwerp Art Galleries: Inventories of the Art-Collections in Antwerp in the 16th and 17th Centuries (The Hague, 1932), 94. "Een stuck van Quinten, wesende een out man met honge vrouwe ende eene sot, in ebbenhoute lyste, gen. no. 4."[3] Unverified, but annotated in the copy of the sales catalogue in the NGA. The Getty Index cites Pillet, Escribe as the establishment where the 1865 Paris sale took place.[4] Mentioned as owner in Henri Hymans, "Quentin Matsys," Gazette des Beaux-Arts, 2e per., 38 (1888), 205.[5] Spencer A. Samuels, in conversation 11 July 1984, stated that the painting remained with the Pourtalès family until after World War II.[6] Spencer A. Samuels, in conversation 11 July 1984 and 20 May 1985. It has not been possible to identify clearly Count Bismarck.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.86967.htmlGalerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich; purchased 1995 by MGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.41698.htmlPossibly the Convent of the Poor Clares, Eger (Cheb), Bohemia (now Czechoslovakia), or Eger (Erlau), Hungary.[1] (Karl Schäfer, Munich); (Walter Schnackenberg, Munich), 1921/1922-1951;[2] in 1943 a one-third share was acquired from Schnackenberg by Carl Langbehn, Munich, and passed by inheritance to his mother, Marta Langbehn.[3] owned jointly by (Seiler & Co., Walter Schnackenberg, and Alfred Müller, Munich);[4] sold 1951 to (M. Knoedler & Co., New York, with Pinakos, Inc. [Rudolf Heinemann]);[5] purchased 1951 by the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, New York; gift 1952 by exchange to NGA.[1] Alfred Stange, Deutsche Malerei der Gotik, 11 vols., Berlin and Munich, 1934-1961: 11:4. In a letter of 13 February 1965 to Fern Rusk Shapley, in NGA curatorial files, Stange gave Prince Joseph Clemens of Bavaria as the source, but noted that while there was a convent of the Poor Clares in Bohemian Eger in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, Clemens did not specify Czechoslovakia or Hungary and so both were possible. There is no verification for the statement in Colin Eisler, Paintings from the Samuel H. Kress Collection: European Schools Excluding Italian, Oxford, 1977: 234, that the panel may have belonged to the Kings of Saxony.[2] English translation of Walter Schnackenberg letter of 12 April 1951 in files of M. Knoedler & Co., New York, giving date of acquisition from Karl Schäfer. Stange's letter of 13 February 1965 also mentions Schäfer as handling the painting.[3] Schnackenberg letter of 12 April 1951. Carl and Marta Langbehn are listed as owners in a Knoedler brochure, in NGA curatorial files.[4] M. Knoedler & Co. account book.[5] M. Knoedler & Co. account book.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.46128.htmlPossibly the Carthusian monastery of Saint Barbara, Cologne.[1] Richard von Schnitzler [1855-1938], Cologne, by 1917 until at least 1931.[2] (Pinakos, Inc. [Rudolf Heinemann]); sold 1953 to (M. Knoedler & Co., New York);[3] purchased 1954 by the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, New York; gift 1961 to NGA.[1] Although unverified it is possible, as Eisler first suggested, that The Crucifixion was originally located in the Charterhouse of Saint Barbara in Cologne, the city where the Master of Saint Veronica was active as well as the birthplace of Saint Bruno, founder of the Carthusian Order. The Charterhouse in Cologne was a large and important institution that underwent a major building campaign between 1391 and 1405. (see J.J. Merlo, "Kunst und Kunsthandwerk im Karthäuserkloster zu Köln", Annalen des historischen Vereins für den Niederrhein insbesondere die alte Erzdiöcese Köln, 45 (1886): 1-2. See also Paul Clemen, Ludwig Arntz, Hugo Rahtgens, Heinrich Neu, and Hans Vogts, Die Kunstdenkmäler der Stadt Köln, vol. 2, part 3 (Düsseldorf, 1934), 137-162, and Otto Braunsberger, "Die Kölner Kartause. Erinnerungen aus alter Zeit," Stimmen der Zeit. Katholische Monatschrift für das Geistesleben der Gegenwart, 94 (1918): 134-152. If the Gallery's panel were in the Charterhouse, it might have remained there until 1794 when the monastery was dispersed.) Given the Order's emphasis on solitary contemplation and devotion, it would seem likely that the Gallery's panel adorned the cell of a single monk. It is possible that it was originally part of a commission for multiple images, as was the case with the Crucifixions painted by Jean de Beaumetz and his shop for the Charterhouse at Champmol. (Noted by Colin Eisler, Paintings from the Samuel H. Kress Collection: European Schools Excluding Italian. (Oxford, 1977), 1.[2] Walter Bombe, "Die Sammlung Dr. Richard von Schnitzler in Cöln." Der Cicerone 9 (1917): 366. Published in Otto Helmut Förster, Die Sammlung Dr. Richard von Schnitzler, Munich, 1931: 21, no. 1, pl. 1. Unless sold by Schnitzler between 1931 and his death in 1938, the painting was inherited by his two daughters, Edith and Eriak von Schröder. [3] Knoedler stock book no. 10, p. 104, no.A5322, and sales book no. 17, p. 37, M. Knoedler & Co. Records, Getty Research Institute (copies NGA curatorial files). A a pencilled notation indicates that the panel was previously owned by a Dr. Howard in partnership with Mont and Newhouse.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.56721.htmlSold by the artist 27 or 30 April 1912 to (Galerie Bernheim-Jeune, Paris); sold 15 June 1912 to Curt Glaser [1879-1943], Berlin.[1] by sale or exchange to Oskar [1875-1947] and Greta Moll, Berlin, by 1913/1914.[2] (Galerie Thannhauser, Berlin), by 1932.[3] (Valentine Gallery, New York).[4] (Erhard Weyhe Gallery, New York), by the early 1940s;[5] sold after 1945 to Mr. and Mrs. Alfred H. Barr, Jr., New York;[6] on consignment with (Eugene Victor Thaw and Co., New York) and (Xavier Fourcade, Inc., New York); sold 1978 to NGA.[1] The April 27 date, from the Archives Henri Matisse in Paris, is given in Matisse in Morocco: The Paintings and Drawings, 1912-1913, exh. cat., National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. (plus three subsequent venues), 1990: 72 note 1. The April 30 date, from the Bernheim-Jeune records (where the painting is their number 19329 and titled Matin de mars près de Tanger), is given in Guy-Patrice and Michel Dauberville, Henri Matisse chez Bernheim-Jeune, 2 vols., Paris, 1995: 1: 508-509, no. 122.[2] The Matisse in Morocco catalogue (see note 1) cites a letter of 20 April 1951 from Greta Moll to Alfred Barr (in the Alfred H. Barr, Jr. Papers, Archives, The Museum of Modern Art, New York) that says in part: "... Besides we owned for a long time...the Palm Leaf... The Palm Leaf we probably had from 1913 to 1930." By 1914 Oskar Moll, who with his wife was an original class member of the school Matisse set up in Paris in 1908, had the most important collection of the artist's work in Germany. The Molls were in Berlin when they acquired the NGA painting; they went to Breslau (now Wroclaw, Poland) in 1919, to Düsseldorf in 1930, and returned to Berlin in the mid-1930s. See also Siegfried and Dorothea Salzmann, Oskar Moll Leben und Werk, Munich, 1975: 62, and letter of 17 July 1997 from Peter Kropmanns, in NGA curatorial files.[3] The painting is visible in a photograph of Thannhauser's apartment, taken c. 1932/1933 and sent to the Barrs by Thannhauser. A photocopy of the photograph is in NGA curatorial files, along with the Barr's collection record for the painting.[4] Valentine Gallery is included in the provenance given in Henri Matisse 1904-1917, exh. cat., Centre Georges Pomidou, Paris, 1993: no. 98, but no supporting documentation is given. The Archives of American Art holds some Valentine Gallery records, but they do not include any information about this painting. See note 6.[5] Erhard Weyhe (1882-1972) came to the United States from Germany in 1914, having apprenticed as a book dealer in his native country, Italy, and Belgium. In his New York gallery, managed for many years after World War I by Carl Zigrosser, Weyhe specialized in art books and prints, and he made annual buying trips to Europe. (See Reba White Williams, "The Weyhe Gallery Between the Wars, 1919-1940," Ph.D. diss., The City University of New York, 1996.) The extant Weyhe Gallery records at the Archives of American Art deal almost exclusively with prints, and no mention of the Matisse painting was found.[6] Mrs. Alfred H. Barr, Jr., in a letter of 27 June 1981 (in NGA curatorial files), relates that when Justin Thannhauser left Germany for Paris prior to World War II, he did not take the painting. Mrs. Barr suggests that it may have been entrusted to the Molls, or was re-bought by them, as her husband's impression was that "Weyhe had come upon it or heard about it in Dresden and that it belonged to Greta Moll by that time impoverished;" she also writes that her husband must have bought the painting "after 1945."
