Showing posts with label art looting network. Show all posts
Showing posts with label art looting network. Show all posts

Nov 16, 2018

Dr Dirk Hannema and the looted art trade in the Netherlands

Dirk Hannema, Director of the Boijmans Museum, was the subject of a recent NYT article entitled: In a Netherlands Museum Director, the Nazis Found an Ally .

In 1946 the Office of Strategic Services Art Looting Investigation Unit (ALIU) published a series of reports that included a description of Dirk Hannema's role in the looted art trade, calling him the "principal collaborator in Dutch art world. Member of the Seyss-Inquart organisation. Adviser to Goering on art exchanges with Kroeller-Mueller. Believed to be in Dutch custody (May 1945)."*

The Seyss-Inquart organisation, of which Hannema was a member was a notorious Nazi looting organisation(1). His name appeared in connection to other known art looters in The ALIU Red Flag List of Names. Its leaders were recommended for trial as war criminals.

VLUG Report, page 30.
The Vlug Report 25 December 1945 by Jean Vlug, of the Royal Netherlands Army  for the Fine Arts (Special Services) section of the Dutch Restitution Committee

"He agreed with Müllmann's proposal that a commission of two Dutchmen and one German should fix the value of the paintings as a basis for the exchange and with the supplementary decision of the Kroller-Müller foundation with regards to the extension of the Park. 
The commission consisted of:
Dr. Hannema, Van Deventer and Plietzsch."
- VLUG REPORT, hand delivered.
VLUG Part 1:  Click download PDF VLUG 1 
VLUG Part 2:  Click download PDF VLUG 2
VLUG Part 3: Click download PDF VLUG 3
VLUG Part 4:  Click download PDF VLUG 4

VLUG Part 5: Click download PDF VLUG 5

"there can be no question of his reinstatement."
- NARA M1944. Records of the American Commission for the Protection and Salvage of Artistic and Historic Monuments in War Areas, 1943-1946. (Declassified 2002)

see also: Art Looting Investigation Reports:
Muehlmann, Kajetan. Peuerbach, Austria. Austrian national. Leading early Nazi who held the position of Staatssekretaer and Fine Arts Minister under the Seyss-Inquart Anschluss government. Head of the official bureau for ‘securing and safeguarding of art and cultural treasures ‘ in Poland and Holland under Frank and Seyss-Inquart. Director of the Dienststolle Muehlmann. SS officer and the individual most responsible for organised German art looting in Holland and Poland. Recommended by this Unit for trial as a war criminal, and for exploitation by the French, Polish and Dutch governments in connection with restitution matters. In American custody, 20 September 1945 at Civilian Internment Camp 7A, Peuerbach/Linz, Austria.

Plietzsch, Dr Eduard. Berlin, Meineckestrasse 9. Art historian and specialist in Dutch painting. Author of a book on Vermeer. With Kieslinger, most important professional member of the Dientstelle Muehlmann in Holland. Consultant for Dutch and Flemish painting to the Goering Collection, and reported involved in the confiscation of the Mannheimer Collection and the sale of the Mendelssohn Collection. Buyer and adviser to Seyss-Inquart. In custody in British Zone, September 1945. Believed interrogated extensively by the Dutch services.


After the war, Dr. Dirk Hannema had a successful career.

According to the Dictionary of Art Historians, "Following his release, in 1947, Hannema continued to work as an art collector and as the curator of his private collection, which he opened for the public in Weldom Castle in Goor. In 1958 he relocated the collection to Castle Het Nijenhuis in Heino, after having created, in 1957, the foundation Hannema-de Stuers Fundatie, named in honor of his parents. Hannema continued broadening his collection and serving as its curator until his death in 1984. Hannema's pre-war directorship contributed to the international importance of Museum Boymans."

*see also:,%20Dirk.html

Jun 5, 2018

Networks of Yves Perdoux

What is known about Yves Perdoux? Quite a lot actually. 

The OSS Art Looting Investigation Unit mentioned the name "Perdoux" seven times in its 1946 Red Flag List. The investigators refered to the "Wendland, Lohse, Perdoux art dealing syndicate" and the "informal dealers’ syndicate composed of Wendland, Perdoux, Boitel, Dequoy"...
Hector Feliciano mentioned him in The Lost Museum in 1995.
More recently,  Kenneth D. Alford's Hermann Goring and the Nazi Art Collection: The Looting of Europe's Art Treasures and Their Dispersal After World War I (ISBN-13: 978-0786468157) refers to Perdoux quite a few times as well. (It's easy to find all the mentions with the searchable Kindle version).

Perdoux in a provenance is a signal that more research is needed.

