Showing posts with label Jewish history. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Jewish history. Show all posts

Dec 30, 2018

Networks of Walter Bornheim


Walter Bornheim played an important role in Nazi era art looting in France. The question explored in this post is: who are Walter Bornheim's direct connections in the years examined by the Art Looting Investigation Unit? Can one trace a network graph using the information provided in the ALIU reports? How can this network information be used?


The Office of Strategic Services Art Looting Investigation Unit interrogated Bornheim and drafted a Detailed Interrogation Report (Number 11) in his name in September of 1945.

"Bornheim, Walter. Munich, 18 Grosestrasse, Graefelfing. Art dealer. Proprietor of the Galerio fur Alte Kunst, Munich. One of Goering’s most important buyers in France."


Walter Bornheim's Paris collaborators are represented by red dots on the map of Paris.
Behind each red dot, the information provided in the Art Looting Investigation Unit Red Flag List

(digital tool: google fusion tables)


Bornheim did not, of course, work alone. 
Fifty-three of the people listed by the Art Looting Investigation Unit in its Red Flag List of 1946  are reported to have had direct contact with Walter Bornheim. 

They are:

Bogner, Michael. Munich. Assistant to Bornheim.

Brabender. Cologne. Dealer who sold to Bornheim for the Goering collection. His wife was a restorer of sculpture.
Gillhausen, Frau Maria. Munich, Leopoldstrasse 38. Dealer and intermediary. Formerly with Gasparri. Active in Paris. In touch with Lawdry, Alfred Pacquement, Buchner and Bornheim.
Hinrichsen, Johannes. Alt Aussee, Austria, Villa Wassermann. Former partner of Lindpaintner and an early buyer for Goering. Close contact of Bornheim, through whom he sold objects to the Goering Collection.
Klihm, Dr Hans Helmut. Munich, Marziusstrasse 6. Worked with Bornheim.
Langeloh, Frau. Cologne. Dealer, active in France. Friend of Bornheim.
Lempertz. Cologne. Art dealer who worked with Miedl. Bornheim once worked under him.
Loewenisch, Albert. Cologne Paris, 8 ave Victor Massel. Purchasing agent for the Gauleitung Dusseldorf-Koln-Aachen-Bonn, and one of the official representatives of German museums in France. Contact of Hermssen, Wuester, Weinmueller and Lange. Partner of Toulinot and agent for Bornheim.
Meuren. Munich (?). Secretary and odd job man with Bornheim until April 1944.
von Pohl, Frau. Tegernsee, Bavaria. Assistant to Bornheim. In charge of some of his personal possessions.
Schweidwimmer, Jakob. Munich, Wagmuellerstrasse 15. Art dealer. Contact of Bornheim.
Schmidt, Frl Marietta. Worked for Bornheim, 1937-45. Formerly employed by Weinmueller.
Weinmueller, Adolf. Tegernsee, Bavaria Rosenstrasse 74 (Nov 1944). Owner of art auction houses at Munich and Vienna, through which passed many objects of art confiscated by the Dienststelle Muehlmann in Holland. Associate of Bornheim.
Wuester, Adolf. Bernau, Bavaria Bonn Schloesel. Painter and amateur dealer, long-time pre-war resident of Paris. Chief agent in France for acquisition of works of art for Ribbentrop. Intimate contacts with von Behr and Lohse. Acted as expert for ERR on French 19th century painting. Appointed art adviser to the German Embassy on 16 July 1942, with the rank of Consul. Involved in two exchanges with the ERR. With Rochlitz, probably the leading intermediary for German official buyers in the Paris art market. Close contact of Bornheim, Dietrich, Bammann (among German dealers); Martin, Rademacher, Kuetgens and Goepel (among German museum buyers). Supplied with works of  art primarily by Schoeller, Mandl,  Leegenhoek, Raphael Gerard and Hotel Drouot. Close contact of Goetz, Rochlitz, Schoeller, Pfannstiel, Avogli-Trotti and  the Duc de Trevise. Travelled in Switzerland, Sweden and Spain, purchasing works of art. Extradition requested by French Government.
