Showing posts with label NLP. Show all posts
Showing posts with label NLP. Show all posts

Aug 12, 2021

Jul 18, 2021

Looted Art Detector Tool: Swiss GLAMHACK2021



Objective: Identify high priority artworks for provenance research


Description: Online Free Digital Tool



Approach: Automatic text analysis using frequency counts

note: The frequency counts target textual indicators of UNCERTAINTY, UNRELIABILITY,  or ANONYMITY, as well as the possible presence of RED FLAG names related to NAZI-looted art, forced sales and duress sales. 
The resulting calculations do not signify that an artwork is looted. They simply quantify observations concerning the text for further analysis.

How it works: 

Dec 27, 2019

Nazi-era Provenance Gaps and Digital Analytics: A Stunning Lack of Progress

As 2019 draws to a close, one is astonished at how little digital analysis has been published concerning artworks that changed hands during the Nazi era and still have provenance gaps today.


Powerful digital tools exist. Yet they are not used by the Nazi-era art provenance research community. 

  • There is no "dashboard".
  • No "at-a-glance" executive summary that tells us how the different museums and institutions around the world are advancing in their provenance research projects related to the persecution of the Jews during the Nazi era. 
  • No "Transparency/Opacity Index" to identify institutions that do and do not publish provenance
  • No executive management tool (with goals, tasks, resources, action items and persons responsible) for ensuring that provenance information is publicly available, much less accurate.  
  • No single database that brings together provenances that have already been published publicly. 
  • No world map that compares the pre-1932 location of Jewish-owned artworks and their current location today.
  • No digital network analysis of the art dealers, collectors, institutions, publishers, and experts who collectively managed to shift artworks once owned by Jewish collectors in Europe to other hands.
  • No database of fake provenances, (and authors of fake provenances), even though "errors" in provenance texts correlate significantly with illicit transactions that a person or persons has tried concealed
  • No attempt at pattern detection in the provenance texts, though tools for regression analysis and even AI are becoming mainstream

Here we are in the digital age, but only the tiniest fraction of the power of the digital tools available has been applied to the problem of the Nazi-era art market. 


The task is massive, as everyone knows. Each individual artwork can take years to research. Archives are missing, hidden, destroyed, manipulated. Access is hard to obtain. Partial. But even amid all these obstacles, there is plenty that can be done in using digital tools to gain insights from the research that already exists. 



Let 2020 be the watershed year in the use of advanced digital tools to track, expose and analyse Nazi-era art provenance gaps.


Perhaps the recent interest in the cultural heritage of colonial era transfers from Africa, Asia and other lands will infuse new energy  and more advanced digital methodologies into provenance research.

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image credit:
Font Awesome by Dave Gandy - https://fortawesome.github.com/Font-Awesome [CC BY-SA 3.0], via Wikimedia Commons

Dec 20, 2019

ART PROVENANCE DATASET: Origins Unknown: artworks recovered from Germany after WWII and held by the Dutch state

The Netherlands, which saw more than 75% of its Jews murdered in the Holocaust*, has created a website for "what remains of the artworks recuperated from Germany after World War II and is managed by the State". 

The Nederlands Kunstbezit collection, or NK-COLLECTION, includes around 4,700 paintings (approx. 1,600), drawings, prints, ceramics, silverware, furniture, carpets and other special art objects. The artworks are currently located in a variety of places: Dutch museums, embassies and government buildings, as well as  the Cultural Heritage Agency (RCE) depot.** 

The "Origins Unknown Agency" (Bureau Herkomst Gezocht  or "BHG")  was created in 1998, however digitisation and online publication only began in 2015. (see Origins Unknown)

Several databases are public and can be consulted, item by item. However, there is not to our knowledge at present an easy way to download all the provenance files in order to analyse them with advanced digital tools outside of Holland.

This first dataset is an attempt to facilitate access to the public provenance information published online by the Dutch authorities, and to put it in a form that will facilitate digital analysis.


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  Name of Dataset: 
Origins Unknown: File One Version 1

  Description: 
Detailed information, including provenance, of 1638 artworks selected from the artworks listed on the Origins Unknown public website.

