Showing posts with label Jewish art collectors. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Jewish art collectors. Show all posts

Jun 9, 2021

Data Visualization Test

How to grasp the scale of the transfer from Jewish art collectors persecuted by the Nazi to museums in the United States, Germany, Austria, France, Switzerland, the Netherlands, as well as countries in South America?

Some experiments in data visualization.

First, an overview (attention: the figures are not real, they are only to test the visualization.)

The Nazis looted so much. Destroyed so many lives. How to represent this in a way that is understandable, meaningful - and actionable?

The devil is in the detail. 

May 1, 2021

Names of persecuted Austrian Jewish collectors

How to verify the provenance texts of artworks for names that might indicate a history of Nazi looting or persecution?

There are many potential sources and lists.

In this post, we look an official Austrian report from 2008 that contains names of Austrian Jewish collectors whose art collections were plundered by the Nazis.

Jan 23, 2021

Extremely notable people who do not have Wikipedia pages in English

Notable People who have Wikipedia pages in German but not in English and who played an important role in Holocaust history among other things (update ongoing):

Dav. Friedman(n) a.k.a. David Friedmann was born in 1893 in Mährisch Ostrau, Austria, now Ostrava, Czech Republic.  He ventured from this industrial city to Berlin in 1911.  He learned the techniques of copper etching and lithography from Hermann Struck and was awarded a scholarship to study art with Lovis Corinth.

David Friedmann (Friedman), Austrian, Czech, American painter and Holocaust survivor

Wikipedia in German:ünstler)

(* 20. Dezember 1893 in Mährisch-Ostrau, Österreich-Ungarn; † 27. Februar 1980 in St. Louis, Missouri) war ein österreichisch-tschechisch-amerikanischer Künstler und ein Überlebender des Holocaust.


Attention, not to be confused with 

Zwei Reiter am Strand aus dem Schwabinger Kunstfund (Sammlung David Friedmann, Breslau)

David Friedmann, German Jewish businessman and art collector -(1857-1942)

who also has a Wikipedia page in German but not in English

David Friedmann (24. Januar 1857 in Rawitsch – 15. Februar 1942 in Breslau) war ein deutscher Unternehmer und Kunstsammler.

 (see: )


Wikidata Sparql Queries that might be useful:

Holocaust Victims in Wikidata that do not have English Language Wikipedia Pages

Dec 31, 2020

Portraits of Murder and Plunder

Amalie Zuckerkandl was at the height of her beauty when Gustav Klimt begin this (unfinished) portrait of her in 1917-8. A member of the Viennese Zuckerkandl family, Amalie was murdered in the Holocaust along with her daughter Nora Stiansy because they were Jewish, and her portrait was stolen by Nazis.

Serena (Szeréna) Lederer was the model for this beautiful portrait by Gustav Klimt. Her family, which was Jewish, was plundered by the Nazis. Serena Lederer died in 1943 as a refugee from Nazism. 

This magnificent portrait by Klimt depicts the Jewish Austrian intellectual and feminist Adele Bloch-Bauer. Commissioned by her husband, Ferdinand Bloch-Bauer, a Jewish banker and sugar producer, the painting was looted by the Nazis in 1941, along with numerous other artworks. 

Irène Cahen d'Anvers was eight years old when her father, the French Jewish banker Louis Cahen d'Anvers, commissioned this lovely portrait from Pierre-Auguste Renoir in 1880.  During World War II, the Nazis stole the portrait and murdered Irène's daughter, Béatrice, her ex-son-in-law and their two children because of their Jewish ancestry.

The painter Eduard Einschlag was murdered in the Treblinka concentration camp in 1942, and his estate was confiscated. He painted this self portrait in 1930.

Renoir painted this portrait of the Austrian actress Tilla Durieux (Ottilie Godeffroy, 1880–1971) in 1914 when she was married to the art dealer Paul Cassirer. After Cassirer's suicide she married Ludwig Katzenellenbogen who was deported and murdered in the Nazi Sachsenhausen concentration camp in 1944 because Jewish.

Selfportrait by the German Jewish painter Ernst Oppler, showing himself as an art collector.  Ernest Oppler died in 1929, thus escaping the Holocaust, but many members if his family were plundered and persecuted by the Nazis; his brother, the doctor Berthold Oppler, committed suicide in detention on 6 January 1943 to avoid imminent deportation to a Nazi death camp.

The German Jewish painter Charlotte Salomon looks warily at the viewer in this self-portrait from 1940; her family fled Germany for France after Kristallnacht but, five months pregnant, she was captured and murdered in Auschwitz in 1943. 

This brooding self-portrait was painted by the German Jewish artist Felix Nussbaum who died in Auschwitz in 1944.

