Showing posts with label digital humanities. Show all posts
Showing posts with label digital humanities. Show all posts

May 19, 2024

Holocaust victims and refugees in art provenances

Museums and auction houses rarely mention that a name in a provenance of an artwork corresponds to a person who was robbed and murdered by the Nazis or a Jewish refugee fleeing to escape the Holocaust.

This Wikidata Sparql query displays a few of the art collector whose names are absolutely to be considered red flags in provenances because they either died in the Holocaust or were forced to flee to survive.

Wikidata query run 18 May 2024: Short link:

Table: Art Collectors and Dealers who died in the Holocaust or were forced to flee

Jan 16, 2024

Tracking Looted Art with Knowledge Graphs: A Wikidata Case Study

Art looting networks operate on many levels, many of them hidden, over long periods of time. The native graph function of Wikidata enhanced by federated queries can help track them.

April 9, 2022, Laurel Zuckerman

Graphs and Networks in the Humanities 2022 Technologies, Models, Analyses, and Visualizations

6th International Conference, 3. – 4. February 2022, Online

The 6th international conference on Graphs and Networks in the Humanities took place from Thursday 3. February to Friday 4. February 2022 online, co-organized by scholars from the Huygens Institute (Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences), the Academy of Sciences and Literature | Mainz, Vienna University, University of Leipzig, and the University Ca’ Foscari Venice

Paper: Tracking Looted Art with Graphs: A Case Study 

See also:

The Error is the Message: Extracting Insights from Deceptive Data for Nazi looted art


The Knowledge Graph Conference, 2023


Oct 18, 2022

Unnecessary mysteries

Signs that provenance research has gone off the rails include:

  • extremely long texts that leave the reader so confused that he/she concludes that there is no such thing as knowledge
  • massive use of words indicating uncertainty or unknowability
  • omission of crucial information that is available and which provides important context
  • mention of names which are known to be either persecuted Jewish collectors, Red Flag dealers of Nazi looted art, or associates with forgers WITHOUT mentioning that that's who they are
  • excessive speculation
  • false information

In this series of posts, we will examine a few remarkable examples of needlessly confusing provenance texts published by major museums. 


Sep 16, 2022

Yale University Art Gallery Selected Provenances Dataset 15 September 2022

Yale University Art Gallery  

Provenance texts as of September 15, 2022   

This art provenance dataset contains publicly available information originally published online by a cultural heritage institution which has been formatted as a CSV file for easy download and analysis with digital tools.  It is intended to facilitate research into Holocaust-era provenance for scholars, art historians and families. 

View selected provenances for European artworks

(created before 1945 and acquired after 1933, sample selection of 511 artworks. For complete list and most recent information, please contact the curator (