Altounian, Edgard. Paris, 17 rue Clapeyrou. Armenian dealer, active in France, specialising in Greek, Roman and Egyptian art objects. Dealt with Bornheim.
de Beauperthuys, Simone le. Paris, 6 ave de la Grande Armee. Secretary of Alexander Ball and intermediary for Ball with Haberstock, to whom she offered pictures of doubtful origin. Also represented Fischer, for whom she signed a receipt to Bornheim in Paris, July 4 1941.
Benier. Paris, 36 blvd Haussmann. Assistant in the art firm of Stora. Took over the business in 1943 after Stora was forced to leave because of Jewish persecutions. Said to have been in constant touch with Stora after the latter’s departure. Prior to 1943 Stora had worked with Angerer, Hofer and Bornheim.
de la Beraudiere, Comtesse. Paris, 5 ave Montaigne. Extremely active amateur dealer, who sold to Hofer and Bornheim. Would accept only cash in payment. Introduced to Hofer by Reber. Frau Hofer had restored pictures for her in Paris in past years. On 4 April 1941, sold five paintings, one statue and one clock to Bornheim for FF 2,250,000.
Bernard, Mme. Paris, 15 quai Bourbon. Widow of the painter Bernard, who had a collection of her own and sold other objects on commission. Sold to Bornheim.
Bouet. Paris. Dealer who sold to Bornheim.
Brimo de la Laroussilhe. Paris, 58 rue Jouffroy. Dealer who specialised in tapestries and objets d’art of the Middle Ages. Worked principally with Bornheim, and also with Angerer, Hofer, Josef Muehlmann, Dietrich and Haberstock. Acted as guide to Bornheim on his trip through unoccupied France in May 1941.
Brosseron Marchand. Paris, 132 blvd Haussmann/45 ave Georges V/17 rue de la Bienfaisance. Specialists in 18th century French art who acted as intermediaries between Bornheim and many French dealers and collectors.
Brummer, E. Paris, 126 rue du Fbg St Honore. Operated the Paris branch of the Brummer firm during the occupation. Sold a 15th century stone Madonna to Bornheim. Brother of the New York art dealer.
Cuvellier. Paris, 3 blvd Pereire. French dealer who sold to Goering through Bornheim.
Darboy, Mme Rosie. Paris, 25 quai Voltaire. Took over the business of the dealer Schutz, formerly at above address. Sold to Bornheim and Hofer and worked with Angerer and Josef Muehlmann. Specialist in textiles.
Decour, A. Paris, 28 rue Francois Premier Rolleboise (nr Bonniere, Seine et Oise). Architect and interior decorator, reported in contact with many German architects, and to have sold the Bagatelle Ceiling by Fragonard and Grouze to Bornheim.
Donath, Etienne. Paris, 14 rue Milton. French dealer who worked with Bornheim and Josef Muehlmann.
Feral, J. Paris, place Vendome. Had a close business connection with the French art dealer Pierre Dandry, who worked with Bornheim and Lohse.
Foret Divonne, Raoul Vicomte de la. Paris, 44 rue du Bac Vineuil St Firmin. Amateur dealer who sold extensively to the Germans during the occupation. Is believed to have been a receiver of looted works of art passed on to him clandestinely by the ERR. Worked with Charles Mignonet and M Dupont. Dealt with Bornheim.
Gairac, Georges. Paris, 17 rue de Seine. French art dealer who sold to Wuester and Bornheim.
Geladakis, B. Paris, 1 rue Milton. Dealt with Bornheim. Specialist in sculpture and objets d’art. Sometimes sold on commission.
