Jun 21, 2021

Let's run 1000 NEPIP provenances that contain Munich through the Looted Art Detector

In the previous post we gathered one thousand provenances of artworks listed (for the most part) by American museums on the Nazi Era Provenance Internet Portal that contain the word "Munich" or "München" in the provenance text.

In this post, using the Looted Art Detector developed at the Swiss Glamhack2020 and Glamhack2021, we rank artworks that contain a mention of Munich according to the criteria of "Uncertainty". 

The objective: rank provenance research priority according to the criteria of the Uncertainty Index

Why uncertainty? 

Because words like "probably", "likely", "possibly", "maybe" may signal that statements in the provenance text are uncertain, speculative or unsupported by the evidence. A high concentration of such words may indicate a text that is deceptive or false. 

One of the reasons that false provenances are published, in particular for NEPIP items, is to conceal an ownership history that is linked to the Holocaust. 

(Another may be to conceal a forgery-or some other inconvenient information.) 

The passage of time, lost, closed or destroyed archives, or inadequate provenance research can also explain a high degree of uncertainty, so it is important not to leap to any conclusions.

Uncertainty and the Looted Art Detector

In default mode, the Looted Art Detector counts indicators of Uncertainty, Unreliability or Anonymity

according toflagreliability
before 19flagreliability
by 19flagreliability
said to haveflagreliability
to at leastflagreliability
until at leastflagreliability
art marketflaganonymity
private collectionflaganonymity
private collectionflaganonymity
private collectorflaganonymity
property of a European collectorflaganonymity
property of a ladyflaganonymity

In the table below the artworks are sorted by Uncertainty Index

The Uncertainty Index is a measure of the concentration of uncertainty words. To obtain it, one adds to the Results file a simple calculation. ( flaguncertainty/number of words)

Top Fifty Highest Uncertainty Index Artworks (provenance mentions Munich)

Note: The presence of an artwork on this list does not signify that it has been looted. It means only that the provenance text shows a high concentration of certain words.