Download CSV 

Number of artworks by credit line in the dataset

Credit LineArtworks
Bequest of Maitland F. Griggs, B.A. 189654
Bequest of Dr. Herbert and Monika Schaefer39
Maitland F. Griggs, B.A. 1896, Fund27
Gift of Hannah D. and Louis M. Rabinowitz23
Leonard C. Hanna, Jr., Class of 1913, Fund18
Gift of Maitland F. Griggs, B.A. 189610
Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Paul Mellon, B.A. 1929, L.H.D. H 196710
Stephen Carlton Clark, B.A. 1903, Fund9
Gift of the Associates in Fine Arts7
Collection of Mary C. and James W. Fosburgh, B.A. 1933, M.A. 19357
Bequest of Andrew F. Petryn, B.A. 19436
Gift of George E. Dix, B.A. 1934, M.A. 19425
Bequest of Stephen Carlton Clark, B.A. 19035
Lent by The Barker Welfare Foundation, in memory of Catherine Barker and Charles V. Hickox, B.A. 19114
Gift of Walter Bareiss, B.S. 1940S4
Gift of Robert Lehman, B.A. 19134
Gift of Richard Carley Hunt, LL.B. 19084
Gift of Mark Landrum, B.A. 19614
Gift of Louis M. Rabinowitz4
Gift of Joanne and John Payson in memory of Joan Whitney Payson and Charles Shipman Payson, B.A. 19214
Gift of Helen G. Altschul, widow of Frank Altschul, B.A. 1908, J.D. (HON.) 19674
Bequest of Edith Malvina K. Wetmore4
Bequest of Doris M. Brixey4
Lent by The Barker Welfare Foundation, in memory of Catherine Barker and Charles V Hickox, B.A. 19113
Katharine Ordway Collection3
Hohenzollern-Schlaberg-Hughes Collection, Gift of Thomas Lowe Hughes, J.D. 19523
Gift of Mrs. Paul Moore3
Gift of Mrs. Laird Shields Goldsborough in memory of Mr. Laird Shields Goldsborough, B.A. 19243
Gift of Duncan Phillips, B.A. 19083
Gift of Allen Evarts Foster, B.A. 19063
University Purchase, Associates in Fine Arts Fund2
Robert Lehman Foundation Acquisition Fund for Early European and Modern and Contemporary Art2
Purchased with a gift from Nina Griggs2
Partial gift of Robert and Virginia Stern, parents of Adam C. Stern, B.A. 1982, in honor of all the families in Europe who were dispossessed during the Holocaust period 1933 to 1945, and purchased with the Leonard C. Hanna, Jr., Class of 1913, and Katharine Ordway Funds2
Mary Gertrude Abbey Fund2
Maitland F. Griggs, B.A. 1896, Fund and Leonard C. Hanna, Jr., Class of 1913, Fund2
Leonard C. Hanna, Jr., Class of 1913, Fund and the Maitland F. Griggs, B.A. 1896, Fund2
John Hay Whitney, B.A. 1926, Hon. 1956, Collection2
Gift of Walter J. Kohler, B.A. 19252
Gift of the Estate of Ruth Cole Kainen2
Gift of Richard L. Feigen, B.A. 19522
Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Paul Mellon, B.A. 19292
Gift of Miss Jessie M. Tilney, May 24, 19382
Gift of Miss Jessie M. Tilney2
Gift of Michael Hall2
Gift of Mary C. and James W. Fosburgh B.A. 1933, M.A. 19352
Gift of Junius S. and Henry S. Morgan2
Gift of Judith A. Mason2
Gift of Judge John F. MacLane2
Gift of John Hill Morgan, B.A. 1893, LL.B. 1896, M.A. (Hon.) 19292
Gift of J. Watson Webb, B.A. 1907, and Electra Havemeyer Webb2
Gift of J. Davenport Wheeler, Ph.B. 18582
Gift of Denise and George Hopper Fitch, B.A. 19322
Gift of Chester D. Tripp, B.S. 19032
Gift of C. Ruxton Love, Jr., B.A. 19252
Gift of Bertram H. Borden, Esq. in memory of his wife Mary Owen Borden, 22 July 19352
Enoch Vine Stoddard, B.A. 1905, Fund2
Bequest of Paul Mellon, B.A. 1929, L.H.D.H. 19672
Bequest of Helen Huntington Hull2
Anonymous gift2
Yale University Art Gallery1
University Purchase, Maitland F. Griggs, B.A. 1896, Fund. Accepted by Bill Paid 2/10/19601
University Purchase, Maitland F. Griggs, B.A. 1896, Fund1
University Purchase, Leila A. and John Hill Morgan Fund1
University Purchase1
University - Estate of Philip L. Goodwin, The Philip L. Goodwin, B.A. 1907, Collection1
Transfer from the Yale University Library, Gift of Mrs. Arthur W. Butler1
The Philip L. Goodwin, B.A. 1907, Collection, Gift of James L. Goodwin, B.A. 1905, Henry Sage Goodwin, B.A. 1927, and Richmond L. Brown, B.A. 19071
The Hobart Moore Memorial Collection, Gift of Mrs. William H. Moore1
Robert Lehman Foundation Acquisition Fund for Early European and Modern and Contemporary Art, the Leonard C. Hanna, Jr., Class of 1913, Fund, and the Stephen Carlton Clark, B.A. 1903, Fund1
Robert Lehman Foundation Acquisition Fund for Early European and Contemporary Art and A. Conger Goodyear, B.A. 1899, Fund1
Purchased with the Maitland F. Griggs, B.A. 1896, Fund and with the Director’s Fund, by exchange1
Purchased with the Leonard C. Hanna, Jr., Class of 1913, Fund and a gift in memory of James Sherman Pitkin1