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.46516.htmlPossibly Oskar Moll [1875-1947], Breslau.[1] Mrs. Hanke, Berlin.[2] Acquired probably through (Alex Reid & Lefèvre, London) by (Kraushaar Galleries, New York);[3] sold 18 December 1925 to Chester Dale [1883-1962], New York; bequest 1963 to NGA.[1]By 1914 Oskar Moll had the most important collection of Matisse in Germany; this picture however is not included on the list of his collection in Siegfried and Dorothea Salzmann, Oskar Moll Leben und Werk, Munich 1975.[2]Mrs. Hanke according to Chester Dale papers in NGA curatorial records; this information was provided to Dale by Kraushaar in a letter dated 19 February 1927 (see Kraushaar Gallery Records, Archives of American Art, Box 1, Folder 43, Outgoing correspondence). Maud Dale's 1929 book on the Dale collection, Before Manet to Modigliani, gives the name as Hauke.[3] On 7 January 1927 Kraushaar writes to Reid & Lefevre for information on the "small Matisse that I bought from you," and shortly thereafter conveys information about this picture to Chester Dale. (See Kraushaar Gallery Records, Archives of American Art, Box 1, Folder 72, Outgoing Correspondence). Etienne Bignou was probably involved in the sale to Dale, as a photograph of the picture is included in the Bignou albums at the documentation center of the Musée d'Orsay (copy NGA curatorial files). Bignou often acted on Dale's behalf in conjunction with Reid & Lefèvre.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.71071.htmlPurchased from the artist by (Paul Rosenberg, Paris);[1] (Alexandre Rosenberg, New York)by 1948; sold 1950 to William Somerset Maugham [1874-1965], St. Jean-Cap-Ferrat, France;[2] (his sale, Sotheby's, London, 10 April 1962, no. 24); Colonel C. Michael Paul, New York; sold 15 January 1970 to Taft B. Schreiber, Beverly Hills [1908-1976];[3] his wife, Rita B. Schreiber, Beverly Hills [d. 1989]; gift 1989 to NGA.[1] This painting was confiscated by the ERR in 1941 with others from the Rosenberg collection in France (ERR inventory card PR34, National Archives RG260/Property Division/Box 19, copy NGA curatorial files). There is confusion in the archival records as to whether picture was taken from the Rosenberg vault at Libourne or the chateau at Floirac. In the Rosenberg claim file (National Archives RG260/Box 742, copies NGA curatorial files) there are lists and correspondence from Edmond Rosenberg, brother of Paul Rosenberg, which provide conflicting information. However, it seems likely the picture was taken from Floirac, as it was this part of the Rosenberg collection assigned the code "PR." Documents from the National Archives in Washington indicate that the painting was traded by the ERR on 16 November 1943, along with a Bonnard painting from the Kann collection, to the dealer Max Stöcklin in exchange for a painting by Rudolf Alt. (Receipt for the exchange, National Archives RG260/Munich Central Collecting Point/Restitution Research Records/Box 452, copy NGA curatorial files). The picture seems to be confused throughout the archival documentation with another Matisse painting described as of a woman in a yellow chair, which also appears to have been confiscated from the Rosenberg collection. However this second picture dates from 1939, is in a vertical format, and the woman is nude. On some documents the code PR34 seems to be associated with the 1939 picture, but it is clearly the NGA painting which is described on the ERR card for PR34, and on the receipt for the exchange between Stöcklin and the ERR. Moreoever, the photographs taken by the ERR of confiscated objects illustrate the NGA picture with the code PR34. After Stöcklin, the painting was traced to the Swiss dealer André Martin, and seen on view at the Galerie Neupert in Zurich (See item no. 62 on atachment B to Douglas Cooper's "Report on Mission to Switzerland," 10 December 1945, National Archives RG239/Entry 73/Box 82, copy NGA curatorial files).The NGA picture was returned to the Rosenbergs by 1948, according to the records of the gallery, which sold it to Somerset Maugham in 1950.[2]According to Rosenberg gallery records.[3]Correspondence between Paul and Schreiber in NGA curatorial files.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.129958.htmlElderly musical instrument dealer in Innsbruck, who bought from librarian in Innsbruck (according to dealer, via AR's notes on invoice);(Galerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich); purchased 2004 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139253.html(sale, Karl & Faber, Munich, 25-26 November 1987, no. 217, as Venetian. (Galerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich). Acquired as Maulbertsch by Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.41660.htmlProbably Bernardo Bembo, Venice or Verona [d. 1519]. Probably his son, Pietro Bembo, Padua [d. 1547].[1] Nicolai Nikitich Demidov, Prince of San Donato [1773-1828], near Florence;[2] his son, Anatoly Nikolaievich Demidov, Prince of San Donato [1812-1870], near Florence; (his sale, Paris, 3 March 1870, no. 204, repro., etching by Rajou). Private collection, Italy, until c. 1928.[3] (Matthiesen Gallery, Berlin). (Paul Cassirer, Berlin).[4] Baron Heinrich Thyssen-Bornemisza [1875-1947], Schloss Rohoncz, Hungary, and later, Villa Favorita, Lugano-Castagnola, Switzerland, by 1930; [5] on consigment 1950 with (M. Knoedler & Co., New York); purchased 1951 by the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, New York; [6] gift 1952 by exchange to NGA.[1] Letter of 31 August 1502 from Carlo Bembo, son of Bernardo, to Isabella d'Este, accompanying a loan of paintings to her in Mantua. The letter was published by Vittorio Cian, "Pietro Bembo e Isabella d'Este Gonzaga. Note e documenti," Giornale storico della letteratura italiana 9 (1887), 85-86. Bernardo Bembo was at that time away from Venice on a diplomatic mission. Carlo Bembo died in 1503. For the Bembo family see Dizionario biografico degli italiani (Rome, 1966), 8: 103-109 and 133-151. Approximately thirty years later (after Bernardo's death), Marcantonio Michiel's notes on what seems to be this diptych name the owner as the poet Pietro Bembo, another son of Bernardo: "The little painting with two wings of Saint John the Baptist clothed, with a lamb that sits in a landscape on one side, and Our Lady with the little Child on the other [side] in another landscape, by the hand of Hans Memling, year 1470, this being true." D. Jacopo Morelli, Notizia d'opere di disegno (Bassano, 1800), 17, and Theodor von Frimmel, Der Anonimo Morelliano (Quellenschriften für Kunstgeschichte und Kunsttechnik) N.F. I (Vienna, 1896), 86. Pietro Bembo's paintings were then in Padua. Jennifer Fletcher, "Marcantonio Michiel: his friends and collection," Burlington Magazine 123 (1981), 461 dates Michiel's notice of Pietro Bembo's collection in the 1520's or early 1530's.[2] According to the catalogue of the Demidov sale, 3 March 1870, no. 204.[3] According to Max J. Friedländer, Die altniederländishe Malerei, 14 vols. (Berlin and Leiden, 1928), 6: 125.[4] According to Friedländer, in Unknown Masterpieces in Public and Private Collections, ed. by W.R. Valentiner, (London, 1930), unpaginated, no. 27. [The list of references published in the NGA systematic catalogue entry erroneously cites no. 37 rather than no. 27.][5] According to the exhibition catalogue, Sammlung Schloss Rohoncz, Munich, Neue Pinakothek, 1930, no. 222.[6] Knoedler commission book no. 4, p. 143, no. CA 3725 and sales book no. 16, p. 310, M. Knoedler & Co. Records, Getty Research Institute (copies NGA curatorial files).