urlprovenanceUncertainty Index
https://www.dia.org/art/collection/object/young-man-red-cap-61539Genoa, private collection;Wien?;Lucerne, 1925?;Berlin?;Paul Bottenwieser (dealer, based in Munich, Berlin, New York), likely January 1928;Sold to Julius H. Haass, Detroit, 1928;by descent to (?) Mrs. Lillian Henkel Haass, 1940;Newhouse Galleries, New York, 1957/58;Frederick Mont, New York;Detroit, DIA (presented by Mr. and Mrs. Henry Ford II).11.36%
https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/436884?[art dealer, Munich], Maitland F. Griggs, New York (1926–d. 1943)11.11%
http://www.moma.org/collection/works/64218Probably Fred Jahn, Munich, ?. David Nolan, New York, ? ; sold to The Museum of Modern Art, New York, 198610.00%
https://www.harvardartmuseums.org/art/223405Ise Bienert and son, Berlin(?), Paris(?), Munich(?). [Galerie Ferdinand Möller, Berlin]. Heinz Berggruen, Paris. [Saidenberg Gallery, New York]. Sold to Busch-Reisinger Museum, 1956.;Footnotes: Source: H. K. Rothel, Kandinsky: Catalogue Raisonné of the Oil Paintings (1982-1984).8.82%
https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/405474Joseph Wopfner (Austrian), possibly Franz Defregger (Austrian), possibly Wilhelm von Borscht (German), sale, Kunsthaus Lempertz, November 19, 2011, lot 1411, Vendor: Katrin Bellinger Kunsthandel, Munich8.33%
https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/436476?Kloster Gutenzell, Baden-Württemberg (until 1803, to Braun),?Braun, Gutenzell (1803–d.),?his son, Pfarrer [Pastor] Johann Baptist Braun, Dietenheim (until d. 1904),?his nephew, Pfarrer [Pastor] Albert Baur, Walpertshofen (1904–d. 1920), [Julius Böhler, Munich, before 1925], [Steinmeyer, Lucerne, until 1924, sold to Kleinberger], [Kleinberger, Paris and New York, 1924, as by Conrad Witz, sold to Friedsam], Michael Friedsam, New York (1924–d. 1931)7.02%
https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/470308Piero de Medici, Florence (in 1464?), Earls of Arundel, England (from 1585?-until 1889?), Karl Thewalt, Cologne (by 1900-1903), [ Jacques Seligmann, Paris and New York (purchased 1903)], J. Pierpont Morgan American, London and New York (by 1908 - 1928?), [ Duveen Brothers, London, Paris and New York (sold 1928)], [ Julius Böhler Kunsthandlung, Munich (1928)], Alfred Rütschi, Zurich (before 1929 - by descent to 1952), [ Rosenberg & Stiebel, New York (in 1952)]5.56%
https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/439350?[Galerie Ernst Arnold, Dresden, in 1918], Theodor Schall, Baden-Baden and Berlin (until 1926, his sale, Paul Cassirer and Hugo Helbing, Berlin, October 26, 1926, no. 1, as "Partie aus dem Berliner Tiergarten," for 1,600 marks, probably to Janus), Albert Janus, Essen (probably 1926–?until d. 1949), private collection, southern Germany, sale, Villa Grisebach, Berlin, November 25, 2005, no. 3, as "Im Berliner Tiergarten," for €59,000 ($69,575), [Kunsthandel Katrin Bellinger, Munich], Eugene V. Thaw, New York (until 2009)5.33%
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.98397.htmlHelmut Domizlaff (1902-1983)(his mark[?], HD in a circle [Lugt undesc.]); by inheritance to his nephew; (Galerie Arnoldi-Livie, Munich); purchased by NGA, 1997.4.76%
https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/418342possibly Samuel van Huls (Dutch), possibly his sale, Amsterdam, May 14, 1736 and following days, part of lot 5, 6, or 7, Jean-Jacques Senon (French), his sale, Hôtel Drouot, Paris, April 2, 2012, lot 1(as attributed to Vellert), Vendor: Katrin Bellinger Kunsthandel, Munich4.76%
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139205.htmlUnknown collection, possibly Kunstverein Munich (KVM, not in Lugt). (sale, Hugo Ruef, Munich, 23 November 1972). Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.4.55%
http://www.moma.org/collection/works/105745Rafael Efrat, ?; sold through Galerie Thomas, Munich, to Theobald Jennings Gallery, London, 2006; sold to The Museum of Modern Art, New York, 20064.35%
https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/203286Bunal (1857), probably Salomon, Dresden, Margarete Oppenheim (until 1936, sale, J. Boehler, Munich, May, 1936, no. 559), Irwin Untermyer, New York (until 1964, to MMA)4.17%