  Public Data Source:  

  Artwork Provenance Version Date : 
December 20, 2019 

  File Format: 

 URL for Download
https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/e/2PACX-1vQjJaX6wDx0Cx0s2jdtYnvnCsC09XFt84ErzQRN_yVJkVq98DDrYmptO90JDyvrsfNoW79tFaIAttgm/pub?gid=449322899&single=true&output=csv

Example of some of the information included Provenance Dataset


UrlHerkomstgezocht NlTitleInventarisnummerTitleArtistFindingsReconstruction Origin History
http://herkomstgezocht.nl/en/nk-collection/rocky-landscape-waterfallOrigins Unknown AgencyRocky landscape with waterfallNK1835Rocky landscape with waterfallAnoniemThe provenance data are inconclusive. It is not known when and from whom J.H.J. Mellaart purchased this painting.Mellaart, J.H.J. Borgharen ICN inventariskaart, Archief SNK 183, 227, 436, 866, Bundesarchiv Koblenz B323 nr.574;Fach, J. Frankfurt am Main ICN inventariskaart, Archief SNK 183, 227, 436, 866, Bundesarchiv Koblenz B323 nr.574;Herwig, G. Frankfurt Archief SNK nr.227;Declaration;Registration;Number Wie 4525 Naam: München (Collecting point)
http://herkomstgezocht.nl/en/nk-collection/still-life-dead-birdsOrigins Unknown AgencyStill life with dead birdsNK2557Still life with dead birdsFyt, J.This painting was returned to its rightful owner in 2006.Cavens, Comte Brussel Archief SNK nr.190, 243, 861, G.A.A. 1341 nr.38, Tent.cat. Goudstikker, Den Haag, november 1924, nr.44;Roi, Le GAA 1341 nr.38;1924-11 1940-07-13 Goudstikker, J. Amsterdam (2) Archief SNK nr.243, 861, GAA 1341 nr.38, 79,, Archief NBI nr.021080, Tent.cat. Goudstikker, Den Haag, november 1924, nr.44;1940-07-13 Göring, H. Berlin GAA nr.113, Archief NBI nr.021080;Goudstikker/Miedl Amsterdam (2) Archief SNK nr.190, Bundesarchiv Koblenz B323 nr.574, Archief NBI nr.021080;Rijkskanselarij Berlin Archief SNK nr.190, 243, 861;Führermuseum Linz Bundesarchiv Koblenz B323 nr.574;Declaration;Registration;Number 996 Naam: Goudstikker
http://herkomstgezocht.nl/en/nk-collection/camelOrigins Unknown AgencyA camelNK1179A camelBauer, M.A.J.The provenance data are conclusive.1930-12 1943-08-10 Westendorp-Osieck, B. Amsterdam (2) Mr H.K. Westendorp, the husband of B. Westendorp-Osieck who died in 1941, had - over the course of decades - acquired a collection of Marius Bauer etchings from kunsthandel Van Wisselingh, who controlled the sale of all Bauer etchings. Payments for the purchase of Bauer etchings by Westendorp were found in Van Wisselingh's archives dating from 1893 to December 1930. Archief SNK nr.385, 910, Bundesarchiv Koblenz B323 nr.575, Archief Van Wisselingh nr.139, 141, 142;1943-08-10 1943-08-10 Wisselingh & Co, E.J. van Amsterdam (2) On 10 August 1943, the collection of Bauer etchings was purchased as a whole by kunsthandel Van Wisselingh from Mrs B. Westendorp-Osieck. The collection was resold to E. Göpel by Van Wisselingh on the same day. Archief SNK nr.385, 910, Bundesarchiv Koblenz B323 nr.575, Archief Van Wisselingh nr.112;1943-08-10 1943-08-10 Göpel, E. The Hague Archief SNK nr.385;1943-08-10 Führermuseum Linz Archief SNK nr.385, 910, Bundesarchiv Koblenz B323 nr.575;Declaration;Registration;Number W 99 Naam: Wisselingh
http://herkomstgezocht.nl/en/nk-collection/head-madonnaOrigins Unknown AgencyHead of MadonnaNK2339Head of MadonnaLorenzo MonacoThe provenance data are conclusive. Belonged to the former O. Lanz collection.Certosa Florence Archief SNK nr.273;Brauer, G. Nice Archief SNK nr.273;1935 1941-03-11 Lanz, O. Amsterdam (2) Archief SNK nr.433, 790, 862, 963, Bundesarchiv Koblenz B323 nr.574;1941-03-11 1941-03-11 Wickel, F.W. The Hague Archief SNK nr.433, 862, Archief Rijksmuseum nr.2456;1941-03-11 Posse, H. Linz Archief SNK nr.433, 862, Archief Rijksmuseum nr.2456;Führermuseum Linz Bundesarchiv Koblenz B323 nr.574;Declaration;Registration;Number L 99 Naam: Lanz