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.41659.htmlProbably Bernardo Bembo, Venice or Verona [d. 1519]. Probably his son, Pietro Bembo, Padua [d. 1547].[1] Nicolai Nikitich Demidov, Prince of San Donato [1773-1828], near Florence;[2] his son, Anatoly Nikolaievich Demidov, Prince of San Donato [1812-1870], near Florence; (his sale, Paris, 3 March 1870, no. 204, repro., etching by Rajou). Private collection, Italy, until c. 1928.[3] (Matthiesen Gallery, Berlin). (Paul Cassirer, Berlin).[4] Baron Heinrich Thyssen-Bornemisza [1875-1947], Schloss Rohoncz, Hungary, and later, Villa Favorita, Lugano-Castagnola, Switzerland, by 1930; [5] on consignment 1950 with (M. Knoedler & Co., New York); purchased 1951 by the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, New York; [6] gift 1952 by exchange to NGA.[1] Letter of 31 August 1502 from Carlo Bembo, son of Bernardo, to Isabella d'Este, accompanying a loan of paintings to her in Mantua. The letter was published by Vittorio Cian, "Pietro Bembo e Isabella d'Este Gonzaga. Note e documenti," Giornale storico della letteratura italiana 9 (1887), 85-86. Bernardo Bembo was at that time away from Venice on a diplomatic mission. Carlo Bembo died in 1503. For the Bembo family see Dizionario biografico degli italiani (Rome, 1966), 8: 103-109 and 133-151. Approximately thirty years later (after Bernardo's death), Marcantonio Michiel's notes on what seems to be this diptych name the owner as the poet Pietro Bembo, another son of Bernardo: "The little painting with two wings of Saint John the Baptist clothed, with a lamb that sits in a landscape on one side, and Our Lady with the little Child on the other [side] in another landscape, by the hand of Hans Memling, year 1470, this being true." D. Jacopo Morelli, Notizia d'opere di disegno (Bassano, 1800), 17, and Theodor von Frimmel, Der Anonimo Morelliano (Quellenschriften für Kunstgeschichte und Kunsttechnik) N.F. I (Vienna, 1896), 86. Pietro Bembo's paintings were then in Padua. Jennifer Fletcher, "Marcantonio Michiel: his friends and collection," Burlington Magazine 123 (1981), 461 dates Michiel's notice of Pietro Bembo's collection in the 1520's or early 1530's.[2] According to the catalogue of the Demidov sale, 3 March 1870, no. 204.[3] According to Max J. Friedländer, Die altniederländishe Malerei, 14 vols. (Berlin and Leiden, 1928), 6: 125.[4] According to Friedländer, in Unknown Masterpieces in Public and Private Collections, ed. by W.R. Valentiner, (London, 1930), unpaginated, no. 27. [The list of references published in the NGA systematic catalogue entry erroneously cites no. 37 rather than no. 27.][5] According to the exhibition catalogue, Sammlung Schloss Rohoncz, Munich, Neue Pinakothek, 1930, no. 222.[6] Knoedler commission book no. 4, p. 143, no. CA 3725 and sales book no. 16, p. 310, M. Knoedler & Co. Records, Getty Research Institute (copies NGA curatorial files).
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.131152.htmlRolas du Rosey collection (sale, Weigel, Leipzig, 5 September 1864, no. 5386, as Murer); Boguslaw Jolles, Dresden and Vienna (Lugt 381)(sale, Helbing, Munich, 31 October 1895, no. 374, as C. Murer); (sale, Weinmüller, Munich, 9-10 May 1939, no. 317, as C. Maurer). Kurt Meissner, Zurich. (C. G. Boerner, Inc., New York); NGA purchase in 2004.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139216.htmlEstate of the artist. (Gerd Rosen [1903-1961]), Berlin. Richard Tüngel [1893-1970], Ahrensburg; Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139107.htmlJohn Postle Heseltine, London [b. 1843] (Lugt 1508); (his sale, London, 1912, no. 28). Paul Cassirer, Berlin. Julius Böhler, Lucerne. Alfred E. Stehli, Küsnacht-Zurich. Julius Böhler, Munich. Walter and Marianne Feilchenfeldt, Zurich, 1978; Adolf and Ursula Ratjen, Munich; Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139131.htmlJulius Aufseesser, Berlin, 1905. [1] H. Alagheband, Munich. Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.[1] In 1926, Aufseeser published a book on his collection, Aus meinem Sammlerleben, which did not include any works by Menzel. Neither did the 1-2 November 1926 sale of his collection in Berlin.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139101.htmlNationalgalerie, Berlin. Leo Lewin [1881-1965], Breslau. (sale, Lepke's, Berlin, 23 February 1932,no. 171). Carl Heumann, Chemnitz [1886-1945] (Lugt 2841a); Stuttgarter Kunstkabinett;. (sale, Roman Norbert Ketter, Stuttgart, 29 November 1957, no. 204). Richard Tüngel, Ahrensburg; Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.112211.htmlPrivate collection, England, from about 1930; Gabrielle Thyssen-Bornemisza [1915 or 1917-1999] and her husband, Baron Adolphe Bentinck van Schoonheten [1905-1970], Paris and London. Private collection, Germany, from about 1980; (Bernheimer Gallery, Munich); purchased 2000 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139274.html(Galerie Thannhauser, Berlin). (Galerie Caspari, Munich). (sale, Galerie Gerda Bassenge, Berlin, 3 December 1993, no. 5944). David Lachenmann, Munich. Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139233.htmlAlexander Flinsch, Berlin; (his sale, C. G. Boerner, Leipzig, 29-30 November 1912, no. 393). (sale, Karl & Faber,. Munich, 27 November 1980, no. 728); Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139234.htmlAlexander Flinsch, Berlin; (his sale, C. G. Boerner, Leipzig, 29-30 November 1912, no. 409). (sale, Karl & Faber,. Munich, 27 November 1980, no. 729);Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.103609.htmlFranz Gawet (1762 or 1765-1847), Vienna (Lugt 1069); Carl Heumann [1886-1945], Chemnitz (Lugt 555b and 2841a) (his sale, Stuttgart, Ketterer, 29 November 1957, lot 210); Herbert List (1903-1975), Munich (Lugt 4063); Wolfgang Ratjen, Vaduz; (Katrin Bellinger, Munich); purchased by NGA, 1998.