Purchased with a gift from Richard L. Feigen, B.A. 1952, and the Leonard C. Hanna, Jr., Class of 1913, Fund1
Purchased by the University Aug-Sept. 1938 through Mr. Crosby1
Purchase Law School1
Mr. and Mrs. James W. Fosburgh, B.A. 1933, Fund and Enoch Vine Stoddard, B.A. 1905, Fund1
Marion M. Kemp Fund in memory of her brother, Arthur T. Kemp, B.S. 18941
Maitland F. Griggs, B.A. 1896, Fund, Robert Lehman Foundation Acquisition Fund for Early European and Modern and Contemporary Art, and Director’s Fund, by exchange1
Mabel Brady Garvan Collection (Acquired from Disposal Fund)1
Leonard C. Hanna, Jr., Class of 1913, Edwin J. Beinecke, Class of 1907, Archer M. Huntington, Class of 1897, and Mrs. Gile Whiting Funds1
Lent by the Phillips Memorial Gallery July 22, 1932. Gift of Duncan Phillips, B.A. 1908, May 27, 19391
John Hill Morgan, B.A. 1893, LL.B. 1896, M.A. (Hon.) 1929, Fund1
John Hay Whitney, B.A. 1926, M.A. (Hon.) 1956, Collection1
Hobart and Edward Small Moore Memorial Collection, Bequest of Mrs. William H. Moore1
Given by the Adee Family1
Gift: Mr. and Mrs. Arnold Whitridge1
Gift of William T. Lapko and purchased with the Leonard C. Hanna, Jr., Class of 1913, Fund1
Gift of Watson Webb, B.A. 1907 and Electra H. Webb1
Gift of Theodore N. Kaplan and Henry Tobin1
Gift of the Yale University Art Gallery Associates1
Gift of the Subscribers to Dean Meeks Portrait Fund1
Gift of the Rubin-Ladd Foundation under the bequest of Ester R. Portnow1
Gift of the Honorable Michael Huffington in honor of Isabella Huffington, B.A. 2014, and Christina Huffington, B.A. 20141
Gift of the estate of Fred T. Murphy, B.A. 18971
Gift of the Bernhard Foundation1
Gift of the Austen-Stokes Ancient Americas Foundation1
Gift of the Associates in Fine Arts at Yale1
Gift of Susan Morse Hilles1
Gift of Steven M. Kossak1
Gift of Sandra E. Canning1
Gift of Ronald A. Wohl1
Gift of Rocío de Teran, in memory of her husband, Juan J. Linz, Sterling Professor Emeritus of Political and Social Science1
Gift of Robert W. De Forrest, Yale 1870, April 15, 19301
Gift of Robert W. De Forrest, B.A. 18701
Gift of Richard M. Hurd, B.A. 18881
Gift of Richard M. Hurd, ‘881
Gift of Richard L. Feigen, B.A. 1952 in honor of Laurence Kanter1
Gift of Richard Carley Hunt, L.B. 19081
Gift of Ralph M. Reed, Ph.B. 1912s1
Gift of Peter David Joralemon, B.A. 1969, M.Phil 19741
Gift of Nancy Stiner1
Gift of Mrs. Lynde Selden1
Gift of Mrs. Joseph M. Flint1
Gift of Mrs. James C. Greenway1
Gift of Mrs. Howard C. Morse Accepted by the Acquisitions Committee 2-21-581
Gift of Mrs. Hannah D. Rabinowitz1
Gift of Mrs. H. B. Loomis in memory of her husband, Henry Bradford, B.A. 18751
Gift of Mrs. Flora Whitney Miller, Mrs. Barbara Whitney Henry, and Major Cornelius Vanderbilt Whitney, B.A. 1922, by exchange, and purchased with the Maitland F. Griggs, B.A. 1896, Fund and Leonard C. Hanna, Jr., Class of 1913, Fund1
Gift of Mrs. Edith Wetmore1
Gift of Mrs. Edgar F. Price1
Gift of Mrs. Catherine B. Hickox1
Gift of Mrs. Arthur E. Foote in memory of her father Rev. Dr. Charles Ray Palmer, B.A. 1855, 15 January 19371
Gift of Mrs. André Blumenthal, in memory of her mother Annie C. Wimpfheimer1
Gift of Mrs. Alison G. Paine1
Gift of Mr. Rufus Stillman, Class of 1943, and Mrs. Stillman1
Gift of Mr. Paul Moore, B.A. 19081
Gift of Mr. Francis C. Robertson, B.A. 19061
Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Michael H. de Havenon, B.A. 19621
Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Hill Torras1
Gift of Mr. and Mrs. James W. Fosburgh, B.A. 1933, M.A. 19351
Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Gene Grant1
Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Gabriel Semo1
Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Edward A. Friedman, B.A. 1971, and Mr. and Mrs. Gary D. Friedman, B.A. 19731
Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Chauncey McCormick, B.A. 19071
Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Benjamin E. Bensinger, B.A. 19281
Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Arthur M. Rosenbloom, B.A. 19251
Gift of Molly and Walter Bareiss, B.S. 1940S1
Gift of Miss Susan Dwight Bliss1
Gift of Miss Olivia Phelps Stokes1
Gift of Miss Jessie M. Tilney, in memory of her grandparents, John William and Hannah M. Mason1
Gift of Miss Jessie M. Tilney in memory of her grandparents, John William Mason and Hannah M. Mason, May 19381