Gerard, Mme Renee. Paris, 14 rue de St Simon. Widow of the architect Dreyfus and specialist in tapestries, who acted as intermediary between French collectors and the Germans. In daily contact with Bornheim. Also worked with Lohse, Hofer, Josef Muehlmann and Frau Dietrich.
Gouvert. Paris, 18 rue Fourcroy. French dealer specialising in sculpture and expert consultant to the Louvre. Dealt with Hofer, Bornheim, Angerer and Josef Muehlmann, and visited personally by Goering.
Gruel, Leon. Paris, 148 rue du Fbg St Honore. Specialist in rare bookbindings, and occasional dealer in art. Dealt with Erhardt of the Offenbach Leather Museum and with Bornheim.
Halim Bey, Melhame. Paris, 113 rue de Grenelle. Dealer and middleman, who dealt with Bornheim and Josef Muehlmann. Offered Goya portrait to Haberstock through Dequoy.
Jurschewitz, Paul A. Neuilly, 77 rue Charles Laffitte. Russian refugee middleman for Dietrich, Bornheim, Muehlmann, and Haberstock. Believed to have worked on commission.
Landry, Pierre. Paris, 1 rue Chardin. Dealer, worked with Bornheim and Lohse. Had close business connections with J Feral. In contact with Plietzsch and Rochlitz. Used Loebl and others for concealment.
Larcade, Edouard. Paris, 38 ave du General Joggre St Germain en Laye, 39 rue de Mantes. Collector. Nephew of Mmr Lelong. Worked with Hofer and Bornheim.
Leonardi, Edouard. Paris, 8 ave de Friedland/blvd Haussmann. Architect and dealer. Worked with Hofer, Lohse, Josef Muehlmann and Bornheim, through whom he sold several pieces to Goering collection. Worked on commission for Gruel and other dealers. Indicted by French Government (Seine Tribunal, Judge Frapier).
Meder. Paris, ‘Au Moyen Age ‘, 27 blvd des Batignolles. Schenker documents indicate sales to German buyers. Worked with Bornheim and Josef Muehlmann.
Meller, Prof Dr Simon. Paris, 3 rue du General Appert. Hungarian art historian and dealer, long resident in Paris. Specialist in drawings. Worked with Bornheim and Josef Muehlmann. Knew Hofer through Wendland. Sold to Haberstock; documentary evidence in Unit files.
Meunier-Batifaud, Mme. Paris, 38 blvd Raspail. Well known tapestry dealer. Worked with Bornheim, Angerer and Josef Muehlmann. Schenker documents indicate sales to German buyers.
Oppenheim, Jean. Paris, rue du Fbg St Honore. Small dealer. Dealt only with Bornheim.
Pado. Paris, 6 rue de Tocqueville. Dealer. Sold to Goering Collection through Bornheim. Knew Hofer.
Radzewill, Princess (Mrs Dean). Paris. Sold to Goering Collection through Bornheim.
Raton, Charles. Paris, 14 rue de Marignan. Sold to the Germans, including Bornheim. Schenker documents indicate sales to German buyers.
Santo Bey de Semo. Paris, 18 rue Marignan. Middleman/dealer with extensive contacts in Paris. Worked with Hofer, Bornheim, Holzapfel, Carre and Mme Gerard.
Schmit, Jean. Paris, 22 rue de Charonne. Important antique dealer and decorating concern. Dealt with Bornheim, Angerer, Haberstock and other Germans brought to him by Wuester. Schenker documents indicate sales to German buyers.
Souffrice, Jean. Paris, Galerie Voltaire, 33 quai Voltaire. Dealer. Worked with Hofer, Bornheim, Angerer and Josef Muehlmann. Schenker documents indicate sales to German buyers.
Stora. Paris, 36 blvd Haussmann. Dealer. Worked with Angerer, Hofer and Bornheim. Fled Paris in 1943 because of Jewish persecutions. His business taken over by Benier, an assistant.
Terrisee, Georges. Paris, Cambaceres Galerie, 15 rue la Boetie. Small dealer-auctioneer. Worked with Hofer, Lohse and Bornheim.
Toulinot (Toulino). Paris, 8 ave Victor Massel. Small dealer. Partner of Loewenisch. Occasionally agent for Bornheim. In contact with Wuester and Hofer.
Velay, Alexandre. Paris, 7-9 rue de Penthievre. Shipping firm, occasionally used by Bornheim.