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.61375.htmlDr. Georges de Bellio [1828-1894], Paris; probably by inheritance to M and Mme [she née Victorine de Bellio,1863-1958] Ernest Donop de Monchy, Paris.[1] Sold 1907 for or by von Tschudi through (Boussod, Valadon et Cie., Paris).[2] (Galerie Caspari, Munich)in 1916.[3] Mrs. Meta Schütte, Bremen, by c. 1919 and probably in Schütte family collection until c. 1948;[4] by inheritance to her granddaughter and her husband, Dr. and Mrs. F.M. Oelze, Bremen.[5] (E.J. van Wisselingh and Co., Amsterdam); sold February 1951 to (Wildenstein and Co., London, New York, and Paris);[6] by whom sold December 1956 to Arnold Kirkeby, New York; (his sale, Parke-Bernet Galleries, New York, 19 November 1958, no. 12); Mr. and Mrs. George Friedland, Merion, Pennsylvania; (their sale, Parke-Bernet Galleries, New York, 13 December 1961, no. 80). (M. Knoedler & Co., London, New York and Paris); sold January 1965 to Mr. Paul Mellon, Upperville, Virginia; gift 1983 to NGA.[1] No. 85 bis in inventory of de Bellio collection cited in Remus Niculescu, "Georges de Bellio, l'Ami des Impressionistes (I)," Paragone no. 247, September 1970, p. 52. See also letter from Niculescu to Paul Mellon, dated 12 April 1970, in NGA curatorial files.[2] According to Wildenstein 1974, no. 101.[3] According to 1961 Parke-Bernet sales catalogue.[4] Published by Emil Waldmann, "Bremer Privatsammlungen," Kunst und Künstler XVII, 1919, p. 176. Also published as Schütte collection in the listing of "Monet paintings in some well-known museums and private collections" included in Oscar Reuterswärd, Monet, En konstnärshistorik, Stockholm, 1948, p. 279.[5] According to 1961 Friedland sales catalogue.[6] See letter dated 18 June 1999 from Wildenstein & Co. regarding date of acquisition from Van Wissellingh and sale to Kirkeby (in NGA curatorial files).
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.46178.htmlProbably Prince Karl Anton von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen [d. 1885].[1] His son, Prince Leopold von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen [d. 1905]. His son, Prince Wilhelm August Karl von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen [d. 1927]. Fürstlich Hohenzollernsches Museum für Wissenschaft und Kunst, Sigmaringen. (A.S. Drey, Munich and New York, 1928-1929); (M. Knoedler & Co., Inc., 1929-1934); (Robert Frank, Ltd., 1934).[2] Baron Heinrich Thyssen-Bornemisza [1875-1947], Villa Favorita, Lugano-Castagnola, Switzerland, by 1937; by inheritance to his daughter, Baroness Gabrielle Bentinck-Thyssen [b. 1915]; on consignment 1951 to (M. Knoedler & Co., Inc., New York); purchased February 1952 by the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, New York; [3] gift 1961 to NGA.[1] See Franz Reiffel, "Das Fürstlich Hohenzollernsche Museum zu Sigmaringen: Gemälde und Bildwerke," Städel-Jahrbuch 3-4 (1924), 59. The painting is not mentioned in F.A. von Lehner, Fürstlich Hohenzollernsches Museum für Wissenschaft und Kunst, Verzeichniss der Gemälde (Sigmaringen, 1871; 2d ed., 1883), suggesting either that it was acquired after 1883 or that it hung in some other property of the family.[2] Knoedler stock book no. 8, p. 68, no, A537, M. Knoedler & Co. Records, Getty Research Institute (copy NGA curatorial files)[3] Knoedler commission book no. 5A, p. 50, no. CA 3996, and sales book no. 16, p. 383, M. Knoedler & Co. Records, Getty Research Institute (copies NGA curatorial files)
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139122.html(sale, Galerie Fischer, Lucerne, 21 May 1986, no. 200). Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.118889.html(sale, Sotheby's New York, 23 January 2001, no. 280, as attributed to Christoph Mürer); purchased 2001, via Galerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich, by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.71369.htmlJacob Frederikszn van Beek, Amsterdam; (his sale, Jeronimo De Vries et al., Amsterdam, 2 June 1828, no. 49); Engelberts.[1] F. Tielens, Brussels. J. Walter, London.[2] Possibly August Thyssen [1842-1926]; his son, Baron Heinrich Thyssen-Bornemisza [1875-1947), Schloss Rohoncz, Hungary, Amsterdam, and Villa Favorita, Lugano, by at least 1930; by inheritance to his daughter, Gabrielle Thyssen-Bornemisza [1915 or 1917-1999] and her husband, Baron Adolphe Bentinck van Schoonheten [1905-1970], Paris and London.[3] (Galerie Sanct Lucas, Vienna), by 1989; purchased 29 January 1990 by NGA.[1] Cornelis Hofstede de Groot, A Catalogue Raisonné of the Works of the Most Eminent Dutch Painters of the Seventeenth Century, 8 vols., trans. Edward G. Hawke, London, 1907-1927: 7:406, states that "Engelberts" purchased the picture for 200 florins. An annotated copy of the sale catalogue in the Frick Art Reference Library, New York, records the same information (copy in NGA curatorial files).[2] The names of Tielens and Walter were provided by the Galerie Sanct Lucas.[3] According to the Galerie Sanct Lucas, the picture had been in the Thyssen family for three generations before its sale; the Galerie included Baron Bentinck's name in the provenance. Ownership by Thyssen-Bornemisza is also given in Wolfgang Schultz, Aert van der Neer, Doornspijk, 2002: no. 528. Although August Thyssen did collect art in his later years, the main Thyssen-Bornemisza collection was formed by his son, Heinrich, at whose death the collection was divided among his four children. The Dutch diplomat Baron Bentinck van Schoonheten married Gabrielle Thyssen-Bornemisza in 1938. The painting was exhibited in Munich in 1930 in an exhibition of works from Schloss Rohoncz, and the painting was on loan as part of the Bentinck-Thyssen collection to the Gemäldegalerie of the Kunstmuseum, Düsseldorf from 1974 until August 1984 (e-mails of 18 and 23 May 2012, in NGA curatorial files).