Gift of Miss Jennie M. Tilney, May 24, 19381
Gift of McA. Donald Ryan, B.A. 1934, and William H. Ryan, class of 1921s1
Gift of Mary C. and James W. Fosburgh, B.A. 1933, M.A. 19351
Gift of Margaretta P. McLennan1
Gift of Margaret S. and Linus Travers, B.A. 1958, M.A.T. 1959, from the collection of Arnold F. Strauss, M.D.1
Gift of Maitland F. Griggs, B.A. 1896, through the Associates in Fine Arts1
Gift of Laila Twigg-Smith, by exchange, the Leonard C. Hanna, Jr., Class of 1913, Fund, and the Maitland F. Griggs, B.A. 1896, Fund1
Gift of Joseph Verner Reed, Jr., B.A. 19611
Gift of Joseph McCrindle, L.L.B. 19481
Gift of Joseph F. McCrindle, L.L.B. 19481
Gift of John Walsh, B.A. 1961, in honor of Jock Reynolds1
Gift of John Walsh, B.A. 19611
Gift of John Loring, B.A. 1960, in memory of China Robbins Loring1
Gift of Jak Katalan, M.F.A. 19781
Gift of Henry R. Luce, B.A. 19201
Gift of Henry Johnson Fisher, B.A. 18961
Gift of Henry H. Townshend, B.A. 1897, LL.B. 1901, and Dr. Raynham Townshend, B.S. 1900S1
Gift of Hannah D. and Louis M. Rabinowitz;Accepted By Deed of Gift 4/29/19591
Gift of Gilbert H. Kinney, B.A. 1953, M.A. 19541
Gift of Georgia and Michael de Havenon, B.A. 19621
Gift of George Stewart, B.A. 1915, LL.B. 1917, Ph.D. 1921, (Hon.) DD. 19391
Gift of Ganson G. Depew, B.A. 1919, Clarence W. Bowen, B.A. 1873, Henry King Smith, B.A. 1898, E. Byrne Hackett, Hon. M.A. 1914, and R. Eden Dickson, Esq.1
Gift of Gabrielle Kopelman1
Gift of Fred Olsen1
Gift of Ferargil Galleries1
Gift of Erik Jacobsen1
Gift of Elise K. Kenney in honor of her parents, Dr. and Mrs. Stephen A. Karas1
Gift of Electra Havemeyer Webb1
Gift of Edward Hutton and Maitland Lee Griggs, in Memory of Maitland F. Griggs, B.A. 18961
Gift of Edward B. Greene, B.A. 19001
Gift of Edmund P. Pillsbury, B.A. 19651
Gift of Duncan Phillips, 1908, May 24, 19391
Gift of Duncan Phillips1
Gift of Dr. Rudolph Heinemann1
Gift of Dr. and Mrs. Herbert Schaefer and Mr. Eric Weinmann and his family1
Gift of Dr. and Mrs. Alfonso Costa, parents of Joseph Costa, B.A. 2008, and Alfonso Costa, Jr., B.A. 20111
Gift of Dicey Taylor, Ph.D. 1983, and Justin Kerr1
Gift of David H. W. Dohan1
Gift of David G. Carter in memory of Eliot Avery Carter, B.A. 19091
Gift of Darcy F. and John Treacy Beyer, B.A. 19651
Gift of Clare Boothe Luce and Bequest of Henry R. Luce, B.A. 19201
Gift of Christophe Janet, B.A. 19771
Gift of Charles Webb, B.A. 18971
Gift of Charles S. Payson, B.A. 19211
Gift of Bryce Appleton, B.A. 1965, Marc Appleton, M. ARCH. 1972, Lynnie Appleton, and Lili Appleton in honor of their mother, Ariel Bryce Appleton, and her interest in Costa Rica, its people, and their art1
Gift of Bertram H. Borden esq. in memory of his wife Mary Owen Borden 22 July 19351
Gift of Barbara and Robert Liberman, B.A. 19651
Gift of Arthur G. Altschul, B.A. 19431
Gift of Arthur DiMambro in honor of his daughters and in memory of his wife, Celeste1
Gift of Art Gallery Associates1
Gift of Angela Jane Weisl, in memory of Edwin L. Weisl, Jr., B.A. 19511
Gift of Andre and Mildred Blumenthal1
Gift in memory of Minna and Carl E. Troy1
Gift in Memory of Mabel Thorpe Boardman1
Gift in memory of Elizabeth Manning Sage1
George A., Class of 1954, and Nancy P. Shutt Acquisition Fund1
Gallery Collections (Gerard) and Building Fund (Blanche Barclay Credit)1
Enoch Vine Stoddard Fund1
Enoch Vine Stoddard Collection, Bequest of Enoch Vine Stoddard, B.A. 19051
Edwin Austin Abbey Memorial Collection1
Director’s Purchase Fund and Gift of Mr. and Mrs. James Fosburgh, B.A. 1933, M.A. 19351
Director’s Purchase Fund1
Director’s Purchase1
de Lancey Kountze Collection, Gift of de Lancey Kountze, B.A. 18991
Collection of Mr. and Mrs. John Hay Whitney, B.A. 1926, Hon. 19561
Bequest of William W. Goodbody1
Bequest of Susan Vanderpoel Clark1
Bequest of Nina P. Barghoorn, in memory of Frederick C. Barghoorn1
Bequest of Miss Elizabeth Manwaring Accepted 13 April, 19491
Bequest of Marie Oakes Hotchkiss to the Sheffield Scientific School, October, 19381
Bequest of Kate L. Brewster1
Bequest of Jonathan Rinehart, B.A. 19521
Bequest of Chester D. Tripp, B.S. 19031
Bequest of C. Russell Burke1
Bequest of Blanche Barclay, George C. Barclay Collection1
Bequest of Blanche Barclay for the George C. Barclay Collection1
Bequest of Blanche Barclay - George C. Barclay Collection1
Archer M. Huntington, M.A. (Hon.) 1897, Fund1
Anonymous gift in honor of Alan Shestack1
Grand Total510