https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/347515possibly in sale, L'Illustration (French), Amsterdam, December 9, 1776, Kbk. E, no.320, possibly in sale, L'Illustration (French), Metayer, Amsterdam, December 16, 1799, Kbk. I,no.4, sale, I. Schmidt and Hagedorn, Amsterdam, April 24, 1820, KbK. F, no.21, possibly in sale, I. van Idsinga, Amsterdam, November 2 1840, Kbk. H, no. 4, P. Langerhuizen sale, Muller, April 29, 1919, no. 544 [fl.100], Henry Oppenheimer (British), his sale, Christie's, London, July 10, 13–14, 1936, lot 270A (£25 to Goldschmidt), Previously possibly owned by Ernst Goldschmidt, Sale, Ader Tajan, Paris, October 28, 1994, lot 32, ill, William Pitcairn Knowles, Johan Goll van Franckenstein Sr., Pieter Langerhuizen, Vendor: Katrin Bellinger Kunsthandel, Munich3.77%
https://www.harvardartmuseums.org/art/299820[A.S. Drey, Munich, Germany (by 1914-?) ]. Walter von Pannwitz collection, Munich and Berlin, Germany (by 1925-?), sold, [to Rosenberg & Stiebel, New York, NY (?-1963), sold], to Busch-Reisinger Museum, 1963.;Notes;In the 1914 “Festschrift des Münchner Altertums-Vereins zur Erinnerung an das 50 Jähr. Jubiläum” the work is listed as being in the collection of A.S. Drey (fig. 22, p. 41). Later the work is included in the 1925-1926 von Pannwitz collection catalogue (vol. II, no. 115, M.J. Friedländer and Otto von Falke, “Die Kunstsammlung von Pannwitz,” 1925-1926).3.49%
http://www.moma.org/collection/works/73391Ilse Schweinsteiger, Munich; to Garton European Prints PLC, London, 1992; to Charles M. Young Fine Prints and Drawings, Glastonbury, Connecticut, [?]; to The Museum of Modern Art, New York, 19953.45%
http://www.moma.org/collection/works/788791913, Franz Marc, Munich, Germany.July 6, 1913 - at least 1940, Willem Wolff Beffie (1880-1950), Amsterdam/Brussels/Brooklyn, purchased from the artist.1940 (?) - 1946, Nierendorf Gallery, New York, probably acquired from Willem Wolff Beffie.1946 - 1988, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, purchased from Nierendorf Gallery.1988, The Museum of Modern Art, New York, acquired by exchange with Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum.3.39%
https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/438953William Karmann, Cincinnati (until d. 1902),?Cincinnati Art Museum, Michael D. Grünwald, Munich (by 1997–2002, consigned to Artemis Fine Arts Ltd., London, 2001–2, sold to Thaw), Eugene V. Thaw, New York (2002–7)3.33%
https://www.harvardartmuseums.org/art/222991[A. S. Drey Gallery, New York, NY (?-1964), sold], to Busch-Reisinger Museum, 1964.;Notes;The painting was purchased along with a certificate of authenticity by Dr. Hermann Voss, Munich, Germany dated July 8, 1963.3.23%
https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/484876the artist, Munich (1921–ca. 1922, his gift, probably in spring 1922, to Jawlensky), Alexej von Jawlensky, Wiesbaden (ca. 1922–probably until d. 1941), probably his son, Andreas Nesnakomoff Jawlensky, Switzerland (from 1941), Richard Doetsch-Benziger, Basel (until d. 1958, his estate, from 1958, sold to Kornfeld), Eberhard W. Kornfeld, Bern (until 1962, sale, Klipstein & Kornfeld, Bern, May 24, 1962, no. 126, sold to Granz), Norman Granz, London, Breganzona, Switz., Los Angeles, and Geneva (1962–at least 1970), sale, Sotheby's, New York, November 2, 1978, no. 141, sold to Berggruen, Heinz Berggruen, Paris and Berlin (1978–87, his gift to MMA)3.13%
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/tiepolo-giovanni-battista-1696-1770-attributed-to-alternatively-attributed-to-tiepolo-lorenzo-1736-1772possibly given by the artist's son Domenico to Johann Dominik Bossi, Munich (1767-1853);by descent to his daughter Maria Theresa Caroline (1825-1881) and her husband, Carl Christian Friedrich Beyerlen (1826-1881);their estate sale, H.G. Gutekunst (Stuttgart), 27 March 1882;a 'foreign nobleman', possibly Prince Trivulzio, whose property was consigned by Pollak and Winternitz (Vienna) to Sotheby's (London), 13 July 1937, lot 39;purchased there by Sir Robert Witt, London (1872-1952), L.2228b;Witt Bequest 19522.94%
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/globular-pharmacy-jarC. & S. Bourgeois Fr?res, Cologne, Heberle, 19-27 October, 1904, lot 110, Alfred Pringsheim (1850-1941), Munich before 1923, sold Sotheby's, 19 July 1939, lot 240, bought by H.S. Reitlinger (1885-1950), London, the Reitlinger Trust, Maidenhead2.94%
http://www.moma.org/collection/works/64399Hans Goltz, Munich; to Heinrich Stinnes (1876-1932), Cologne, October 1920; Heinrich Stinnes Estate; sold through Gutekunst & Klipstein, Bern, June 20-22, 1938.Curt Valentin, New York, ?; to The Museum of Modern Art, New York, 19422.94%
https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/436941Count Toggenburg, Bolzano, Toggenburg family, Bolzano, later Frankfurt (sold to Drey), [A. S. Drey, Munich,?by 1924–26, sold to Kleinberger], [Kleinberger, Paris and New York, 1926, sold for $7,000 to Friedsam], Michael Friedsam, New York (1926–d. 1931)2.86%