Adolf Wuester (Wüster), a key node in the Nazi art looting network,
 was a close contact of Bernheim.


If we try to organise the information, putting the nature of the relationship with Bornheim first, we obtain:

NameLocationBornheim connectionRole1Role2Role3Role4
Bogner, MichaelMunichAssistant to Bornheim
BrabenderCologneDealer who sold to Bornheim for the Goering collectionHis wife was a restorer of sculpture
Gillhausen, Frau MariaMunich, Leopoldstrasse 38In touch with Lawdry, Alfred Pacquement, Buchner and BornheimDealer and intermediaryFormerly with GasparriActive in Paris
Hinrichsen, JohannesAlt Aussee, Austria, Villa WassermannClose contact of Bornheim, through whom he sold objects to the Goering CollectionFormer partner of Lindpaintner and an early buyer for Goering
Klihm, Dr Hans HelmutMunich, Marziusstrasse 6Worked with Bornheim
Langeloh, FrauCologneFriend of BornheimDealer, active in France
LempertzCologneBornheim once worked under himArt dealer who worked with Miedl
Loewenisch, AlbertCologne Paris, 8 ave Victor MasselPartner of Toulinot and agent for BornheimPurchasing agent for the Gauleitung Dusseldorf-Koln-Aachen-Bonn, and one of the official representatives of German museums in FranceContact of Hermssen, Wuester, Weinmueller and Lange
MeurenMunich (?)Secretary and odd job man with Bornheim until April 1944
von Pohl, FrauTegernsee, BavariaAssistant to BornheimIn charge of some of his personal possessions
Schweidwimmer, JakobMunich, Wagmuellerstrasse 15Contact of BornheimArt dealer
Schmidt, Frl MariettaWorked for Bornheim, 1937-45Formerly employed by Weinmueller
Weinmueller, AdolfTegernsee, Bavaria Rosenstrasse 74 (Nov 1944)Associate of BornheimOwner of art auction houses at Munich and Vienna, through which passed many objects of art confiscated by the Dienststelle Muehlmann in Holland
Wuester, AdolfBernau, Bavaria Bonn SchloeselClose contact of Bornheim, Dietrich, Bammann (among German dealers); Martin, Rademacher, Kuetgens and Goepel (among German museum buyers)Painter and amateur dealer, long-time pre-war resident of Paris. Chief agent in France for acquisition of works of art for Ribbentrop. With Rochlitz, probably the leading intermediary for German official buyers in the Paris art marketIntimate contactws with von Behr and Lohse. Appointed art adviser to the German Embassy on 16 July 1942, with the rank of Consul. Acted as expert for ERR on French 19th century painting. Involved in two exchanges with the ERRSupplied with works of art primarily by Schoeller, Mandl, Leegenhoek, Raphael Gerard and Hotel Drouot. Close contact of Goetz, Rochlitz, Schoeller, Pfannstiel, Avogli-Trotti and the Duc de TreviseTravelled in Switzerland, Sweden and Spain, purchasing works of art. Extradition requested by French Government`
Altounian, EdgardParis, 17 rue ClapeyrouDealt with BornheimArmenian dealer, active in France, specialising in Greek, Roman and Egyptian art objects
de Beauperthuys, Simone leParis, 6 ave de la Grande ArmeeAlso represented Fischer, for whom she signed a receipt to Bornheim in Paris, July 4 1941Secretary of Alexander Ball and intermediary for Ball with Haberstock, to whom she offered pictures of doubtful origin
BenierParis, 36 blvd HaussmannPrior to 1943 Stora had worked with Angerer, Hofer and BornheimAssistant in the art firm of StoraTook over the business in 1943 after Stora was forced to leave because of Jewish persecutionsSaid to have been in constant touch with Stora after the latter’s departure
de la Beraudiere, ComtesseParis, 5 ave MontaigneExtremely active amateur dealer, who sold to Hofer and BornheimWould accept only cash in paymentIntroduced to Hofer by ReberFrau Hofer had restored pictures for her in Paris in past yearsOn 4 April 1941, sold five paintings, one statue and one clock to Bornheim for FF 2,250,000
Bernard, MmeParis, 15 quai BourbonSold to BornheimWidow of the painter Bernard, who had a collection of her own and sold other objects on commission
BouetParisDealer who sold to Bornheim
Brimo de la LaroussilheParis, 58 rue JouffroyActed as guide to Bornheim on his trip through unoccupied France in May 1941Dealer who specialised in tapestries and objets d’art of the Middle AgesWorked principally with Bornheim, and also with Angerer, Hofer, Josef Muehlmann, Dietrich and Haberstock
Brosseron MarchandParis, 132 blvd Haussmann/45 ave Georges V/17 rue de la BienfaisanceSpecialists in 18th century French art who acted as intermediaries between Bornheim and many French dealers and collectors
Brummer, EParis, 126 rue du Fbg St HonoreSold a 15th century stone Madonna to BornheimOperated the Paris branch of the Brummer firm during the occupationBrother of the New York art dealer
CuvellierParis, 3 blvd PereireFrench dealer who sold to Goering through Bornheim
Darboy, Mme RosieParis, 25 quai VoltaireSold to Bornheim and Hofer and worked with Angerer and Josef MuehlmannTook over the business of the dealer Schutz, formerly at above addressSpecialist in textiles
Decour, AParis, 28 rue Francois Premier Rolleboise (nr Bonniere, Seine et Oise)Architect and interior decorator, reported in contact with many German architects, and to have sold the Bagatelle Ceiling by Fragonard and Grouze to Bornheim