Number of artworks by artist in the dataset

Edgar Degas, French, 1834–19177
Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, French, 1796–18756
Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux, French, 1827–18756
Eugène Louis Boudin, French, 1824–18986
Paul Cézanne, French, 1839–19065
Martino di Bartolomeo di Biagio, Italian, Florence, act. 1389–14345
Camille Pissarro, French, 1830–19035
Antoine-Louis Barye, French, 1796–18755
Neri di Bicci, Italian, Florence, 1419–1492/934
Gustave Courbet, French, 1819–18774
Claude Monet, French, 1840–19264
Taddeo di Bartolo, Italian, Siena, ca. 1362–ca.14223
Sir Joshua Reynolds, British, 1723–17923
Peter Paul Rubens, Flemish, 1577–16403
Niccolò di Tommaso, Italian, active Florence, ca. 1343–14053
Honoré Daumier, French, 1808–18793
Giovanni dal Ponte, Italian, Florence, ca. 1385–14373
Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, Italian, Venice, 1696–17703
Georges Seurat, French, 1859–18913
Frans Hals, Dutch, ca. 1581–16663
Francesco Botticini, Italian, Florence, 1446–14973
Fra Angelico, Italian, ca. 1395–14553
Benvenuto di Giovanni, Italian, 1436–ca. 15183
Anthony van Dyck, Flemish, 1599–16413
Alfred Sisley, French, 1839–18993
Vincent van Gogh, Dutch, active France, 1853–18902
The Master of the Holy Kinship, German, Cologne, active ca. 1475–15102
Sébastien Bourdon, French, 1616–16712
Rossello di Jacopo Franchi, Italian, Florence, ca. 1377–14562
Pseudo Pier Francesco Fiorentino, Italian, active ca. 1450–15002
Pieter Jansz. Quast, Dutch, 1605/6–16472
Pieter Coopse, Dutch, ca. 1640–16732
Pierre-Auguste Renoir, French, 1841–19192
Peter Strüb the Younger (Master of Messkirch), German, ca. 1500–15432
Paul Gauguin, French, 1848–19032
Paul Delaroche, French, 1797–18562
Paolo Uccello, Italian, Florence, 1397–14752
Nicolas Poussin, French, 1594–16652
Narcisse Virgile Diaz de la Peña, French, 1807–18762
Miguel Ximénez, Spanish, active 1466–15052
Meindert Hobbema, Dutch, 1638–17092
Matteo di Giovanni, Italian, Siena, ca. 1430 –1495/992
Master of Saints Flora and Lucilla, Italian, Florence, active ca. 1300–13402
Master of Città di Castello, Italian, Siena, active ca. 1290–ca. 13252
Mariotto Albertinelli, Italian, 1474–15152
Ludovico Brea, Italian, ca. 1450–1522/252
Luca di Tommè, Italian, 1330–13892
Joseph Wright of Derby, British, 1734–17972
Johan Barthold Jongkind, Dutch, 1819–18912
Jean-François Millet, French, 1814–18752
Jan van Goyen, Dutch, 1596–16562
Jacopo Tintoretto, Italian, Venice, 1518–15942
Jacopo di Cione, Italian, Florence, active 1360–14002
Jacopo del Sellaio, Italian, Florence, ca. 1441–14982
Jacopo del Casentino, Italian, Florence, ca. 1297–13582
Hubert Robert, French, 1733–18082
Hans Holbein the Younger, German, 1497/98–15432
Giovanni Paolo Panini, Italian, Rome, 1691–17652
Giovanni di Paolo, Italian, 1403–14822
Francesco Paolo Michetti, Italian, 1851–19292
Francesco dei Franceschi, Italian, Venice, documented 1445–14562
Édouard Vuillard, French, 1868–19402
Édouard Manet, French, 1832–18832
Donatello (Donato di Niccolò di Betto Bardi), Italian, Florence, 1386/87–14662
Charles-François Daubigny, French, 1817–18782
Charles Balthazar Julien Févret de Saint-Mémin, French, 1770–1852, ac. in the United States2
Bernardino Fungai, Italian, Siena, 1460–15162
Bartolomé Pérez, Spanish, 1634–16982
Arthur Devis, British, 1712–17872
Aert van der Neer, Dutch, 1603–16772
Adolphe Joseph Thomas Monticelli, French, 1824–18862