His name is linked to Hermann Goering, Hans Wendland, Walter Andreas Hofer, Zacharie Birtschansky and Victor Mandl and more, as one can see below in these excerpts.

paintings at France MNR with Yves Perdoux in the provenance

Perdoux in the 1946 OSS Art Looting Investigation Unit Red Flag Names list:

  • Perdoux, Yves. Paris, 178 rue du Fbg St Honore/6 rue de Teheran/6 blvd Flandrin. Operated the Galerie Guynot. One of the most active collaborationist dealers. Close associate of Wendland, Boitel and Loebl. Ardent Nazi, constantly in touch with Dietrich and other German buyers. Interrogated in 1945 by the Police Judiciaire. Reported ill and near death in January 1946.

  • Boitel, Achilles (deceased). Paris, 6 rue de Teheran/11 bis rue Ampere. Wealthy French industrialist and speculator, who acted as Wendland’s French agent after the Swiss made it impossible for him to leave that country. Chief financial figure in the Wendland, Lohse, Perdoux art dealing syndicate. Worked with Lohse and Hofer, and was a good friend of von Behr. Connected with Hofer in exchanges of Swiss and French francs. Open collaborator who was often in Germany before the war and spoke fluent German. Assassinated by the French Resistance.

  • Thierry. Villefranche sur Mer, Villa ‘Le Miradou ‘, ave Gauvin Paris, 75 rue d’Auteuil. Collaborationist dealer, active in Paris and Nice. Worked with Brueschwiller, Ward Holzapfel and Mme Soyer, his mistress. Sold to Rochlitz, Perdoux, Aguilar, Moebius, and others.

  • Garin, Ernest. Paris, 9 rue de l’Echelle. Formal proprietor of the Galerie E Garin, aryanised in this name by Ali Loebl. The Garin firm actually succeeded Kleinberger’s and under Loebl becamse centre of the informal dealers’ syndicate composed of Wendland, Perdoux, Boitel, Dequoy, etc. Garin personally played a relatively minor part in the business of the firm during the occupation. Indicted by French Government (Seine Tribunal, Judge Frapier).

  • Guynot, Henri. Neuilly Paris, 178 rue du Fbg St Honore. Gallery directed by Perdoux. Dealt with Hofer and Lohse. Sold to Haberstock; documentary evidence in Unit files.

  • Loebl, Ali (Allen). Paris, rue des Pyramides/9 rue de l’Echelle/34 quai de Passy. Dealer, of Austro-Hungarian Jewish descent. Director and leading spirit of the firm Kleinberger & Co, ‘aryanised ‘ under the name of E Garin during the war. Centre of the informal art dealing syndicate comprising Wendland, Perdoux, Mandl, Boitel, Dequoy, Engel. Sold chiefly to Lohse, Hofer and Haberstock, for whom he travelled as agent in unoccupied France. Contact of Mohnen, Landry, Mestrallet. Indicted by the French Government (Seine Tribunal, Judge Frapier).

  • Mandl, Victor. Paris, 9 rue du Boetie. German refugee dealer, formerly active in Berlin. Highly important figure in German art purchases in Paris. Close contact of Wendland, Dietrich, Voss, Goepel, Muehlmann, Lohse, Loebl, Perdoux, Birtschansky and Wuester. Indicted by French Government for collaborationist activity.

Yves Perdoux is also included in the list of Art dealers involved in wartime trading in looted art in France

Yves Perdoux in the News


Au printemps 1940, au moment de fuir par l'Espagne il avait remisé cent-soixante tableaux en Gironde, dans sa villa de Floirac et dans les coffres de la Banque nationale du commerce à Libourne. Parmi elles, les Nymphéas mais aussi des chefs-d'oeuvre aussi importants que l'Homme à l'oreille cassée de Van Gogh. Informés sur dénonciation de deux antiquaires, le comte de Lestang et Yves Perdoux, les nazis investissent la villa le 15 septembre 1940. Les délateurs recevront trois Pïssaro pour leur peine.

Le Figaro La famille Bromberg retrouve son tableau, volé pendant la guerre - Par   Journaliste Figaro Claire Bommelaer

16 June 2018
"Le premier jour de printemps à Moret", by Alfred Sisley--Part Two
by Marc Masurovsky
Thirty years elapsed before Mr. Perdoux allegedly acquired the Sisley painting. There is nothing to indicate that he bought it from Durand-Ruel. This could be the same Perdoux as Yves Perdoux, a notorious Parisian art dealer who collaborated with the Nazis during the German occupation of France and denounced the locations of a number of Jewish-owned art collections, including that of Paul Rosenber

Yves Perdoux in German Lost Art Foundation: Beteiligte Privatpersonen und Körperschaften am NS-Kulturgutraub, Lost Art-Da­ten­bank, Mo­dul "Pro­ven­ienz­re­cher­che",  NS-Raub­kunst

Paris; 178 rue du Fbg Saint-Honoré, 66 rue de Teheran, 6 bd Flandrin; Leiter der Galerie Guynot, einer der aktivsten Kollaborateure, enger Kontakt zu Hans Wendland, Boitel, Loebel und Kontaktperson von Almas-Dietrich in Paris