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.119068.htmlAdalbert Freiherr von Lanna, Prague [1836 - 1909] (Lugt 2773); (sale, H. G. Gutekunst, Stuttgart, 6-11 May 1910, no. 418); Siegfried Laemmle [1863-1953], Munich, 1936. Mr. and Mrs. Kurt Meissner, Zurich; gift to NGA, 2001.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139110.htmlEva Denckler-Winkler, Zuirch; 1980 to Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139283.html(sale, Christie's London, 1 July 1997, no. 223). Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.140073.htmlWalter Bareiss [1919-2007]; (sale, Karl und Faber, Munich, 30 November 2007, no. 505); (via C. G. Boerner, New York); purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139236.htmlDr. Georg Blohm, Hamburg. (sale, Galerie Commeter, Hamburg, 7-10 November 1927, no. 407, pl. XVIII). (sale, Karl & Faber, Munich, 6 May 1950, no. 1247, pl. XII). (Galerie Bartsch & Chariau, Munich); acquired 1982 by Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139224.html(sale, Hôtel Drouot, Paris, 4 December 1974, no. 5). (Paul Prouté, Paris, 1976). (Galerie Gunzenhauser, Munich) in 1976. Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139217.html(sale, Hôtel Drouot, Paris, 4 December 1974, no. 3). (Paul Prouté, Paris, 1976). (Galerie Gunzenhauser, Munich) in 1976. Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139293.htmlEinar Perman, Stockholm; Herbert List [1903-1975], Munich (Lugt 4063); Ursula and Adolf Ratjen, Vaduz, for Wolfgang Ratjen; Wolfgang Ratjen [1943-1997], Vaduz and Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.70321.html(Sale, Christie's, 6 July 1977, lot 69); Kunsthandel Bellinger, Munich, 1987; purchased by NGA, 1988.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139268.htmlPastor Oesterley, Arbergen/Bremen (not in Lugt). Hans Geller [b. 1894], Dresden. (Galerie Siegfried Billesberger, Moosinning near Munich). Purchased 19 May 1992 by Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139279.htmlJosef Schmidl [1852-1916] and his wife Maria [1858-1934], granddaughter of Friedrich Olivier; by descent to their daughter, Marianne Schmidl [1890-1942];[1] (sale, C. G. Boerner, Leipzig, 28 April 1939, no. 15, pl. V). Carl Heumann [1886-1945], Chemnitz (Lugt 2841a). Helmut Domitzlaff, Munich. (Galerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich), in 1996. Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.[2][1] When Austria was annexed by Nazi Germany in 1938, Marianne Schmidl was subjected to persecution as a Jew. This led to her immediate involuntary retirement from her position at the Austrian National Library in Vienna. Due to her resulting precarious financial situation, Ms. Schmidl was forced to sell off the valuable drawings that she had inherited from her parents in order to pay the newly imposed "Jewish Property Tax" and for her general livelihood. Marianne Schmidl was deported to Poland on 9 April 1942 where she was killed.[2] In 2016, the heirs of Marianne Schmidl and the National Gallery of Art came to a mutually acceptable agreement by which the Olivier remains in the collection of the National Gallery of Art. A second drawing from her collection (Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld, A Branch with Shriveled Leaves, formerly NGA 2007.111.160) was returned to the family.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139206.htmlPrinces of Liechtenstein, Vienna and Vaduz (Lugt 4398). Richard Tüngel [1893-1970], Ahrensburg. Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139304.htmlHerman Walter de Zoete; (sale, Christie's London, 6 December 1972, no. 40); Herbert List, Munich; Ursula and Adolf Ratjen, Vaduz, for Wolfgang Ratjen; Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139323.htmlRichard Houlditch, London (died 1736) (Lugt 2214); The Earl of Harewood; the Earl of Harewood Charitable Trust; (sale, Christie's London, 2 July 1985, no. 35); Wolfgang Ratjen [1943-1997], Vaduz and Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.133453.htmlFranz von Brentano [1838-1917], Wurzberg and Vienna, acquired from the artist in the 1850s/1860s (dealer notes); (Katrin Bellinger Kunsthandel, Munich); purchased 2005 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.86972.htmlAnton Schmid, Vienna; (Galerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich); purchased 1994 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.118731.htmlProbably (Moderne Galerie Heinrich Thannhauser, Munich).[1] Dr. Walter Minnich [1864-1940], Montreaux; gift 1937 to the Kunstmuseum, Lucerne; (sale, Klipstein & Kornfeld, Bern, 25-26 May 1962, no. 931); London art market; private collection, Rome; [2] (Galerie Anne Abels, Cologne); sold c. 1970 to Mr. and Mrs. Arnold Saltzman, Sands Point, New York; [3] gift (partial and promised) 2000 to NGA.[1] A seal of the Galerie Thannhauser is recorded as having been on the back of the painting, on the stretcher, when it was sold in 1962. However this seal is no longer evident. [2] Post 1962 sale provenance according to Aya Soika, Max Pechstein : das Werkverzeichnis der Ölgemälde, Munich, 2011, p. 326, repro.[3] The Saltzmans lent the painting to the 1970 exhibition in Ithaca and Rochester.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139294.htmlAugust Grahl, Dresden [1791 - 1868] (Lugt 1199); (his sale, Sotheby's London, 28 April 1885, no. 324, as Perino del Vaga). (sale, Max Perl, Berlin, 8-9 November 1926, no. 505). (sale, Weinmüller, Munich, 20-21 May 1941, no. 704). (sale, C. G. Boerner, Leipzig, 19 February 1942, no. 526). Bernhard Funck [1895-1993], Munich (not in Lugt). Herbert List [1903-1975], Munich (Lugt 4063); Ursula and Adolf Ratjen, Vaduz, for Wolfgang Ratjen; Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased by NGA, 2007.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.91589.htmlPurchased from the artist by Wilhelm Uhde, 1906; (Galerie Caspari, Munich); sold 1915 to Hertha Koenig [1884-1976], Munich;[1] sold 1950 to (Justin K. Thannhauser, New York);[2] W. Somerset Maugham, St.-Jean-Cap-Ferrat; (his sale, Sotheby's, London, 10 April 1962, no. 26); purchased by (Hector Brame, Paris) for Mr. and Mrs. Paul Mellon, Upperville, VA; gift to NGA, 1996.[1] Christian Geelhaar, Picasso. Wegbereiter und Foerderer seines Aufsteigs 1899-1939, Zurich, c. 1993: 73-75. [2] Correspondence in the Thannhauser files at ZADIK [Zentralarchiv des Internationalen Kunsthandels, Cologne], transcriptions in NGA curatorial files.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139320.html(sale, Helmut Tenner, Heidelberg, 9-10 October 1958, no. 2940; Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139098.html(sale, Sotheby's London, 3 July 1980, no. 76); Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139093.htmlBrunet-Lotter collection, Tours; by 1947 to Jacques Petithory, Paris [1929-1992] (not in Lugt); Wolfgang Ratjen [1943-1997], Vaduz and Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139329.html(Thomas LeClaire, Hamburg); Wolfgang Ratjen [1943-1997], Vaduz and Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139332.htmlPierre-Jean Mariette, Paris [1694 - 1774] (Lugt 1852); (his sale, Paris, 1775, no. 607); LeBrun. William Esdaile, London [1758 - 1837] (Lugt 2617); (his sale, Christie's London, 18 June 1840, no. 29; Mr. Sheath. Thomas Thane, London [1782 - 1846] (Lugt 2433). Jacques Petithory, Paris (not in Lugt). Private collection, Boston; Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139334.htmlCarlo Prayer, Milan [1826 - 1900] (Lugt 2044). Juan and Felix Bernasconi, 1977 (not in Lugt); by descent; (sale, Christie's London, 7 July 1987, no. 70); (Stephen Somerville Ltd., London); Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139264.htmlRichard Holtkott [1866-1950], Bedburg. David Lachenmann, Munich; Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139344.htmlJohn Skippe; by descent to Edward Holland Martin; (sale, Christie's London, 21 November 1958, no. 4, as Michelangelo Anselmi); Private collection, England; (sale, Christie's London, 1 July 1997, no. 30). Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139314.htmlJonathan Richardson, Sr., London (1665 - 1745)(Lugt 2184). Sir Thomas Lawrence. Sir J. C. Robinson, London (1824 - 1913) (Lugt 1433). John Malcolm. The Hon. A. E. Gathorne-Hardy; Geoffrey Gathorne-Hardy; the Hon. Robert Gathorne-Hardy; (his sale, Sotheby's London, 24 November 1976, no. 15); Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased by NGA, 2007