https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/483184the artist, Munich (1915–19, sold in November 1919 to Walden), [Galerie der Sturm (Herwarth Walden), from 1919], Ludwig and Rosy Fischer, Frankfurt (until his d. 1922), Rosy Fischer, Frankfurt (1922–d. 1925), their son, Max Fischer, Berlin and New York (1925–probably until 1938, on consignment in September 1931 to Ferdinand Möller, Berlin, probably sold in 1938, through Buchholz Gallery, New York, to private collector), private collection, New York (probably 1938–until 1953, by descent to private collector's niece, her gift in 1953 to Connelly), Robert Connelly, New York (1953–81, sale, Sotheby's, New York, May 22, 1981, no. 845, sold to Berggruen), Heinz Berggruen, Paris and Berlin (1981–84, his gift to MMA)2.78%
https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/440361Georg Schäfer, Schweinfurt (until d. 1975), his heirs (1975–77, to Foundation), Georg Schäfer Foundation, Schweinfurt (1977–2005, its sale, Neumeister, Munich, February 25, 2005, no. 590, as "'Antike römische Ruinen' [Caracalla—Thermen?]"), Eugene V. Thaw, New York (from 2005)2.78%
https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/483170Lily Klee, Bern (in 1940),?[Buchholz Gallery (Curt Valentin), New York, possibly on consignment from Lily Klee in 1944], Werner Allenbach, Bern (until 1964, sold in 1964 to Beyeler), [Galerie Beyeler, Basel, 1964–65, sold in 1965 to Stangl], [Moderne Galerie Otto Stangl, Munich, 1965, sold in 1965 to Fischer], Ernst O. Fischer, Krefeld (1965–81, sale, Galerie Kornfeld, Bern, June 26, 1981, no. 109, sold to Berggruen), Heinz Berggruen, Paris and Berlin (1981–84, his gift to MMA)2.70%
https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/382344Heinrich Kaspar Lempertz (German), possibly his sale, Heberle, Cologne (German), October 17-20, 1905 or Feb 26-28, 1908, sale, Ketterer Kunst, Hamburg, March 21, 2007, lot 1110(as by an anonymous seventeenth- or eighteenth-century South-German artist), Vendor: Katrin Bellinger Kunsthandel, Munich2.63%
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/giovanni-battista-tiepolo-3possibly given by the artist’s son Domenico to Johann Dominik Bossi, Munich (1767-1853);by descent to his daughter Maria Theresa Caroline (1825-1881) and her husband, Carl Christian Friedrich Beyerlen (1826-1881);their estate sale, H.G. Gutekunst (Stuttgart), 27 March 1882;a 'foreign nobleman', possibly Prince Trivulzio, whose property was consigned by Pollak and Winternitz (Vienna) to Sotheby's (London), 13 July 1937, lot 52;purchased there by Dr Alfred Scharf, London (1900-1965), presumably on behalf of Count Antoine Seilern, London (1901-1978);Princes Gate Bequest 19782.60%
http://www.moma.org/collection/works/80314Saulnier. Until November 10, 1910Galerie Bernheim, Paris. Purchased from Saulnier, November 10, 1910 – December 5, 1916Kunstnerforbundet, Oslo, Norway. Purchased from Bernheim-Jeune, December 5, 1916 –[Galerien Thannhauser, Berlin/Lucerne/Munich. By 1930 ?]Lennart Heijne, Stockholm. By 1954Auction sale, "Tableaux modernes," Palais Galliera, Paris, March 13, 1961Richard Feigen Gallery, New York. [1961?] - 1966Mr. and Mrs. Warren Brandt, New York. Purchased from Feigen, December 1966 - 1976The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Gift of Mr. and Mrs. Warren Brandt, 19762.60%
https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/437174?unverified sale ["Zubieta" according to Angulo Iñiguez], London, June 12, 1874, as "Don Pedro Núñez de Villavicencio, friend and disciple of Murillo and knight of a military order," for £178.10 to Palmer, Julian Williams, Seville (about 1883) described by Curtis as "a full-length portrait of Villavicencio, about thirty-five years of age, with hooked nose, moustache, and long black hair, wearing a black dress with open sleeves, a hat in his hand, a sword at his side", Francisco Merry y Colom Gaite y Osorio, 1st Conde de Benomar, London [d. 1899],?sale, Christie's, London, July 6, 1899, for £210 to Lesser, [Lesser, London, 1899–1912, posthumous sale, Christie's, London, February 10, 1912, no. 18, as "Don Pedro Nuñez de Villavicencio, in black dress with braided sleeves, and white stockings, standing, holding his glove and hat, and wearing the Riband and Order of Saint John of Jerusalem ([sic] our sitter wears the ribbon and order of the knights of Alcántara or Calatrava), 75 in. by 48 in." for £81.18.0 to Nicholson], [(?A. L.) Nicholson, from 1912], [Rudolf J. Heinemann, Munich, in 1927],?[Fleischmann, Munich, by 1928–at least 1930],?[F. Mont, New York, in 1950], [Pinakos Inc. (Rudolf J. Heinemann), until 1954]2.58%
