Showing posts with label crime networks. Show all posts
Showing posts with label crime networks. Show all posts

Apr 10, 2020

Art Market and the Holocaust: New Questions about the Miedl Looted Art Network

Art Market and the Holocaust: New Questions about the Miedl Looted Art Network

Alois Miedl: art looter 

Miedl's network according to the Art Looting Investigation Unit Final Report of 1946 Red Flag Names List includes a number of names that appear frequently in provenances. Every one of the names below was identified as a Red Flag Name by the ALIU.

Questions for Holocaust-era art historians: Which artworks in which collections include any of these names in their provenance?

Are there gaps in the ownership history 1933-1945?

What is the appropriate action to resolve these unclear provenances?

HendricksFrankfurtDealer who did business with Miedl
LempertzCologneArt dealer who worked with MiedlBornheim once worked under him
Leegenhoek, M OParis, 1 rue de Rennes/230 blvd RaspailBelgian nationalProminent restorer and subsequent dealer who sold extensively to Hofer, Lohse, Wendland, Wuester, Dietrich, Haberstock, Miedl, Goepel and the great majority of important German purchasersFormerly associated with Lagrand, and connected with van der Veken and Renders in BelgiumBelieved still to be in ParisPossibly active in Wendland’s behalf
de Boer, PittAmsterdam, Heerengracht 512Important and active dealerPresident of the Dutch Dealers Association since Goudstikker’s deathAcquired Swiss as well as Dutch nationality early in the war, and visited Switzerland during the occupationDiscovered the first in the series of false Vermeers by van MeegerenClose contact of Hofer, Muehlmann, Posse, Voss, Lohse and Miedl
BrackAmsterdamDealerWorked with Hoogendijk and Miedl
Denijs, Frl JAmsterdam, N Spiegelstraat 32 or 29/KaisersgrachtMember of Dutch Art Dealers syndicate (Vereeniging van Handelaron in Oudo Kunst)Active during occupationIn contact with HoferAssisted Miedl in liquidation of Goudstikker firmWorked with Jan Dik Jr
Erasmus, DrHilversum Geldern bei HaarlemGerman middleman/dealer, formerly in BerlinEscaped to Holland shortly before the warIn contact with Plietzsch, Miedl, Katz, Modrczewski
Goudstikker, J (deceased)Amsterdam, Heerengracht 458The most prominent of the Dutch art dealers before the warKilled while escaping from Holland by ship at the time of the German advanceHis family escaped to AmericaHis business was taken over by Alois Miedl
HoogendijkAmsterdam, Kaizersgracht 640/Roemorvischerstraat 34Prominent dealer who sold to Miedl, Hofer, Posse, Muehlmann and Voss during the occupationClose friend of Friedlander and SchneiderContact of Nathan KatzGoering frequently visited his shop
Katz, NathanThe Hague, Lange Voorhuit 35 Dieren, bei ArnhemProminent dealerWorked principally with Hofer, Posse and Miedl, as well as Lange, Haberstock, Boehler and other German buyersTwo brothers in the Western Hemisphere: Benjamin Katz, Hotel Dauphin, New York and Abraham Katz, 18 Pietermaai, Wilhelmstad, Curacao
Paech, WalterAmsterdam, Rokin 57/Diepenbroekstraat 9German dealer-artist, resident for many years in HollandNot accepted for membership in Dutch syndicate of art dealers before the warClose contact of Wieth, Jan Dik Jr, Hofer, Miedl, Muehlmann and SchillingAlso believed to have sold to Posse
de WildThe Hague, Laan van MeerdeveertDealer-restorerSon of a well known restorerWorked for the Dienststelle MuehlmannDid business with MiedlHas a brother in the United States

Jun 28, 2019

Where to find provenance information about Gurlitt items

Portrait of a Seated Woman by Thomas Couture

Even today, six years after more than one thousand artworks were found in Munich in the possession of Cornelius Gurlitt, son of one of Hitler's official art dealers, Hildebrand Gurlitt, remarkably little light has been shed.

Several sites list artworks from the Gurlitt "collection". However it is not always easy to obtain a file that contains all the items with their provenance. published a table in 2014 (see below), but since then the information has been updated.

For Holocaust and art provenance researchers who need Gurlitt provenance data in tabular form, here is a dataset in a public google sheet and as a CSV.

Google Sheet: Gurlitt provenance data (unites public data originally published by the Lostart Datenbank and

CSV: Gurlitt provenances CSV

(Holocaust research dataset published under Creative Commons for reuse)

Below are the sources for the dataset as well as additional sites that provide information about artworks found in Gurlitt's possession.

1. Gurlitt Case :

17 January 2014: Table of 458 Gurlitt Works of Art posted on

458 artworks are posted in a table that can be easily copied. The provenance is not in the table but can be reached via a link to the internet archive. This link no longer works but one can extract the original link within the lootedart link.  

 2. Lostart Datenbank: 

One can search on Gurlitt, and consult each record individually;jsessionid=C10BF326E6A3628D40FF28E9366A98BB.m0?nn=4084&resourceId=33792&input_=4084&pageLocale=de&templateQueryString=gurlitt&suche_typ=Global&submit=Suchen

Lost Art-Datenbank:

Modul "Provenienzrecherche":

3. Freie Universitäte Berlin Beschlagnahmeinventar "Entartete Kunst"

One can search on Gurlitt and consult records one by one.

4. Victoria and Albert Museum digitized 'Entartete Kunst'Inventory at the V&A 


Jan 7, 2019


What can researchers in art market networks and looted art networks learn from the approach of Dr. Paul-Philippe Paré and his team at the Dept. of Sociology - Western University? Video: Multilevel Models for Social Network Analysis.

Question: Why did some in the art world continue to traffic in Nazi looted art after the defeat of the Nazis? 