Getrud Loew was the daughter of Gustav Klimt's doctor, Anton Loew. She was 19 years old when this portait was painted (see full length here). She managed to escape Nazi Vienna in 1939,  under her widowed name Gertha Felsöványi.  

"Pieces with titles that referenced their Jewish origins, were completely changed. For example, The Portrait of Margaret Stonborough Wittgenstein (a Jew) became Damenbildnis in Weiss (Portrait of a lady in white)." - (Morowitz, Laura. “‘Heil the Hero Klimt!’: Nazi Aesthetics in Vienna and the 1943 Gustav Klimt Retrospective.” Oxford University Press 39, no. 1 (2016): 122-23. cited by Gabrielle Knight in Honors Thesis)

Little is known about Walburga "Wally" Neuzil, the blue-eyed model painted by Egon Schiele in 1912. The portrait was stolen by a Nazi art dealer from the collection of Jewish collector Lea Bondi Jaray when her gallery was Aryanized by Nazis in 1939 and she was forced to flee Vienna as a Jew. 

For more reading, see:

Un tableau de Klimt volé par les nazis n'a jamais été restitué à son propriétaire

‘Heil the Hero Klimt!’: Nazi Aesthetics in Vienna and the 1943 Gustav Klimt Retrospective

Leipzig gibt jüdischer Familie ein Stück Geschichte zurück

A Blood-Stained Renoir on Exhibit in Paris

Leipzig Mayor Hand Delivers Nazi-era Art to Painter's Heirs 

Case Review: Cassirer v. Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection Foundation

Holocaust Victim Assets Litigation Case No. CV96-4849

Ein Haus wie ein Museum

Die Stiftung Preußischer Kulturbesitz gibt Kunstwerke aus der Sammlung des von den Nationalsozialisten verfolgten und ermordeten Max Silberberg zurück.

Münchner Kunstfund Bewusst verschleiert

A Tale of Two Portraits, by Rudolf Beran

Raubkunstverdacht: Der Kandinsky-Konflikt

Der Schandfleck

Bank's Kandinsky painting was looted by Nazis, says family

May 27, 2020

DATASET: Art Collectors who died or were detained in Nazi Concentration Camps, Ghettos or Jails

In this post, we publish a tiny subset of names that should immediately set off alarms when they appear in the provenance of an artwork:

Art collectors, dealers, curators, historians, and other art market professionals who were detained or died in Nazi custody, whether in concentration camps, ghettos, or jails.

This dataset is drawn from Wikidata Queries (see below), and so is necessarily limited to those very few names that have been properly documented in Wikidata, with occupation, date and place of death.

DATASET: Art Collectors who were detained or who died in Nazi Concentration Camps, Ghettos or Jails referenced in Wikidata

Version: 1

Licence: CC0

Date published: May 27, 2020

Publisher: Open Art Data

Source of information: Wikidata Query

File formats:

  • CSV


  • Google Sheet


  • RDF Turtle

(to be published)


In this first version, published on May 27, 2020, the Dataset contains only 47 names. (see below) with the following information:

Fields in the DATASET
Wikidata url
Wikidata Qcode
Detention P2632
Died P20
Birth P19

To appreciate how extremely incomplete this dataset is, one can compare it to the 351 names of Jewish collectors on the German Lostart site or to the 371 names (for France alone) of victims of spoliation listed in France's ERR database, or the over three million names in the central database of Yad Vashem.

It is obvious, then, that this tiny dataset makes no claim to completeness. Its purpose is rather to provide an angle of attack for linking up information about murdered Jewish collectors to other information, including provenance information in artworks. 

Each name has a Wikidata identifier, which serves as a linked data hub to other identifiers, authority files and references such as Viaf, Library of Congress, DNB, Dictionary of Art Historians, Lostart, Yad Vashem, Wikipedia, DBpedia, Ulan, etc.

At present, very few Jewish collectors who perished in the Holocaust are properly referenced and linked. 

But every journey begins with a first step. 

The DATASET presented  here is such a first step: to link Jewish art collectors and art professionals who were detained or died in Nazi camps or ghettos into the world of linked data via Wikidata, and thus, hopefully, to help anchor them in the digital Knowledge Graph.

A further observation:
In describing datasets it is common to inventory what is present. In describing datasets related to the Holocaust, however, it is also important to inventory what is absent. This is to avoid the frequent error of imagining that what we see is all there is to know, and to have an idea of the scope of the work that remains to be done.