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/workshop-of-severo-calzetta-severo-da-ravenna-italy-ravenna-first-half-16th-centuryMargarete Oppenheim, Munich, her sale, Julius B?hler, Munich, 18 May 1936, lot 31, pl. 4;purchased Leitch & Kerin, London;from whom purchased on 13 April 1937 by Lt Col. the Hon. M.T. Boscawen, DSO MC;lent to The Fitzwilliam Museum in 19462.56%
https://artgallery.yale.edu/collections/objects/9723Dr. Rudolph Heinemann Collection, New York,Madame (Godfrey) Brauer Collection, Nice(?),E. A. Fleischmann, dealer, Munich, 1931,J. Boehler Collection, Munich, 1914-1920, Boehler series, the only remaining complete Apostolado of Van Dyck;Palazzo Serra, Genoa, c. 1780 (acquired with the whole series in Italy)2.56%
https://artgallery.yale.edu/collections/objects/7061Scuola Grande di San Rocco, Venice (?), Fritz August von Kaulbach, Munich, Paul Drey Collection, New York, by 1930.;Bibliography;Burton B. Fredericksen and Federico Zeri, Census of Pre-Nineteenth-Century Italian Paintings in North American Public Collections (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1972), 600.2.50%
https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/354279Everhard Jabach (German), Pierre Crozat (French), his sale, Paris, April 10, 1741, lot 797, Jean-Baptiste Glomy (French), Paris (?), Mr. Pascalis, Marseille, and his sale, Marseille, December 20, 1869, Didier Aaron, Inc. (French), Private collection, France, Vendor: Katrin Bellinger Kunsthandel, Munich2.50%
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/giovanni-battista-tiepolo-10possibly given by the artist’s son Domenico to Johann Dominik Bossi, Munich (1767-1853);by descent to his daughter Maria Theresa Caroline (1825-1881) and her husband, Carl Christian Friedrich Beyerlen (1826-1881);their estate sale, H.G. Gutekunst (Stuttgart), 27 March 1882;purchased there by Galerie-Inspektor Kräutle;a 'foreign nobleman', possibly Prince Trivulzio, whose property was consigned by Pollak and Winternitz (Vienna) to Sotheby's (London), 13 July 1937, lot 62;purchased there by Dr Alfred Scharf, London (1900-1965) presumably on behalf of Count Antoine Seilern, London (1901-1978);Princes Gate Bequest 19782.47%
https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/436559?private collection, England (in 1792),?private collection (until 1912, estate sale, Christie's, London, April 26, 1912, no. 102, as "The Castle and Town of Nimeguen," for £1,050 to Pawsey && Payne];?[Pawsey & Payne, London, from 1912], Sir Samuel Hoare, London (until 1934, sale, Sotheby's, London, November 21, 1934, no. 99, as "River Scene with a turreted water castle on the right," for £610 to Collings), [Galerie Sanct Lucas, Vienna, in 1935, sold to Neuman], Baron Karl Neuman (Charles Neuman de Végvár), Vienna, later Greenwich, Conn. (by 1938–d. 1959, seized in Paris by the Nazis, held at Alt Aussee [1080/2] and at Munich collecting point [1281], returned to France October 30, 1946, restituted), his widow, Mrs. Charles (Edith) Neuman de Végvár, Greenwich (1959–64, life interest, 1964–d. 1984)2.42%
https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/395059probably Hendrik van Eyl Sluyter (Dutch), and his sale, Amsterdam, September 26, 1814 and following days, album C, no. 57, Oskar Huldschinsky, his sale, Graupe, November 3, 1931, lot 55, sale, Sotheby's, London (British), July 6, 2010, lot 150, Vendor: Katrin Bellinger Kunsthandel, Munich2.33%
https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/749639the artist, Munich (until at least 1914), private collection (in 1924), [Galerie Wimmer & Co., Munich, by 1929–33, probably stock no. 110, sold for 6,500 marks to Strafella], Dr. Strafella, Vienna (from 1933), the artist's daughter and son-in-law, Mary Heilmann-Stuck and Albert Heilmann, Villa Stuck, Munich (possibly by 1938–until at least 1948, deposited at the Bayerische Staatsgemäldesammlungen, Munich, probably by April 1944, transferred to depot at Raitenhaslach [844] during World War II, transferred to Munich collecting point [16563] on December 11, 1945, returned to Heilmann on November 17, 1948), [Karl + Faber, Munich, in 1982], private collection (by 1995–97, sale, Christie's, London, October 9, 1997, no. 64), Seymour Stein, New York (until 2003, his sale, Sotheby's, New York, December 11, 2003, no. 169, to private collection), private collection, New York (2003–17)2.31%
