Nov 19, 2018

Raphaël Gérard

Gurlitt: Status Report

An Art Dealer in Nazi Germany

What does it mean to find the name Raphaël Gérard in a provenance?


1. The art dealer Raphaël Gérard appears in the provenance of an astonishing number of artworks in the Gurlitt: Status Report An Art Dealer in Nazi Germany expo in Berlin. This close collaboration with Gurlitt suggests that more research would be useful.

© Gurlitt Provenance Research Project Object record excerpt for Lost Art ID: 532973 

Gustave Courbet
Portrait of a woman (Portait of the Artist’s Sister Juliette?)

Provenance:
(…)
By latest 28 April 1944: Raphaël Gerard, Paris (per Gurlitt Papers)
After September 1953: Hildebrand Gurlitt, Dusseldorf (per Gurlitt Papers)
Thence by descent to Cornelius Gurlitt, Munich/Salzburg

From 6 May 2014: Estate of Cornelius Gurlitt

© Gurlitt Provenance Research Project Object record excerpt for Lost Art ID: 533086

Provenance:
(…)
By latest 28 April 1944: Raphaël Gerard, Paris (per Gurlitt Papers)
After September 1953: Hildebrand Gurlitt, Dusseldorf (per Gurlitt Papers)
Thence by descent to Cornelius Gurlitt, Munich/Salzburg
From 6 May 2014: Estate of Cornelius Gurlitt


2. The art dealer Raphaël Gérard is known to have dealt in "confiscated pictures" and to have used aliases.

https://www.fold3.com/image/269882894 

Raphael Gérard: “closely connected with German looting in France” “used the names HERMSEN and SCHEOLLER” NARA M1946. denazification orders, custody receipts, property cards, Jewish restitution claim records, and other records.  - NARA/Fold3 


In its 1946 Red Flag List of Names, the Art Looting Investigation Unit  wrote that Raphael Gerard (Gerard, Raphael Louis Felix) "Dealt in confiscated pictures" and that he had been indicted by the French Government in the Seine Tribunal. The judge was named Frapier. The ALIU indicated that Raphael Gerard supplied works of art to Adolf Wuester, the "Chief agent in France for acquisition of works of art for Ribbentrop" as well as the publisher Albert Skira, who was "suspected strongly of having smuggled additional objects into Switzerland through diplomatic channels".

See photographs of original ALIU document for Raphael Gerard on Fold3, National Archives
Download PDF

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https://www.fold3.com/image/270022497
NARA M1944. Records of the American Commission for the Protection and Salvage of Artistic and Historic Monuments in War Areas, 1943-1946.

3. There are numerous mentions of Raphaël Gérard on the internet

A search for Raphaël Gérard turns up many mentions, not only in the ownership history of artworks found in the Gurlitt hoard, but also on French looted art sites, news sites, museum blogs and more. 
https://www.kulturgutverluste.de/Content/06_ProjektGurlitt/_ORE/Courbet_ORE_532973.pdf?__blob=publicationFile&v=10

Cultural Plunder by the Einsatzstab Reichsleiter Rosenberg: Database of Art Objects at the Jeu de Paume

Owner: Alfred Lindenbaum — Paris, France
Collection: (Li) Alfred Lindenbaum
Inventory No.: Li 42
Artist: 1872, Alfred Sisley, 1839 - 1893
Literature: Acquired from Raphael Gérard
Provenance and Comments: Tausch. Exchange with Ventura [Goering Report, p. 137]. The painting was discovered in 1945 in Florence, Italy, and was returned to France by way of the French Embassy in Rome.
Archival Sources: RG 260 M1943 Reel 12 NARA; Bundesarchiv, B323/277; RA 2, RA 603, MAEE, Paris, France
Repatriated to France? Yes
Repatriation date: 1946-11-28
Restituted? Yes
Restitution date: 1946-12-03



List of works with incomplete provenance from 1933–1945 - National Gallery of Art, London







List of objects proposed for protection under Part 6 of the Tribunals, Courts and Enforcement Act 2007 (protection of cultural objects on loan)


Artist: Claude-Oscar Monet
Title: In the Garden
Provenance:
Wildenstein: Jean Campineano, Bucharest. Flavian Collection, Romania. Raphael Gerard, c.1940. Buehrle, Zuerich, c. 1952. Koerfer, Zuerich. Knoedler, New York. R. Balay, United States. Col. and Mrs. Edgar W. Garbisch, c. 1969. Sale The Garbisch Collection, New York, Sotheby Parke Bernet, 12 May 1980, no. 15 (Roland Ernst, Germany); Private Collection, Switzerland (purchased from Walter Feilchenfeldt, Zurich). (Possibly bought in Christie's New York sale 06 November 2001, Lot 31.)