Zanobi di Jacopo Machiavelli, Italian, Florence, 1418–14791
Vladimir Borovikovsky, Russian, 1757–18251
Vittore Crivelli, Italian, ca. 1440–ca. 15011
Ugolino di Nerio, Italian, active by 1317, died 1339/1349 (?)1
Titian (Tiziano Vecellio), Italian, Venice, ca. 1488–15761
Tino di Camaino, Italian, Siena, ca. 1285–13371
Thomas Phillips, British, 1770–18451
Thomas Couture, French, 1815–18791
Théodore Géricault, French, 1791–18241
Theodor von Holst, British, 1810–18441
The Master of the Risen Magdalen, Italian, Ferrara, active early 16th century1
The Brunswick Monogrammist, Flemish, active ca. 1525–501
Taddeo Gaddi, Italian, Florence, ca. 1300–13661
Sir William Orpen, Irish, active Britain, 1878–19311
Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema, Dutch, active England, 1836–19121
Sir Edwin Henry Landseer, British, 1802–18731
Simone dei Crocifissi, Italian, 1330–13991
Segna di Bonaventura, Italian, 1298–13311
Sebastiano Ricci, Italian, Venice, 1659–17341
Sassetta, Italian, Siena, 1392–14501
Salvator Rosa, Italian, Naples, 1615–16731
Salomon van Ruysdael, Dutch, 1600/1603–16701
Rutilio Manetti, Italian, Siena, 1571–16391
Quentin Massys, Netherlandish, 1466–15301
Pseudo-Dalmasio, Italian, Bologna, active second quarter fourteenth century1
Pontormo (Jacopo Carucci), Italian, 1494–15571
Pietro Nelli, Italian, active ca. 1375, died 14191
Pietro Lorenzetti, Italian, Siena, active ca. 1306–13481
Pieter Fransz. de Grebber, Dutch, ca. 1600–ca. 16531
Pieter de Neyn, Dutch, 1597–16391
Pieter de Bloot, Dutch, ca. 1601–16581
Pierre-Paul Prud’hon, French, 1758 –18231
Pierre-Etienne-Theodore Rousseau, French, 1812–18671
Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, French, 1824–18981
Pierre Courteys, French, Limoges, ca. 1520–ca. 15861
Philips Wouwerman, Dutch, 1619–16681
Peter Lely, British, 1618–16801
Peeter Neeffs the Elder, Flemish, ca. 1578–1656/611
Paul Désiré Trouillebert, French, 1829-19001
Paolo Veneziano, Italian, Venice, active by 1333–1358/621
Paolo Caliari, called Veronese, Italian, Venice, 1528–15881
Orsola Maddalena Caccia, Italian, 1596–16761
Orazio Fontana, Italian, Urbino, ca. 1510–15711
Nicolas-Pierre Loir, French, 1624–16791
Nicolaes Berchem, Dutch, 1620–16831
Michele da Firenze, Italian, Florence, ca. 1385–14551
Maurice Denis, French, 1870–19431
Matthew Maris, Dutch, 1839–19171
Master of Varlungo, Italian, Florence, active ca. 1285–13101
Master of Torralba, active ca. 14401
Master of the Straus Madonna, Italian, Siena, active ca. 1340–ca. 13701
Master of the Horne Triptych, Italian, Florence, active early 14th century1
Master of the Gubbio Cross, Italian, Umbria, active ca. 1285–13201
Master of the Castello Nativity, Italian, Florence, active third quarter of the 15th century1
Master of the Cartellini, Italian, active ca. 14501
Master of Saints Cosmas and Damian, Italian, Pisa, active Siena, 3rd quarter of the 13th century1
Master of Perea, Spanish, Valencia, active ca. 1490–15101
Master of Charles of Durazzo (possibly Francesco di Michele), Italian, active 1381–14001
Master of Apollo and Daphne, Italian, Florence, ca. 1480–15101
Master I.C. [Jean Court or Jean de Court], French, active 1541–64, died 15841
Master 185, Italian, active ca. 1440–601
Marx Reichlich, Austrian, active ca. 1485–15201
Marten van Valckenborch, Flemish, active in Germany, 1534–16121
Marco Pino, Italian, Siena, ca. 1525–ca. 15871
Maerten van Heemskerck, Dutch, 1498–15741