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/plate-7Geremia Delsette, probably sold Paris, Delbergue, 12 April 1866. Andrew Fountaine IV (1808-73), his heir, Christie's, 16 June 1884, lot 45, Charles Mannheim, J. Pierpont Morgan, Alfred Pringsheim (1850-1941), Munich before 1929 when published, sold, Sotheby's, 7 June 1939, lot 33, bought by the Fitzwilliam Museum.2.22%
https://www.nga.gov/content/ngaweb/Collection/art-object-page.139132.htmlJohan August Gottleib Weigel (1773-1846), Leipzig; Theodor Oswald Weigel (1812-1881); (J.A.G. Weigel sale, Gutekunst, Stuttgart, 15 May 1883, no. 1221 [?]). Sir John Clermont Witt (1907-1982), London (Lugt 646a). Private collection; (sale, Sotheby's, London, 1 July 1991, no. 30). Wolfgang Ratjen, Munich; purchased 2007 by NGA.2.22%
https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/345072Pierre Crozat (French)(?) (according to inscription on mount), Peter Vischer, Jean-Marc Du Pan (Swiss), his Sale, Paris, March 26-28, 1840 (as Anonymous Master), Charles Louis Fleury Panckoucke (French)(according to the inscription on the mount), sale, Christie's, LondonJuly 10, 2001, lot 149, Vendor: Katrin Bellinger Kunsthandel, Munich2.22%
https://www.harvardartmuseums.org/art/222988R. von Passavant-Gontard, Frankfurt am Main, Germany (1921-?). Walter von Pannwitz collection [1], Munich and Berlin, Germany, sold, [to Rosenberg & Stiebel, New York, NY (?-1963), sold], to Busch-Reisinger Museum, 1963.;Notes;[1] The sculpture was almost certainly in the collection of R. von Passavant-Gontard in Frankfurt as early as 1921. It is included in the 1921 “Meisterwerke der Bildhauerkunst in Frankfurter Privatbesitz,” featuring works from Frankfurt’s private collections. Although the publication does not identify the private collection by name, it is almost certainly the Passavant-Gontard collection. In 1929 the sculpture was included in the Passavant-Gontard collection catalogue.2.11%
https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/483143[Galerie Neue Kunst Hans Goltz, Munich, in 1922],?[Buchholz Gallery (Curt Valentin), New York, sold to Barr], Mr. and Mrs. Alfred H. Barr, Jr., New York (by 1968–79, sold in 1979, through E. V. Thaw & Co., New York, to Berggruen), Heinz Berggruen, Paris and Berlin (1979–84, his gift to MMA)2.04%
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/beckmann-max-1884-1950I.B. Neumann,+ Berlin (later New York) 1920 owned for about 5 years;private collection c.1925*? Heinrich Fromm +;available for sale from Günther Franke,+ 23 June 1927 (Beckmann letter);exhibited in Max Beckmann: Gemälde und Graphik, Kestner-Gesellschaft, Hanover, January-February 1931 as 'private collection'*;Galerie Axel Vömel, Düsseldorf by 1938;Günther Franke,+ Munich, 1938;Klaus Hegewisch, Hamburg, 1971.2.00%
https://art.nelson-atkins.org/objects/26478/study-of-a-seated-man-possibly-for-the-sailorWith;Wolfgang Gurlitt (1888-1965);Munich, probably by 1945-at least June 1955 [1];With Fine Arts Associates, New York, by September 20;1958;Purchased from Fine Arts Associates by The Nelson-Atkins;Museum of Art, Kansas City, MO, 1958.;NOTES;[1];In the 1945 Waldmann catalogue, the owner is listed as W. G., Bad Aussee. Gurlitt;lent the sculpture to the 1955 exhibition.2.00%
https://www.getty.edu/art/collection/objects/9/peter-paul-rubens-studies-of-women-flemish-1628/Provenance -;Prosper Henry Lankrink (London, England) (L.2090), possibly 1628 - 1692 (London, England) -;Nicolaas Beets (Amsterdam, Netherlands), Dutch, 1878 - 1963 (Amsterdam, Netherlands) -;Aaron S. Drey, German, (Munich, Germany) -;Dr. Gollnow (Stettin, Germany) - 1982;Dr. Anton Schrafl (Zurich, Switzerland) [sold, Christie's, London, December 9, 1982, lot 78, to the J. Paul Getty Museum.]1.92%
https://www.metmuseum.org/art/collection/search/488473[with Moderne Galerie (Heinrich Thannhauser), Munich, 1913–14, probably sold on March 31, 1914 to Basler], [Adolphe Basler, Paris, 1914–15, left with Stieglitz in December 1914 as collateral for a loan, upon default of loan on August 15, 1915, acquired by Stieglitz], Alfred Stieglitz, New York (1915–d. 1946, his estate, 1946–49, gift to MMA)1.92%
http://records.collectionstrust.org.uk/spoliation/broad-rimmed-bowl-5Conte Ferdinando Pasolini Dall'Onda, Faenza, Paris, Ridel, 14 December 1853, lot 171, Andrew Fountaine IV (1808-73), his heir, Christie's, 16 June 1884, lot 39, Lowengard, Bourgeois Fr?res, Cologne, Heberle, 19-27 October 1904, lot 93, Alfred Pringsheim (1850-1941), Munich, before 1923, sold Sotheby's, 20 July 1939, lot 390, bought by Marmaduke Langdale Horn, Stoke Charity, near Winchester.1.82%