"Provenance Issues: Red Flags" - Author: Nancy Karrels, graduate student in Art History and curator of Provenance: A Forensic History of Art, 2017, Krannert Art Museum  and Kinkead Pavilion


Kitchen Still Life was owned by one “red-flag” dealer during the Nazi era. Raphael Gérard acquired this painting before or during 1934, six years before the German invasion of France. The painting remained in his possession until at least 1937. Although Raphael Gérard was indicted in postwar France for selling stolen art to Nazi agents, nothing indicates this painting was subject to spoliation in the years before the Occupation.

E. & A. Silberman Galleries in New York acquired Kitchen Still Life by 1942. A Jewish-owned business, Silberman’s Vienna gallery was Aryanzied after the 1938 annexation of Austria by Germany and its owners fled to the United States. The New York gallery was later implicated in sales of looted paintings to US museums. However, Silberman Galleries also handled hundreds of legitimate sales.

It is not clear where, when, or under what circumstances Silberman Galleries acquired Kitchen Still Life. Provenance research for this painting is ongoing.

L'exposition «A qui apartenaient ces tableaux?» - 20 Minutes

Gustave Courbet, «Baigneuses» MNR 876 CE tableau a été acheté à Raphaël Gérard en octobre 1940 par le ministre des Affaires étrangères du Reich. Restitué à la France, il a été attribué aux Musées nationaux et transféré au musée d'Orsay en 1986. Le marchand Raphaël Gérard a été condamné à la Libération pour avoir vendu de nombreuses oeuvres à des musées  allemands.

Les MNR confiés au MUba: MNR 875 GUSTAVE COURBET PAYSAGE ROCHEUX AUX ENVIRONS DE FLAGEY (DOUBS)

HISTORIQUE :
Le tableau est acheté chez Raphaël Gérard (cachet au revers) par Joachim von Ribbentrop (MAEDI/209SUP100 bis A25, 209SUP437 et 209SUP401 P40 et fold3.com/image/ 274275153 : Attestation du 30 mai 1950 par le chef de la section Réparations-Restitutions de Vienne G. H. Pommery) le 25 octobre 1940 pour 8750 RM (Bundesarchiv BAK N 1163 vol.8 : photographie n° 12) ; collection Ribbentrop (n° 1519) ; il est enregistré au Central Collecting Point de Wiesbaden sous le n° 76.88.Le tableau est rapatrié vers la France par le deuxième convoi en provenance de Wiesbaden qui arrive au siège de la Commission de récupération artistique le 26 juin 1950 (Fold3.com/image/306474692, 306474714 et 306474782.)
Le tableau est retenu lors de la sixième Commission de choix des œuvres de la récupération artistique du 29 mai 1951 ; il est attribué au musée du Louvre (département des peintures) par l'Office des Biens et Intérêts Privés en 1951 (SMF, sous-direction des collections, dossier Récupération) ; il est confié à la garde du musée d’Orsay en 1986 et déposé au MUba musée des Beaux-Arts de Tourcoing en 2017.

http://muba-tourcoing.fr/COLLECTIONS-ART-ET-ARTISTES/MNR-Musees-Nationaux-Recuperation/Les-MNR-confies-au-MUba