http://herkomstgezocht.nl/en/nk-collection/still-life-chinese-bowl-and-high-gilt-cupOrigins Unknown AgencyStill life with Chinese bowl and high gilt cupNK2491Still life with Chinese bowl and high gilt cupKalf, W.The provenance data are inconclusive. It is not known when and from whom M.J. Schiltman purchased this painting.1930 Diemen & Co. (1), Galerie van Berlin O. ter Kuile, Seventeenth-century North Netherlandish Still Lifes, Den Haag, 1985, p.126;1930-03-15 Ploeg, H. van der Amsterdam (2) Archief kunsthandel P. de Boer;1930-03-15 1932-03-17 Boer, P. de Amsterdam (2) Archief kunsthandel P. de Boer;1932-03-17 1933-03 Hermsen, D. The Hague Archief SNK nr.184, O. ter Kuile, Seventeenth-century North Netherlandish Still Lifes, Den Haag, 1985, p.126, RKD fotodocumentatie;Schiltman (2), M.J. Amsterdam (2) This painting was sold during the war to the Museum Karlsruhe. ICN inventariskaart, Archief SNK nr.184, 435, 863, Bundesarchiv Koblenz B323 nr.575;Museum Karlsruhe Karlsruhe Archief SNK nr.184, 435, Bundesarchiv Koblenz B323 nr.575;Declaration;Registration;Number 985 Naam: De Boer
http://herkomstgezocht.nl/en/nk-collection/young-mercury-stealing-cattle-herd-apolloOrigins Unknown AgencyThe young Mercury stealing cattle from the herd of ApolloNK2318The young Mercury stealing cattle from the herd of ApolloCampagnola, D.The provenance data are conclusive. Belonged to the former O. Lanz collection.1934 1941-03-11 Lanz, O. Amsterdam (2) Archief SNK nr.434, 863, 790, Cat. tent. Italiaansche kunst in Nederlandsch bezit, Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, 1934, nr.63;1941-03-11 1941-03-11 Wickel, F.W. The Hague Archief SNK nr.858, 862, Archief Rijksmuseum nr.2456;1941-03-11 Posse, H. Linz Archief SNK nr.434, 863, Archief Rijksmuseum nr.2456;Hitler, A. Archief SNK nr.434, 863;Führermuseum Linz Bundesarchiv Koblenz B323 nr.574;Declaration;Registration;Number 9808 Naam: München (Collecting point);Number 21 Naam: Lanz
http://herkomstgezocht.nl/en/nk-collection/vision-st-anthony-padua-or-st-francis-assisiOrigins Unknown AgencyThe vision of St. Anthony of Padua or St. Francis of AssisiNK2321The vision of St. Anthony of Padua or St. Francis of AssisiCarracci, L.The provenance data are conclusive. Belonged to the former O. Lanz collection.West London Archief SNK nr.433, 861, Tent.cat. Italiaansche kunst in Nederlandsch bezit, Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, 1934, nr.75;1934 1941-03-11 Lanz, O. Amsterdam (2) Archief SNK nr.433, 861, 790, 963, Bundesarchiv Koblenz B323 nr.574, Tent.cat. Italiaansche kunst in Nederlandsch bezit, Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, 1934, nr.75, Tent.cat. Verzameling Lanz, Verkorte catalogus, Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, 1940, nr.69;1941-03-11 1941-03-11 Wickel, F.W. The Hague Archief SNK nr.433, Archief Rijksmuseum nr.2456;1941-03-11 Posse, H. Linz Archief SNK nr.433, Archief Rijksmuseum nr.2456;Führermuseum Linz Archief SNK nr.433, Bundesarchiv Koblenz B323 nr.574;Declaration;Registration;Number 9803 Naam: München (Collecting point)
http://herkomstgezocht.nl/en/nk-collection/winter-landscape-7Origins Unknown AgencyWinter landscapeNK3115Winter landscapeOstade, I. vanThe provenance data are conclusive. Belonged to the former F. Mannheimer collection.Marigny Dr. C.Hofstede de Groot, Beschreibendes und Kritisches Verzeichnis der Werke der hervorragendsten Holländischen Maler des XVII. Jahrhunderts, London 1910, p.543, Der Reichskommissar für die Besetzten Niederländischen Gebiete / Dienststelle Mühlmann, Sichergestellte Kunstwerke in den besetzten Niederländischen Gebieten, Wenen, ca. 1941, p.5;1782-02 1782-02 Onbekend (Amsterdam) (2) Amsterdam (2) Dr. C.Hofstede de Groot, Beschreibendes und Kritisches Verzeichnis der Werke der hervorragendsten Holländischen Maler des XVII. Jahrhunderts, London 1910, p.543;1782-02 Menars, Marquis de Paris Archief SNK nr.433, 862, Dr. C.Hofstede de Groot, Beschreibendes und Kritisches Verzeichnis der Werke der hervorragendsten Holländischen Maler des XVII. Jahrhunderts, London 1910, p.543, Der Reichskommissar für die