Luis de Morales, Spanish, ca. 1520–15861
Luigi Chialiva, Swiss, 1824–19141
Lucas van Valckenborch, Flemish, active in Germany, ca. 1535–15971
Lucas van Leyden, Netherlandish, 1494–15331
Lucas Cranach the Elder, German, 1472–15531
Lovis Corinth, German, 1858–19251
Louis-Héctor Leroux, French, 1829–19001
Lorenzo Salimbeni, Italian, ca.1374–14201
Lorenzo d’ Alessandro da Sanseverino, Italian, 1440/50–15031
Lippo Memmi, Italian, Siena, active ca. 1317–ca. 13501
Leon Madjarski, Armenian, 1740–18111
Karel Dujardin, Dutch, 1622–16781
Julius Hübner, German, 1806–18821
Jules Breton, French, 1827–19061
Juan de Valdés Leal, Spanish, 1622–16901
Jozef Israels, Dutch, 1824–19111
Joos van Cleve, Flemish, active ca. 1505/08 –1540/411
Joos de Momper the Younger, Flemish, 1564–16351
John William Godward, British, 1861–19221
John van Nost I, Flemish, c. 1655–17101
John Rathbone, British, 1750–18071
John Linnell, British, 1792–18821
John Constable, British, 1776–18371
Jeremiah Meyer, German, active England, 1735–17891
Jean-Paul Laurens, French, 1838–19211
Jean-Léon Gérôme, French, 1824–19041
Jean-Jacques Pradier, Swiss, 1790–18521
Jean-Honoré Fragonard, French, 1732–18061
Jean-Baptiste Regnault, French, 1754–18291
Jean-Baptiste Pater, French, 1695–17361
Jean-Antoine Houdon, French, 1741–18281
Jean Daret, French, 1614–16681
Jean Bellegambe, Flemish, 1470–15351
Jean Baptiste Mauzaisse, French, 1784–18441
Jan Wijnants, Dutch, ca. 1635–16841
Jan Provost, South Netherlandish, ca. 1465–15291
Jan Porcellis, Dutch, 1583–16321
Jan de Cock, Netherlandish, ca. 1490–1526/271
Jan Brueghel the Elder, Flemish, 1568–16251
Jan Both, Dutch, 1618–16521
Jan Baptist Weenix, Dutch, 1621–16591
Jan Asselijn, Dutch, 1610/15–16521
James Tassie, 1735–17991
Jacques de Gheyn II, Dutch, 1565–16291
Jacopo Zucchi, Italian, Florence, ca. 1540–15961
Jacob Salomons z. Ruysdael, Dutch, 1630–16811
Ignacio de Iriarte, Spanish, 1621–16701
Hughes Merle, French, 1822–18811
Hoppin Painter, Greek, Southern Italy, ca. 380-365 B.C.1
Hieronymus Bosch, Netherlandish, ca. 1450–15161
Henryk Siemiradzki, Polish, 1843–19021
Henry Fuseli, Swiss, active in England, 1741–18251
Henri-Joseph Harpignies, French, 1819–19161
Henri Fantin-Latour, French, 1836–19041
Hendrik Martensz. Sorgh, Dutch, 1609/11–16701
Hendrick van Steenwijk the Younger, Flemish, 1580–16491
Haarlem School1
Guidoccio di Giovanni Cozzarelli, Italian, Siena, active 1450–ca.15161
Guido Reni, Italian, Bologna, 1575–16421
Giuseppe Mazzuoli, Italian, 1644–17251
Giuseppe Gherardi, Italian, Florence, 1788/90–18841
Giuseppe de Nittis, Italian, 1846–18841
Giulio Carpioni, Italian, Venice, 1613–16781
Giuliano Bugiardini, Italian, Florence, 1475–15541
Girolamo di Benvenuto, Italian, Siena, 1470–15241
Girolamo della Robbia, Italian, Florence ca. 1488–15661
Giovanni Duprè, Italian, Siena, 1817–18821
Giovanni Domenico Tiepolo, Italian, Venice, 1727–18041
Giovanni di Ser Giovanni Guidi (called Scheggia), Italian, 1406–14861
Giovanni di Bartolomeo Cristiani, Italian, 1347–13991
Giovanni Bellini, Italian, Venice, ca. 1430–15161
Giovanni Battista Cima da Conegliano, Italian, Venice, ca.1459/60– ca.1517/181
Giovanni Bastianini, Italian, 1830–18681
Giovanni Baronzio, Italian, Rimini, active ca. 1326–621
Giacomo da Castello, Italian, born ca. 15501
Georges Michel, French, 1763–18431
George Stubbs, British, 1724–18061
George Romney, British, 1734–18021
George Morland, British, 1763–18041