4. The French Site Rose Valland (for looted art) has numerous listings for Raphaël Gérard

DOWLOAD CSV FOR RAPHAEL GERARD

Site Rose-VallandMusées Nationaux Récupération 

SEARCH results for Raphaël Gérard


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BOUDIN EugèneMarine. Voiliers au port (Deauville)PeintureLyon ; musée des Beaux-Arts
BOUDIN, EugèneLa Meuse à RotterdamPeintureParis ; musée d'Orsay
BOUDIN, EugèneMarine. Le Port de CamaretPeintureMeudon, musée d'art et d'histoire
COURBET GustaveBaigneuses, dit aussi Deux Femmes nuesPeintureParis ; musée d'Orsay
COURBET GustaveLes Braconniers dans la neigePeintureBesançon ; musée des Beaux-Arts et d'Archéologie
COURBET GustaveMer calme à PalavasPeintureSète ; musée Paul-Valéry
COURBET, GustavePaysage rocheux aux environs de Flagey (Doubs)PeintureTourcoing ; musée des Beaux-Arts
DAUBIGNY, Charles-FrançoisRuisseau avec deux héronsPeintureParis ; musée d'Orsay
DEGAS, EdgarDanseuseArts graphiques ; dessinParis ; musée d'Orsay
DELACROIX Eugène (d'après)Clorinde intervenant pour sauver Olinde et SophroniePeintureParis ; musée du Louvre ; département des Peintures
DELACROIX, Eugène (genre de)Tête de femmePeintureParis ; musée du Louvre ; département des Peintures
DELACROIX, EugèneCromwell devant le cercueil de Charles IerArts graphiques ; dessinParis ; musée du Louvre ; département des Arts graphiques
DELACROIX, EugèneSaint Paul sur le chemin de DamasArts graphiques ; dessinParis ; musée du Louvre ; département des Arts graphiques
DELACROIX, Eugène Ancienne attribution : attribué à Delacroix.Quentin Durward et le BalafréPeintureCaen ; musée des Beaux-Arts
DETAILLE ÉdouardLes otages ; épisode de la guerre de 1870-1871PeintureParis ; musée d'Orsay
DUPRÉ JulesCoucher de soleil sur la merPeintureL'Isle-Adam ; musée d'Art et d'Histoire Louis Senlecq
GROS, Antoine-Jean (attribué à)Portrait d'un officierPeintureToulouse ; musée des Augustins
GUILLAUMIN, ArmandPortrait de Madame Guillaumin cousantPeinture ; pastelRouen ; musée des Beaux-Arts
INGRES, Jean-Auguste-DominiquePortrait de Madame Gabriac, née Sophie AllartArts graphiques ; dessinParis ; musée du Louvre ; département des Arts graphiques
JONGKIND, Johan BartholdPaysage des environs de NeversArts graphiques ; dessinParis ; musée d'Orsay ; déposé au département des Arts graphiques du musée du Louvre
MONET Claude OscarJardin en fleurs, à Sainte-AdressePeintureMontpellier ; musée Fabre
MONET, Claude, OscarLa Seine à VétheuilPeintureRouen ; musée des Beaux-Arts
MONET, Claude, OscarTrain dans la campagnePeintureParis ; musée d’Orsay
MONET, Claude, OscarTrophée de chassePeintureMontpellier ; musée Fabre
MONET, Claude, OscarVue de plaine à Argenteuil ; coteaux de SannoisPeintureParis ; musée d'Orsay
PISSARRO, Camille, Jacob, AbrahamL'église Saint-Jacques à DieppePeintureDieppe ; musée municipal
RENOIR Pierre-AugustePortrait de Mme Colonna RomanoPeintureCagnes-sur-Mer ; musée Renoir ; maison des Collettes
RENOIR, Pierre-AugustePetit PortPeintureParis ; musée d'Orsay
SISLEY AlfredLe Pont de Moret-sur-Loing ; effet d'oragePeintureLe Havre ; musée d’Art moderne André-Malraux - MUMA
SISLEY, AlfredLa Seine, vue des coteaux de By (Seine-et-Marne)PeintureAngers ; musée des Beaux-Arts
SISLEY, AlfredLes PénichesPeintureDieppe ; musée municipal
UTRILLO MauriceL'impasse CottinPeintureParis ; musée national d'art moderne
UTRILLO MauriceLa rue du Mont-Cenis à MontmartrePeintureRestitué
WINTERHALTER, Franz XaverPortrait de femmePeintureCompiègne ; musée national du château


5. Raphaël Gérard on the Art Looting Investigation Unit Red Flag List



Gerard, Raphael Louis Felix. Paris, 4 ave de Messine. Dealt in confiscated pictures; main source of supply to Wuester and other German buyers. Indicted by French Government (Seine Tribunal, Judge Frapier).

Wuester, Adolf. Bernau, Bavaria Bonn Schloesel. Painter and amateur dealer, long-time pre-war resident of Paris. Chief agent in France for acquisition of works of art for Ribbentrop. Intimate contactws with von Behr and Lohse. Acted as expert for ERR on French 19th century painting. Appointed art adviser to the German Embassy on 16 July 1942, with the rank of Consul. Involved in two exchanges with the ERR. With Rochlitz, probably the leading intermediary for German official buyers in the Paris art market. Close contact of Bornheim, Dietrich, Bammann (among German dealers); Martin, Rademacher, Kuetgens and Goepel (among German museum buyers). Supplied with works of art primarily by Schoeller, Mandl, Leegenhoek, Raphael Gerard and Hotel Drouot. Close contact of Goetz, Rochlitz, Schoeller, Pfannstiel, Avogli-Trotti and the Duc de Trevise. Travelled in Switzerland, Sweden and Spain, purchasing works of art. Extradition requested by French Government.

Skira, Albert*. Geneva, 4 place du Molart. Owner of publishing firm ‘Editions d’Art ‘; on British and American Proclaimed Lists. Partner of Pierre Cailler and son-in-law of Lionello Venturi, celebrated Italian anti-Fascist art historian, long resident of France and the United States. Imported a large number of works of art from France during the German occupation, and upon request, submitted lists to the British and French diplomatic missions in Switzerland to prove that all objects were acquired and imported legitimately. Suspected strongly of having smuggled additional objects into Switzerland through diplomatic channels (possibly South American) and illicit border activity. Purchased from Renou et Colle, Fabiani, Raphael Gerard, Carre and a group of sixteen less important Parisian dealers. Contact of von Frey. Believed to be playing a double game with earlier strong connections in the French underground. No claims pending against him on the part of the French Government, but appears to be an unsolved case of potential importance.

*Skira was erroneously transcribed as Seira in some digital documents, so search on seira as well.