Is there anything in the personal biographies or the networks of the individuals involved that social scientists could use to predict this behavior?

Scientists have employed social network analysis to understand the forces driving behaviours such as smoking and gun ownership. Could a similar approach offer insights into the behaviour of dealing in looted or otherwise ill-gotten artworks - in particular after the death of Hitler and the defeat of the Nazi regime?  

What are the drivers for this behaviour? Can predictors be isolated and identified? What might they be: economic situation, business ties, family ties, friendship ties, personality traits, previous looting activity, geographical location, memberships in organisations, age, marital status, profession, education, time period, certain life events, or other factors ? 

What might emerge as the key factors that separate those who decided to deal in looted art after 1945 and those who chose not to deal in looted art after 1945. 

How might one go about setting up a robust analysis?
What datasets would be needed?
What methods?
What competence?

No answers here. Just questions

Jan 2, 2019

Networks of Gustav Rochlitz

The OSS Art Looting Investigation Unit Red Flag List of Names contains twelve entries that mention Rochlitz as a direct link. Network graph produced by Google Fusion Tables from ALIU data filtered on "Rochlitz")

Gustav Rochlitz is mentioned in the entries for sixteen people in the 1946 Art Looting Investigation Unit (ALIU) Red Flag List.

These are:
Bammann, Hans
Rademacher, Dr Bernard
Wuester, Adolf
Adrion, Philippe
Birtschansky, Zacharie
Cailleux, Paul
Duthey, Jean Paul Louis
Kuehne & Nagel
Landry, Pierre
Levy, Mlle
Petrides, O
Rosner, Isador (or Ignacy)
de Trevise, Duc
von Frey, Count Alexander
Wendland, Dr Hans

How to analyse this network?

It is interesting to note that while the ALIU entries for the above names contain mentions of Rochlitz, the entry for Gustav Rochlitz in the ALIU Red Flag list does not, for practical reasons, mention any of his "many contacts". They are simply too many to fit in the limited space available in the ALIU Red Flag List. Rather the ALIU entry attempts to summarize Rochlitz' main roles and "most intimate" connections.

 Rochlitz's own ALIU Red Flag entry reads:

Rochlitz, Gustav: Art dealer, active in France prior to and during World War II in the interests of the Third Reich Chief participant in exchanges of paintings confiscated by the ERR, and important recipient of loot. Personal belongings and dealer’s stock stated to be at Todtmoos/Baden (in French Zone of Occupation), in the house of Edward Schupp Possibly removed by Lt Loos of the French Army to Loerach-Schopfheim Apart from Rochlitz’s many contacts in Paris, his two most intimate friends were E Ascher (rue Jacques Callot, corner rue de Seine) and M de Beurry (42 rue Ernest Cresson) formerly of the Paris police Rochlitz has been indicated by the French Government (Seine Tribunal, Judge Frapier) and is presently confined at Fresne Prison, Paris

The Rochlitz entry contains words such as "art dealer", "France", "World War II", "Third Reich", "paintings", "ERR", "loot", Todtmoos/Baden", "French zone of Occupation", "Edward Schupp", "French army" "Loerach-Schopfheim", "Paris", E Ascher", "rue Jacques Callot", "rue de Seine", "M de Beurry", "42 rue Ernest Cresson", "Paris police", "indicated" (a misspelling or mistranscription of "indicted"), "French government", "Seine Tribunal", "Judge Frapier", "Fresne Prison".

Many of these entities appear in other ALIU Red Flag entries and could, in their turn, serve to explore connected networks.

Would this be useful?

For example, if one filters ALIU Red Flag entries for "dealer", 213 names appear. Most have locations that can be mapped. Here is Europe:

What happens if we cross the Rochlitz direct link information with, for example, the dealer information?

Well, frankly, the chart gets harder to read. Part of Rochlitz' network disappears into the magma of the 213 dealers, and we have a less clear picture of what is going on.

The occupation "art dealer" seems like an important attribute but not in this analysis where it produces more noise than insight.

What if, on the contrary, we join Rochlitz' network with the networks of one of his direct links, say Wuester?

Bammann, Hans
Rademacher, Dr Bernard
Wuester, Adolf
Adrion, Philippe
Birtschansky, Zacharie
Cailleux, Paul
Duthey, Jean Paul Louis
Kuehne & Nagel
Landry, Pierre
Levy, Mlle
Petrides, O
Rosner, Isador (or Ignacy)
de Trevise, Duc
von Frey, Count Alexand

Perhaps we can see which of Rochlitz' direct links also had direct links to, say, Wuester?

The chart below shows Wuester's direct connections in the ALIU Red Flag list.

Adolf Wüster had a lot of direct links, including Gustav Rochlitz. 

Some of Wuester's direct links are also direct links for Rochlitz. For example: Paul Cailleux.

Art dealer Paul Cailleux, 136 rue du Fbg St Honore,  had direct links to both Wuester and Rochlitz.

If we put ALIU data for Wuester and Rochlitz together, we see:

This network chart helps us to see at a glance that Paul Cailleux, Dr. Hans Wendland, Duc de Trevise, Hans Bammann, Dr. Bernhard Rademacher have this in common: they all had direct links to both Wuester and Rochlitz.

This is an intriguing beginning. Now where can we go from here? One could perform the same analysis with each of Rochliz' direct links, or even combine them all into a single analysis.
One could go further and create a matrice with every connection mentioned in the ALIU final Report.
What might this show us? How to present the network graph so that it is readable and useful for researchers?
Is it more helpful to use a wide or a narrow focus?

What if we mix  ALIU documented  networks with other types of networks, from other types of sources?

To be continued...

see also: The Networks of Walter Bornheim and The Networks of Bruno Lohse