Donath, EtienneParis, 14 rue MiltonFrench dealer who worked with Bornheim and Josef Muehlmann
Feral, JParis, place VendomeHad a close business connection with the French art dealer Pierre Dandry, who worked with Bornheim and Lohse
Foret Divonne, Raoul Vicomte de laParis, 44 rue du Bac Vineuil St FirminDealt with BornheimAmateur dealer who sold extensively to the Germans during the occupationIs believed to have been a receiver of looted works of art passed on to him clandestinely by the ERRWorked with Charles Mignonet and M Dupont
Gairac, GeorgesParis, 17 rue de SeineFrench art dealer who sold to Wuester and Bornheim
Geladakis, BParis, 1 rue MiltonDealt with BornheimSpecialist in sculpture and objets d’artSometimes sold on commission
Gerard, Mme ReneeParis, 14 rue de St SimonIn daily contact with BornheimWidow of the architect Dreyfus and specialist in tapestries, who acted as intermediary between French collectors and the GermansAlso worked with Lohse, Hofer, Josef Muehlmann and Frau Dietrich
GouvertParis, 18 rue FourcroyDealt with Hofer, Bornheim, Angerer and Josef Muehlmann, and visited personally by GoeringFrench dealer specialising in sculpture and expert consultant to the Louvre
Gruel, LeonParis, 148 rue du Fbg St HonoreDealt with Erhardt of the Offenbach Leather Museum and with BornheimSpecialist in rare bookbindings, and occasional dealer in art
Halim Bey, MelhameParis, 113 rue de GrenelleDealer and middleman, who dealt with Bornheim and Josef MuehlmannOffered Goya portrait to Haberstock through Dequoy
Jurschewitz, Paul ANeuilly, 77 rue Charles LaffitteRussian refugee middleman for Dietrich, Bornheim, Muehlmann, and HaberstockBelieved to have worked on commission
Landry, PierreParis, 1 rue ChardinDealer, worked with Bornheim and LohseHad close business connections with J FeralIn contact with Plietzsch and RochlitzUsed Loebl and others for concealment
Larcade, EdouardParis, 38 ave du General Joggre St Germain en Laye, 39 rue de MantesWorked with Hofer and BornheimCollectorNephew of Mmr Lelong
Leonardi, EdouardParis, 8 ave de Friedland/blvd HaussmannWorked with Hofer, Lohse, Josef Muehlmann and Bornheim, through whom he sold several pieces to Goering collectionArchitect and dealerWorked on commission for Gruel and other dealersIndicted by French Government (Seine Tribunal, Judge Frapier)
MederParis, ‘Au Moyen Age ‘, 27 blvd des BatignollesWorked with Bornheim and Josef MuehlmannSchenker documents indicate sales to German buyers
Meller, Prof Dr SimonParis, 3 rue du General AppertWorked with Bornheim and Josef MuehlmannHungarian art historian and dealer, long resident in ParisSpecialist in drawingsKnew Hofer through WendlandSold to Haberstock; documentary evidence in Unit files
Meunier-Batifaud, MmeParis, 38 blvd RaspailWorked with Bornheim, Angerer and Josef MuehlmannWell known tapestry dealerSchenker documents indicate sales to German buyers
Oppenheim, JeanParis, rue du Fbg St HonoreDealt only with BornheimSmall dealer
PadoParis, 6 rue de TocquevilleSold to Goering Collection through BornheimDealerKnew Hofer
Radzewill, Princess (Mrs Dean)ParisSold to Goering Collection through Bornheim
Raton, CharlesParis, 14 rue de MarignanSold to the Germans, including BornheimSchenker documents indicate sales to German buyers
Santo Bey de SemoParis, 18 rue MarignanWorked with Hofer, Bornheim, Holzapfel, Carre and Mme GerardMiddleman/dealer with extensive contacts in Paris
Schmit, JeanParis, 22 rue de CharonneDealt with Bornheim, Angerer, Haberstock and other Germans brought to him by WuesterImportant antique dealer and decorating concernSchenker documents indicate sales to German buyers
Souffrice, JeanParis, Galerie Voltaire, 33 quai VoltaireWorked with Hofer, Bornheim, Angerer and Josef MuehlmannDealerSchenker documents indicate sales to German buyers
StoraParis, 36 blvd HaussmannWorked with Angerer, Hofer and BornheimDealerFled Paris in 1943 because of Jewish persecutionsHis business taken over by Benier, an assistant
Terrisee, GeorgesParis, Cambaceres Galerie, 15 rue la BoetieWorked with Hofer, Lohse and BornheimSmall dealer-auctioneer
Toulinot (Toulino)Paris, 8 ave Victor MasselOccasionally agent for BornheimSmall dealerPartner of LoewenischIn contact with Wuester and Hofer
Velay, AlexandreParis, 7-9 rue de PenthievreShipping firm, occasionally used by Bornheim


With the data in this form, we can throw it into Google Fusion tables which will automatically obtain the geolocation codes from the information entered in "Location" and map the result. It should be noted that the data was not cleaned. Google generated these maps using the messy, heterogeneous data in the table above. (Sadly, Google plans to retire the most excellent Fusion Tables next year.)


Paris: The red dots on the map represent people from the above table placed in their geographical location. To navigate the interactive map clink here.
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In the next section, we will look at mapping the relations between the individuals listed above.