Extract of Dataset:

List of Forty-Seven Names of Art Collectors, Dealers, Curators, Historians who Died or were Detained in Nazi Camps or Ghettos, or Jails

Wikidata QcodeNameBirthDateVIAF_IDLibrary of Congress authority IDGND_IDULAN_ID
Q2546745Walter Westfeld1889-03-0481690025137508662
Q1039376Carl Laszlo1923-07-162511905n83226831118569996
Q1515593Gertrud Kantorowicz1876-10-0918030172n86032621119368153
Q55676461Jerzy Langman1903-07-3161280166no2005063216127273298
Q15995945Wilhelm Mautner1889-11-281811860701013999878
Q1913457Max Silberberg1878-02-2750130833123274826
Q98887Henri Hinrichsen1868-02-0554912104no96023216116897899
Q54501351Max Frankenburger1860-08-275294492no98080821116716649
Q19236821Walter Cohen1880-02-1840183001nr95021800119198592
Q14777672Ludwig Pollak1868-09-1439488480nr89003403118838172
Q89993Robert Eisler1882-01-01763850nr97031281116435526
Q86225Arthur Mahler1871-08-0128271851110216106
Q11779916Mieczysław Paszkiewicz1925-02-1026463n81056769
Q66832Franz Roh1890-02-2134587588n50048042118602152500048070
Q762753August Liebmann Mayer1885-10-27102317582nr88011775117542563500322318
Q6280128Josef Rosensaft1911-01-1520488355n86056702
Q19258964Alfred Werner1911-03-3156619941n79148949130178594
Q122226Jan Krugier1928-05-1245150837n85212724121187519
Q62070061Olga Bloch1900-08-30
Q3085081François Lang1908-02-2727877412nr93019463
Q5503811Friedrich Gutmann1886-11-153375432123271770
Q15433563Lisa Hamburg1890-09-103062236081107446635
Q1597216Heinrich Feurstein1877-04-1157367931no2016109679116484640
Q1598924Heinrich Stahl1868-04-1368530888no97004669136897487
Q63110939Wilhelm Kurtz1897-08-203164954311072437112
Q3174304Jean Riboud1919-11-1518117722n83185011122914171
Q6202160Jindřich Waldes1876-07-0255020467n00009745122092759
Q94971510Sigmund Fein1880-07-09
Q2038252Otto Bernheimer1877-07-1464750637no2004014234116146672
Q62579Joachim Ernst, Duke of Anhalt1901-01-11
Q11779942Mieczysław Porębski1921-03-31118048919n85827144119251752
Q468466Karolina Lanckorońska1898-08-1176324812n80001031122554140
Q669893Georges Mandel1885-06-0549264696n91053655119078872
Q87857Fritz Grünbaum1880-04-0774077040n86138300119368129
Q47500000Anton Mayer1879-04-2280994143nr2005025243117542393
Q9354188Tadeusz Dobrowolski1899-08-17117652610n80145073
Q47512272Ludwik Rajewski1900-12-1693474687n84219822
Q7085852Ole Henrik Moe1920-01-11311036799n8221205913623674X
Q19753989Karl Freund1882-01-0144770206n90699618140496785
Q3426274René Gimpel1881-01-0191549548n860362591044616733
Q9342555Stanisław Małkowski1889-08-22102102730
Q60040474Adam Abel1886-01-0168427564116553375
Q55006961Heinrich Rieger1868-12-25297121379no2008119220131888331
Q42887282Lucien Graux1878-04-049881824n86022614
Q9138146Abe Gutnajer1888-01-01303116224
Q88803939Leo Grünstein1876-07-1869694062no2008136862116893001

About the Wikidata Queries and data preparation

Two queries were used:

1) for art people detained in Nazi camps or Ghettos

2) for art people who died in Nazi camps or Ghettos

Art People

{ ?item wdt:P106 wd:Q1792450.} UNION { ?item wdt:P31 wd:Q1007870. } UNION { ?item wdt:P106 wd:Q173950.} UNION { ?item wdt:P921 wd:Q328376.} UNION { ?item wdt:P106 wd:Q10732476.} UNION { ?item wdt:P106 wd:Q446966.} UNION { ?item wdt:P106 wd:Q22132694.} UNION { ?item wdt:P106 wd:Q674426.}

(Please note that artists are not included in this selection.)

Died in Camp

{ ?placedied wdt:P31 wd:Q328468.} UNION { ?placedied wdt:P31 wd:Q152081. } UNION { ?placedied wdt:P31 wd:Q153813.} UNION { ?placedied wdt:P31 wd:Q153813.} UNION { ?placedied wdt:P31 wd:Q2583015.}}

Detained in Camp

{ ?place_detention wdt:P31 wd:Q328468.} UNION { ?place_detention wdt:P31 wd:Q152081. } UNION { ?place_detention wdt:P31 wd:Q153813.} UNION { ?place_detention wdt:P31 wd:Q153813.} UNION { ?place_detention wdt:P31 wd:Q2583015.}

Fields Added Manually

Last Name, First Name