George Frederick Watts, British, 1817–19041
Gaetano Gandolfi, Italian, Bologna, 1734–18021
Franz Xaver Winterhalter, German, 1805–18731
Frans Francken the Younger, Flemish, 1581–16421
François-Marius Granet, French, 1775–18491
François Girardon, French, 1628–17151
François de Nomé, French, ca. 1593–ca. 16341
François Boucher, French, 1703–17701
François Bonvin, French, 1817–18871
Francisco de Burgos Mantilla, Spanish, 1612–16721
Francesco Vanni, Italian, 1564–16101
Francesco Trevisani, Italian, Rome, 1656–17461
Francesco Guardi, Italian, Venice, 1712–17931
Francesco Francia, Italian, Bologna, ca. 1450–15171
Francesco Foschi, Italian, 1710–17801
Eugène-Louis-Gabriel Isabey, French, 1803–18861
Eugene Fromentin, French, 1820–18761
Eugène Delacroix, French, 1798–18631
Eugène Carrière, French, 1849–19061
Émile Bernard, French, 1868–19411
Egbert Lievensz van der Poel, Dutch, 1621–16641
Édouard Detaille, French, 1848–19121
Diego Velázquez, Spanish, 1599–16601
Desiderio da Settignano, Italian, 1429/32–14641
David Teniers the Younger, Flemish, 1610–16901
David Cox, British, 1783–18591
Cornelis Engebrechtsz., Netherlandish, 1468–15331
Claude Gellée, called Claude Lorrain, French, active Rome, 1604–16821
Charles-Émile Jacque, French, 1813–18941
Charles de La Fosse, French, 1636–17161
Carlo Dolci, Italian, 1616–16861
Carlo Crivelli, Italian, ca. 1430–14951
Carel de Moor, Dutch, 1655–17381
Camillo Rusconi, Italian, Rome, 1658–17281
Blas de Ledesma, Spanish, active 1590–16141
Berthe Morisot, French, 1841–18951
Bernardo Daddi, Italian, ca. 1290–13481
Bernardo Bellotto, Italian, Venice, 1722–17801
Bernardino di Betto, called Pinturicchio, Italian, Perugia, active in Siena, ca.1454–15131
Benvenuto Tisi, called il Garofalo, Italian, Ferrara, 1481–15591
Benedetto da Maiano, Italian, 1442–14971
Bartolommeo Bulgarini, Italian, active by 1337, died 13781
Bartolomeo degli Erri, Italian, active Modena, 1460–761
Bartolo di Fredi, Italian, active by 1353, died 14101
Bartholomeus van der Helst, Dutch, 1613–16701
Baron François-Pascal-Simon Gérard, French, 1770–18371
Barnaba da Modena, Italian, 1328–13861
Balthasar Denner, German, 1685–17491
Augustus John, British, born Wales, 1878–19611
Auguste Rodin, French, 1840–19171
Ary Scheffer, Dutch, active France 1795–18581
Arcangelo di Cola da Camerino, Italian, active 1416–291
Antonio Vivarini, Italian, ca. 1415–1476/841
Antonio Francesco Peruzzini, Italian, 1643–17241
Antonio del Castillo y Saavedra, Spanish, 1616–16681
Anton Raphael Mengs, German, 1728–17791
Antoine-François Gérard, French, 1760–18431
Antoine Caron, French, 1521–15991
Annibale Carracci, Italian, 1560–16091
Andries Dirksz Both, Dutch, ca. 1612–16411
Andrea Sacchi, Italian, Rome, 1599–16611
Andrea di Bartolo, Italian, active by 1389, died 14281
Andrea del Verrocchio, Italian, 1435–14881
Ambrosius Benson, Netherlandish, ca.1495–before 15501
Alice Lee Roosevelt Longworth, American, 1884–19801
Alexandre Gabriel Decamps, French, 1803–18601
Alexandre Cabanel, French, 1823–18891
Alessandro Algardi, Italian, 1598–16541
Agostino di Duccio, Italian, 1418–after 14811
Adriaen van Ostade, Dutch, 1610–16851
Adriaen van de Venne, Dutch, 1589–16621
Adriaen van de Velde, Dutch, 1636–16721
Adriaen Hanneman, Dutch, 1600–16711
Adolphe Appian, French, 1818–18981
Adolf Schreyer, German, 1828–18991
Abraham van Beyeren, Dutch, 1620/21–16901
Abraham Bloemaert, Dutch, 1564–16511
Grand Total510