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.107181.htmlGalerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich; purchased 1998 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.107205.htmlGalerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich; purchased 1998 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.107197.htmlGalerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich; purchased 1998 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.107196.htmlGalerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich; purchased 1998 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.107198.htmlGalerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich; purchased 1998 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.107199.htmlGalerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich; purchased 1998 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.107189.htmlGalerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich; purchased 1998 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.107187.htmlGalerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich; purchased 1998 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.107165.htmlGalerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich; purchased 1998 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.107169.htmlGalerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich; purchased 1998 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.107168.htmlGalerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich; purchased 1998 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.107184.htmlGalerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich; purchased 1998 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.107164.htmlGalerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich; purchased 1998 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.107204.htmlGalerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich; purchased 1998 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.107166.htmlGalerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich; purchased 1998 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.107206.htmlGalerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich; purchased 1998 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.107203.htmlGalerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich; purchased 1998 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.107190.htmlGalerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich; purchased 1998 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.107178.htmlGalerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich; purchased 1998 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.107182.htmlGalerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich; purchased 1998 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.107167.htmlGalerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich; purchased 1998 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.107188.htmlGalerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich; purchased 1998 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.107201.htmlGalerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich; purchased 1998 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.107163.htmlGalerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich; purchased 1998 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.107202.htmlGalerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich; purchased 1998 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.107183.htmlGalerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich; purchased 1998 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.107180.htmlGalerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich; purchased 1998 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.107179.htmlGalerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich; purchased 1998 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.107200.htmlGalerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich; purchased 1998 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.107193.htmlGalerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich; purchased 1998 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.107195.htmlGalerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich; purchased 1998 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.107170.htmlGalerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich; purchased 1998 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.107173.htmlGalerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich; purchased 1998 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.107175.htmlGalerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich; purchased 1998 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.107172.htmlGalerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich; purchased 1998 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.107176.htmlGalerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich; purchased 1998 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.107171.htmlGalerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich; purchased 1998 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.107174.htmlGalerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich; purchased 1998 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.107194.htmlGalerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich; purchased 1998 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.107177.htmlGalerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich; purchased 1998 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.107192.htmlGalerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich; purchased 1998 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.107185.htmlGalerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich; purchased 1998 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.107191.htmlGalerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich; purchased 1998 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.12131.htmlCommissioned by the sitter, then by inheritance in the Altoviti family, Rome and later Florence;[1] sold November 1808 via Johann Metzger to Ludwig I, King of Bavaria [1786-1868]; presented to the Alte Pinakothek, Munich; traded September 1938 to (Thos. Agnew and Sons, Ltd., London);[2] sold October 1938 to (Duveen Brothers, Inc., London, New York, and Paris);[3] sold 1940 to the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, New York; gift 1943 to NGA.[1] The complete provenance of this painting is described in David Alan Brown and Jane Van Nimmen, Raphael & the Beautiful Banker, New Haven and London, 2005.[2] Regarding deaccessions from the Pinakothek, see also Jonathan Petropoulos, The Faustian Bargain, Oxford, 2000: 31+. [3] The painting is listed in the General Stock Book of Duveen Brothers that covers the period 1 June 1937 to April 1941 (copy in NGA curatorial files; Duveen Brothers Records, Accession No. 960015, Getty Research Institute, Los Angeles, Reel 66, Box 186).
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139230.html(sale, C. G. Boerner, Leipzig, 6 June 1937, no. 156). Alice Haniel née Bloem, Wistinghausen; Angelika von Lüttichau-Haniel, Bad Godesberg. (sale, Karl & Faber, Munich, 11 November 1979, no. 94). Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139112.htmlDr. Ralph Grosse, Frankfurt am Main. Prof. Dr. Friedrich Winkler, Berlin; Eva Denckler-Winkler, Zurich, 1981. Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139204.htmlRichard Tüngel (1893-1970), Ahrensburg. Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.117377.htmlDomitzlaff Collection, Munich. (Galerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich); purchased 2000 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.117370.htmlDomitzlaff Collection, Munich. (Galerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich); purchased 2000 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.117378.htmlDomitzlaff Collection, Munich. (Galerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich); purchased 2000 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.117376.htmlDomitzlaff Collection, Munich. (Galerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich); purchased 2000 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.117375.htmlDomitzlaff Collection, Munich. (Galerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich); purchased 2000 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139137.htmlAlexander Flinsch [1834-1912], Berlin; (his sale, C. G. Boerner, Leipzig, 29-30 November 1912, no. 63). Princes of Liechtenstein, Vaduz (Lugt 4398). (Galerie Fischer, Lucerne). David Lachenmann, Munich; Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased by NGA 2007.