Qu.: ALIU, Final Report, 118

Yves Perdoux in Site Rose-Valland Musées Nationaux Récupération

Portrait d'homme Collection du consul Edouard F. Weber, Hambourg, 1909 ; vente Weber, Berlin, 10-22 février 1912, n° 99. Collection M. Bromberg, Hambourg. Collection Victor Mandl, Wiesbaden. Collection G. Wildenstein, Paris, 1939 (selon annotations relevées dans les dossiers du RKD). 
Le panneau est acheté 18 750 RM à Yves Perdoux, Paris, par la galerie Almas Dietrich le 22 février 1941 (provision Jurschewitz 600 RM) et revendu 35 000 RM en mars 1941 au musée de Linz (1) ; il est enregistré le 15 juillet 1945 au Central Collecting Point de Munich sous le n° 4416 et renvoyé en France le 3 juin 1949 (2).
Il est attribué au musée du Louvre (département des peintures) par l'Office des Biens et Intérêts Privés en 1950 (3).
Puis il est déposé au musée des Beaux-Arts de Chambéry en 1960 (D 63-1) (4).
Le panneau a été restitué aux ayants-droit d’Hertha et Henry Bromberg le 28 novembre 2016.

Perdoux in  Hermann Goring and the Nazi Art Collection: The Looting of Europe's Art Treasures and Their Dispersal After World War II

[Göring]..." was represented in Paris by Hofer, Bornheim, Lohse, Angerer and Dr. Joseph Muehlmann, who made regular trips to Paris and stayed as long as two or three months at a time. Göring’s purchasing activity was enormous, as validated by the Carinhall shipping tickets in the files of Schenker Transportation Company. Wendland was most active in Paris, capitalizing upon his German citizenship in a land occupied by Germans and upon his wide prewar acquaintance with those in the Paris art market, Wendland became a kind of advisor and guide to many of the French dealers anxious to do business with Germans. He gradually formed an informal syndicate of the French dealers Boitel, Perdoux, and Loebl. He was connected with the Dequoy-Fabinai combination, and he is known to have had interests in the Mandl-Birtschanksy art association."

"Added to the established dealers came a flock of intermediaries and middlemen to guide the Germans. They all worked together and the same pieces of art turned up at different places at different times with a higher price. The most important of these groups was headed by Hans Wendland and Paris art dealer Yves Perdoux. They all had connections to Hermann Göring, through Wendland and Hofer, as Wendland represented Göring in the Greater Reich and Perdoux with his contacts throughout France. Hermann Goring and the Nazi Art Collection: The Looting of Europe's Art Treasures and Their Dispersal After World War II

(there's more, Kindle version recommended for easy search facilities)

Library References and Authority Files for Yves Perdoux

There is no ULAN ID for Yves Perdoux, however other authority files exist for him:


Epithet: antique dealer, of Paris

British Library Archives and Manuscripts Catalogue : Person : Description : ark:/81055/vdc_100000000149.0x000094


Ark ID:w6vz0cb8

SNAC ID: 46357420

Yves Perdoux in Ownership History of Paintings or Provenance


Boston Museum of Fine Art

... March 17, 1923, Bamberger sale, Hotel Drouot, Paris, lot 49, to Trotti et Cie., Paris. 1924, Yves Perdoux, Paris [see note 4]. 1926, Goudstikker, Amsterdam (stock no. 1667) [see note 5]. 1927, Howard Young Galleries, New York (stock no. 2573); 1927, sold by Howard Young Galleries to John Taylor Spaulding (b. 1870 - d. 1948), Boston; 1948, bequest of John Taylor Spaulding to the MFA. (Accession Date: June 3, 1948)

(Also in Getty Provenance Index Public Collections:
Provenance of Paintings Record 10611
Portrait of a Man
Boston, MA, Museum of Fine Arts

Perdoux, Yves (?). Paris, France)

Detroit Institute of Arts

Still Life with Dead Hare, ca. 1760

Mme. Becq de Fouquières (Paris, France);
May 8, 1925, (Hôtel Drouot, Paris, France) lot 17 [pendant was no. 18, purchased by Yves Perdoux];
M. Sherematieff (Paris, France);
Dr. Wendland (Basel, Switzerland);
purchased by (Kleinberger Galleries, New York, New York, USA);
November 1926, purchase by the Detroit Institute of Arts (Detroit, Michigan, USA)

(update ongoing..)

May 11, 2018

Red Flags in #Arthistory: Kleinberger

A search on Kleinberger in the German Historical Museum Linz Database returns five paintings

The name "Kleinberger" appears fourteen times in the French MNR database, five times in the German Historical Museum Linz Database and three times in the Art Looting Investigation Red Flag List of Names, along with "Loebl" (14 times) and "Garin" (6 times)

Apr 24, 2018

WWII art looting networks: Leegenhoek

Brueghel in the Linz database. It passed through Leegenhoek's hands to Gallery Maria Almas-Dietrich. See:

What does it mean to find "Leegenhoek" in a WWII era provenance?