Besetzten Niederländischen Gebiete / Dienststelle Mühlmann, Sichergestellte Kunstwerke in den besetzten Niederländischen Gebieten, Wenen, ca. 1941, p.5;1801-02-23 Tolozan, C. Paris Archief SNK nr.433, 862, Dr. C.Hofstede de Groot, Beschreibendes und Kritisches Verzeichnis der Werke der hervorragendsten Holländischen Maler des XVII. Jahrhunderts, London 1910, p.543, Der Reichskommissar für die Besetzten Niederländischen Gebiete / Dienststelle Mühlmann, Sichergestellte Kunstwerke in den besetzten Niederländischen Gebieten, Wenen, ca. 1941, p.5;Winter, Van Amsterdam (2) Archief SNK nr.433, 862, Dr. C.Hofstede de Groot, Beschreibendes und Kritisches Verzeichnis der Werke der hervorragendsten Holländischen Maler des XVII. Jahrhunderts, London 1910, p.543, Der Reichskommissar für die Besetzten Niederländischen Gebiete / Dienststelle Mühlmann, Sichergestellte Kunstwerke in den besetzten Niederländischen Gebieten, Wenen, ca. 1941, p.5;1920-06-29 Six, Jonkheer J.W. Amsterdam (2) Archief SNK nr.433, 862, RKD fotodocumentatie, Dr. C.Hofstede de Groot, Beschreibendes und Kritisches Verzeichnis der Werke der hervorragendsten Holländischen Maler des XVII. Jahrhunderts, London 1910, p.543, Der Reichskommissar für die Besetzten Niederländischen Gebiete / Dienststelle Mühlmann, Sichergestellte Kunstwerke in den besetzten Niederländischen Gebieten, Wenen, ca. 1941, p.5;1920-06-29 1920-06-29 Frederik Muller Amsterdam (2) RKD fotodocumentatie;1935 1940 Mannheimer, F. Amsterdam (2) Archief SNK nr.24, 430, 433, 511, 549, 790, 862, 964, Bundesarchiv Koblenz B323 nr.575, RKD fotodocumentatie, O. von Falke, Katalog der Sammlung F.M., 1935-1936, nr.G6, A. Venema, Kunsthandel in Nederland 1940-1945, Amsterdam, 1986, p.601;1940 1941 Mühlmann, Dienststelle The Hague Archief SNK 433, 862, Bundesarchiv Koblenz B323 nr.575, A. Venema, Kunsthandel in Nederland 1940-1945, Amsterdam, 1986, p.601, Der Reichskommissar für die Besetzten Niederländischen Gebiete / Dienststelle Mühlmann, Sichergestellte Kunstwerke in den besetzten Niederländischen Gebieten, Wenen, ca. 1941, p.5.;Hitler, A. Archief SNK nr.433, 862;Führermuseum Linz Bundesarchiv Koblenz B323 nr.575;Declaration;Registration;Number 9606 Naam: München (Collecting point)
http://herkomstgezocht.nl/en/nk-collection/christ-and-his-apostles-mount-olivesOrigins Unknown AgencyChrist and his apostles on the Mount of OlivesNK2853Christ and his apostles on the Mount of OlivesAnoniemThe provenance data are inconclusive. It is unknown when and from whom J. Mühlmann purchased this painting.1941-03-10 Onbekend (Parijs) (3) Paris Bundesarchiv Koblenz B323 nr.57;1941-03-10 1941-03-10 Mühlmann, J. Zell am See J. Mühlmann was primarily active on the French art market. Bundesarchiv Koblenz B323 nr.57;1941-03-10 1944-02-09 Göring, H. Berlin Bundesarchiv Koblenz B323 nr.57, 72, etiket achterzijde (H-nummer);1944-02-09 1944-02-09 Hofer, W.A. Berlin Archief SNK nr.243, 439, 552, Bundesarchiv Koblenz B323 nr.57, 72, etiket achterzijde (H-nummer);1944-02-09 1944-04-15 Goudstikker/Miedl Amsterdam (2) ICN inventariskaart, Archief SNK nr.439, 552, Bundesarchiv Koblenz B323 nr.57, 72, etiket achterzijde, RKD inventariskaart Goudstikker/Miedl;1944-04-15 Schramm, H. Neuss Archief SNK nr.439, 552, RKD inventariskaart Goudstikker/Miedl;Declaration;Registration;Number H 96 Naam: Hofer
http://herkomstgezocht.nl/en/nk-collection/sea-battleOrigins Unknown AgencySea battleNK2363Sea battleBellevois, J.A.The provenance data are conclusive.Onbekend (Ierland) Ierland Archief SNK nr.182;1933-11 1940-09-26 Hoogendijk & Co., D.A. Amsterdam (2) Archief SNK nr.717, 721, 867, NARA RG239 box 77, RKD fotodocumentatie, Tent.cat. Schilderijen uit het bezit van D.A. Hoogendijk & Co., Amsterdam, oktober-november 1934, nr.3;Hofer, W.A. Berlin Archief SNK nr.717, 721, 867, NARA RG239 box 77;1940-09-26 Göring, H. Berlin Archief SNK nr.717, 721, 867, NARA RG239 box 77;Declaration;Registration;Number OS 945 Naam: Hoogendijk