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.117380.htmlDomitzlaff Collection, Munich. (Galerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich); purchased 2000 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.117382.htmlDomitzlaff Collection, Munich. (Galerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich); purchased 2000 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.117384.htmlDomitzlaff Collection, Munich. (Galerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich); purchased 2000 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.117386.htmlDomitzlaff Collection, Munich. (Galerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich); purchased 2000 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.117383.htmlDomitzlaff Collection, Munich. (Galerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich); purchased 2000 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.117372.htmlDomitzlaff Collection, Munich. (Galerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich); purchased 2000 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.117368.htmlDomitzlaff Collection, Munich. (Galerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich); purchased 2000 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.117385.htmlDomitzlaff Collection, Munich. (Galerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich); purchased 2000 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.117387.htmlDomitzlaff Collection, Munich. (Galerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich); purchased 2000 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.117374.htmlDomitzlaff Collection, Munich. (Galerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich); purchased 2000 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.117371.htmlDomitzlaff Collection, Munich. (Galerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich); purchased 2000 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.117366.htmlDomitzlaff Collection, Munich. (Galerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich); purchased 2000 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.117367.htmlDomitzlaff Collection, Munich. (Galerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich); purchased 2000 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.117373.htmlDomitzlaff Collection, Munich. (Galerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich); purchased 2000 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.117369.htmlDomitzlaff Collection, Munich. (Galerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich); purchased 2000 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.117381.htmlDomitzlaff Collection, Munich. (Galerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich); purchased 2000 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.117379.htmlDomitzlaff Collection, Munich. (Galerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich); purchased 2000 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139252.htmlJohan August Gottleib Weigel (1773-1846), Leipzig; Theodor Oswald Weigel (1812-1881); (J.A.G. Weigel sale, Gutekunst, Stuttgart, 15 May 1883, no. 1243). (Karl & Faber, Munich). (August Laube Antiquariat, Zurich). (David Tunick, Inc., New York) 1985. (Galerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich) 1987. Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139132.htmlJohan August Gottleib Weigel (1773-1846), Leipzig; Theodor Oswald Weigel (1812-1881); (J.A.G. Weigel sale, Gutekunst, Stuttgart, 15 May 1883, no. 1221 [?]). Sir John Clermont Witt (1907-1982), London (Lugt 646a). Private collection; (sale, Sotheby's, London, 1 July 1991, no. 30). Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.46081.htmlWilhelm Sattler and his son, Jens Sattler [d. 1901], Schloss Mainberg (near Kitzingen), before 1826; (Sattler sale, Rudolph Lepke Kunst-Auction-Haus, Berlin, 29 October-2 November 1901, no. 63);[1] Benoit Oppenheim [1842-1931], Berlin, until at least 1927;[2] Munich art market;[3] Henry Goldman [1857-1937], New York, by 1934;[4] (Duveen Brothers, Inc., London, New York, and Paris), by 1942;[5] sold 1944 to the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, New York;[6] gift by exchange 1961 to NGA.[1] Justus Bier, "The Bust of a Bishop by Tilmann Riemenschneider," Art Quarterly 6 (1943): 166, n. 3.[2] Max J. Friedländer, "Review of Eduard Tönnies, Leben und Weke des Würzburger Bildschnitzers Tilmann Riemenschneider, Strasbourg, 1901," RfK 24 (1901): 468; Benoit Oppenheim, Originalbildwerke in Holz, Stein, Elfenbein, usw. aus der Sammlung Benoit Oppenheim, Berlin, Leipzig, 1907: no. 10, pl. 6; Kurt Prister, Riemenschneider, Dresden, 1927: 34.[3] Bier 1943, 159.[4] Justus Bier, "Tilman Riemenschneider," in Thieme-Becker 28 (1934): 334; Bier 1943, 159. Undated Duveen brochure, in NGA curatorial files.[5] George Swarzenski to Edward Fowles of Duveen Brothers, letter of 9 May 1942, copy in NGA curatorial files.[6] Middeldorf 1976, 125.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.131948.htmlKatrin Bellinger Kunsthandel, Munich and London (sale, Galerie Gerda Bassenge, Berlin, 3 December 2004, no. 5707); (C. G. Boerner Inc., New York); purchased 2005 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.74282.htmlJulius Böhler, Munich, GER; Mrs. John Pope, Washington, DC, c. 1964; gift to NGA, 1991.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139330.htmlPrivate Collection, Paris. (Thomas Le Claire, Hamburg); Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.134578.htmlArt market, London, c. 1970; private collection, Austria; purchased 14 February 2006 through (Kunsthandel S. Mehringer, Munich) by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139106.htmlWilliam, Second Duke of Devonshire, Chatsworth (1665 - 1729) (Lugt 718). C. Robert Rudolph, London (b. 1884) (Lugt 2811b); (his sale, Sotheby Mak van Waay, Amsterdam, 18 April 1977, no. 28). Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.110655.htmlJosef Karl Stieler (Lugt undescribed). Paul Arndt, Munich [1865 - 1937] (Lugt 2067b).[1] (sale, Karl und Faber, Munich, June 1958, no. 384). Busche Collection, Dortmund. Stiftung Ratjen, Vaduz. (Galerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich, 1999); purchased 1999 by NGA.[1]This drawing does not appear in the catalogue of the 1934 sale of the Arndt collection held in Leipzig.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.43721.htmlPierre-Louis-Paul Randon de Boisset [1708-1776], Paris; (his estate sale, Paris, 27 February 1777, no. 31).[1] Destouches, Paris; (his sale, A.J. LeBrun and Ph. Fr. Jueliot, Paris, 21 March 1794, no. 5); John Trumbull [1756-1843], Paris and New York; (his sale, Christie's, London, 17 February 1797, no. 25). Fritz August von Kaulbach [1850-1920], Munich;[2] (his estate sale, Hugo Helbing, Munich, 29-30 October 1929, no. 194).[3] (Frederick Mont, Inc., New York); sold 8 February 1955 to the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, New York; gift 1957 to NGA.[1] Julius S. Held, The Oil Sketches of Peter Paul Rubens. A Critical Catalogue, 2 vols., Princeton, 1980: 1:25 questions whether NGA 1957.14.2 was in this sale because the catalogue describes the work as being on panel whereas an old inscription on the verso of the painting once indicated that it had been transferred from panel to canvas in 1773 (see note 3). Held's reservations, however, seem unwarranted since the description of the scene (even though the subject is wrongly interpreted as "Germanicus à qui on harangue ou donne des orders à cinq officiers...") and the dimensions conform to the Gallery's painting.[2] Oldenbourg, Rudolf, ed. P.P. Rubens. Des Meisters Gemälde. Berlin and Leipzig, 1921: 460.[3] An inscription on the verso of the painting was recorded in the 1929 sales catalogue as reading: "relevé de sure bois et remis sure toile par hacquin en 1773." Colin Eisler, Paintings from the Samuel H. Kress Collection: European Schools Excluding Italian, Oxford, 1977: 105, lists the Newhouse Galleries, New York, at this point in the provenance; Mont was associated with Newhouse. The copy of the Helbing sale catalogue in the Knoedler Library German Sales microfiche is not annotated with a buyer's name.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139200.html(sale, Karl & Faber, Munich, 27 May 1971, no. 407). Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139109.htmlRunge's estate; by descent to his son, Otto Sigismund Runge, Hamburg; left by him to the Hamburger Künstlerverein, Hamburg. (sale, C. G. Boerner, Leipzig, 19 June 1937, no. 184). Alice Haniel née Bloem, Wistinghausen. Angelika von Lüttichau-Haniel, Bad Godesberg. (Karl & Faber, 28 November 1979, no. 112). Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.128371.htmlLouis (or Léopold) Hirsch, Paris. (sale Objets du xviiie siècle appartenant à Divers Amateurs..., Paris, 14 March 1964, no. 3, reproduced plate II, 3). (Bernheimer, Munich); purchased by NGA 2004.