How to reads the ranking.

The artwork with the highest Uncertainty Index (11.36) is considered a more urgent priority for provenance verification than an artwork with the lowest Uncertainty Index (0 - not shown).

(Artworks with no provenance texts at all have been excluded from the datafile and will be dealt with separately.)


It's interesting to note that even though we did not select for Nazi art looters or for persecuted Jewish collectors, several such names appear in the fifty artworks with the highest uncertainty index.

Names of persons involved in Nazi art looting include:

  • Alex Vömel
  • Curt Valentin
  • Buchholz Gallery
  • Ferdinand Möller
  • Wolfgang Gurlitt
  • Günther Franke

Names of Jewish collectors known to have been persecuted by Nazis and plundered include
  • Alfred Pringsheim
  • Thannhauser
  • Paul Drey

Names of art dealers that have appeared in lawsuits for the restitution of Nazi era artworks include:
  • Galerie Sanct Lucas
  • Frederick Mont
  • Rudolf J. Heinemann
  • Pinakos
  • Eberhard W. Kornfeld
  • Count Antoine Seilern
  • Thannhauser
  •  Rosenberg & Stiebel

Students of Nazi looted art provenance research, can you spot names that we missed? 


What will we find if we analyse the thousand provenances for lists of Nazi art looters or persecuted Jewish collectors? How can we do this using the Looted Art Detector?

That will be the subject of the next post.

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