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This is the first of several datasets concerning the "NK Origins Unknown" artworks. All comments and feedback appreciated for improving the presentation, transparency and usability.
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image source: NK1727 Bacchanalian festival. Carpioni, G. http://herkomstgezocht.nl/en/nk-collection/bacchanalian-festival

Reconstruction origin history
1940-04-09 Beets, N.Amsterdam (2)
ICN inventariskaart; Archief SNK nr.435, 865; Bundesarchiv Koblenz B323 nr.575; Tent.cat. Italiaansche kunst in Nederlandsch bezit, Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam, 1934, nr.74
1940-04-091940-04-09 Frederik MullerAmsterdam (2)
This painting was possibly not sold during the auction.
RKD geannoteerd exemplaar vlg.cat. Frederik Muller, Amsterdam, 9 april 1940, nr.298
1941-05-07 Esher SurreyThe Hague
ICN inventariskaart; Archief SNK nr.435, 865,790; Bundesarchiv Koblenz B323 nr.575
Hitler, A.
ICN inventariskaart; Archief SNK nr.435, 865
1941-05-07 FührermuseumLinz
Bundesarchiv Koblenz B323 nr.575

* see: Beyond Anne Frank: The Dutch Tell Their Full Holocaust Story

By NINA SIEGALJULY 17, 2016, NYT

** see: ORIGINS UNKNOWN AGENCY