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139281.html(Maître Eric Boureau auction, Coutances, Normandy, 22 February 1997, no. 2). Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139126.htmlSalathé's estate. (Kurt Meissner, Zurich). Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.112271.htmlEstate of the artist, Basel 1913, inv. no. 46; Kurt Meissner, Zurich; Stiftung Wolfgang Ratjen, Vaduz; (Katrin Bellinger, Kunsthandel, Munich); purchased 2000 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139331.htmlPaignon-Dijonval, France. George Usslaub, Marseille (born 1845) (Lugt 1221). Jacques Petithory, Paris (not in Lugt). Private collection, Geneva; Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.46086.htmlA villa in Fasano, Lago di Garda.[1] Baron Max von Heyl, Darmstadt; (Julius Böhler, Munich); sold 30 July 1931 to William Randolph Hearst [1863-1951], San Simeon, California.[2] (Duveen Brothers, Inc., London, New York, and Paris); sold 1949 to the Samuel H. Kress Foundation, New York; gift 1961 to NGA.[1] according to Ulrich Middeldorf, Complete Catalogue of the Samuel H. Kress Collection: European Sculptures XIV-XIX Century, London, 1976: 75.[2] Information about Hearst's ownership can be found in The William Randolph Hearst Collection: photographs and acquisition records on microfiche, Taylor Coffman, ed., New York, 1987: fiche 252. Mary Levkoff of the Los Angeles County Museum of Art kindly brought these records to the NGA's attention (see her letter of 19 September 2006 in NGA curatorial files). It appears from a hand-written notation on the typed information sheet in the Hearst files that the sculpture was sold at the 1942 Gimbel Brothers sale of the Hearst collection. This is possibly where Duveen Brothers purchased it.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.107207.htmlHeinrich Wilhelm Campe, Leipzig (Lugt 1391); Katrin Bellinger, Munich; gift to NGA, 1998.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139104.htmlDr. August Heymann [b. 1857] Vienna. Bernhard Funck [1895-1993], Munich; acquired 1974 by Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139105.htmlDr. August Heymann [b. 1857], Vienna. Bernhard Funck [1895-1993], Munich; acquired 1974 by Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.92282.htmlAdolf Glüenstein [born 1849], Hamburg (Lugt 123); (sale Frankfurt, Prestel, 1-3 January 1920, lot 135); (Franz Meyer, Antiquariat, Dresden); Richard von Kühlmann [1873-1948], Germany; (Katrin Bellinger, Munich); purchased by NGA, 1995.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139269.html(Galerie H.W. Fichter, Frankfurt am Main) 1992. Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139259.htmlPrivate collection. (sale, Schneider-Henn, Munich, 14 May 1990, no. 82). Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139113.htmlFriedrich Wilhelm IV [1795-1861], King of Prussia; presented 20 January 1845 to the Schinkel Museum, Berlin, inventory number S. 202 N.5 (Lugt 2362c); returned 11 February 1845 to the King; Fürstlich Schaumburg-Lippesche Hofbibliothek, Bückeburg, Inv. no. 35384; (sold, Kunsthandel Groth, Berlin, 9 May 1935). Private collection, Berlin, possibly Friedrich Winkler; Eva Dencker-Winkler, Zurich. Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich, 1997. Purchased 2007 by NGA
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139114.htmlFriedrich Wilhelm IV [1795-1861], King of Prussia; presented 20 January 1845 to the Schinkel Museum, Berlin, inventory number S. 202 N.5 (Lugt 2362c); returned 11 February 1845 to the King; Fürstlich Schaumburg-Lippesche Hofbibliothek, Bückeburg, Inv. no. 35384; (sold, Kunsthandel Groth, Berlin, 9 May 1935). Private collection, Berlin, possibly Friedrich Winkler; Eva Dencker-Winkler, Zurich. Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich, 1997. Purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139116.htmlFriedrich Wilhelm IV [1795-1861], King of Prussia; presented 20 January 1845 to the Schinkel Museum, Berlin, inventory number S. 202 N.5 (Lugt 2362c); returned 11 February 1845 to the King; Fürstlich Schaumburg-Lippesche Hofbibliothek, Bückeburg, Inv. no. 35384; (sold, Kunsthandel Groth, Berlin, 9 May 1935). Private collection, Berlin, possibly Friedrich Winkler; Eva Dencker-Winkler, Zurich. Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich, 1997. Purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139119.htmlFriedrich Wilhelm IV [1795-1861], King of Prussia; presented 20 January 1845 to the Schinkel Museum, Berlin, inventory number S. 202 N.5 (Lugt 2362c); returned 11 February 1845 to the King; Fürstlich Schaumburg-Lippesche Hofbibliothek, Bückeburg, Inv. no. 35384; (sold, Kunsthandel Groth, Berlin, 9 May 1935). Private collection, Berlin, possibly Friedrich Winkler; Eva Dencker-Winkler, Zurich. Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich, 1997. Purchased 2007 by NGA
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139117.htmlFriedrich Wilhelm IV [1795-1861], King of Prussia; presented 20 January 1845 to the Schinkel Museum, Berlin, inventory number S. 202 N.5 (Lugt 2362c); returned 11 February 1845 to the King; Fürstlich Schaumburg-Lippesche Hofbibliothek, Bückeburg, Inv. no. 35384; (sold, Kunsthandel Groth, Berlin, 9 May 1935). Private collection, Berlin, possibly Friedrich Winkler; Eva Dencker-Winkler, Zurich. Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich, 1997. Purchased 2007 by NGA
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139118.htmlFriedrich Wilhelm IV [1795-1861], King of Prussia; presented 20 January 1845 to the Schinkel Museum, Berlin, inventory number S. 202 N.5 (Lugt 2362c); returned 11 February 1845 to the King; Fürstlich Schaumburg-Lippesche Hofbibliothek, Bückeburg, Inv. no. 35384; (sold, Kunsthandel Groth, Berlin, 9 May 1935). Private collection, Berlin, possibly Friedrich Winkler; Eva Dencker-Winkler, Zurich. Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich, 1997. Purchased 2007 by NGA
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139115.htmlFriedrich Wilhelm IV [1795-1861], King of Prussia; presented 20 January 1845 to the Schinkel Museum, Berlin, inventory number S. 202 N.5 (Lugt 2362c); returned 11 February 1845 to the King; Fürstlich Schaumburg-Lippesche Hofbibliothek, Bückeburg, Inv. no. 35384; (sold, Kunsthandel Groth, Berlin, 9 May 1935). Private collection, Berlin, possibly Friedrich Winkler; Eva Dencker-Winkler, Zurich. Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich, 1997. Purchased 2007 by NGA
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139227.html(Paul Prouté, Paris). (sale, Galerie am Neumarkt, Zurich, 3 November 1972, no. 214). (sale, Arno Winterberg, Heidelberg, 4 May 1979, no. 856). Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139228.html(Paul Prouté, Paris). (sale, Galerie am Neumarkt, Zurich, 3 November 1972, no. 214). (sale, Arno Winterberg, Heidelberg, 4 May 1979, no. 856). Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139242.htmlSir Thomas Lawrence, London (1769 - 1830) (Lugt 2445). John MacGowen, Edinburgh, (late 18th century) (Lugt 1496). Armand Gobiet [1902-1975], Salzburg. Dr. Georg Schaller, Bairawies über Wolfratshausen. (sale, Karl & Faber, Munich, 5-6 June 1984, no. 1). Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139248.htmlJohann Christoph Endris, Vienna; (his sale, C.J. Wawra, Vienna, 4 May 1891, no. 273) Dr. Gustav Jurie von Lavandal, Vienna. Princes of Liechtenstein, Vienna and Vaduz.(Lugt 4398) (sale, Roman Norbert Ketterer, Stuttgart, 30 October 1956, no. 280). Gustav Stein, Cologne. (Galerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich) 1986. Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139262.html(C. G. Boerner Inc., Dusseldorf). (sale, Stuttgarter Kunstkabinett, 30 October 1956, no. 293). Gustav Stein, Cologne. (Galerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich) 1990. Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139229.htmlElse Sohn-Rethel, Dusseldorf. Alice Haniel, née Bloem; Angelika von Lüttichau-Haniel, Bad Godesberg. (sale, Karl & Faber, Munich, 28 November 1979, no. 9, as Peter von Cornelius). Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.127761.html(Galerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich); purchased 2003 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.127893.htmlEstate of the artist; Dr. Demmer-Siebert ; Ingeborg Tremmel;(sale, Ketterer Kunst, Munich, 5 May 2003, no. 318); (via Artemis Fine Arts Inc., New York); purchased 2003 by NGA.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.103792.htmlHelmut Domizlaff, Munich. (Galerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich); purchased by NGA, 1998.
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.103608.html