Oct 2, 2019

Vlug Report: transcription of Part 1


The Vlug Report, written in December of 1945 and named after its author, the Dutch art historian Jean Vlug, is an important work of investigation into the massive looting of artworks in Holland during World War II.

The Vlug report details the activities of the Dienststelle Mühlmann, which obtained works of art for Hitler, Göring and other Nazis.
The author was Jean Vlug, who served in the Royal Netherlands Army. He was a Dutch "Monuments Men" and investigator with the Art Looting Investigation Unit. His report, marked confidential and unavailable for decades, contains interviews with Nazi art looters as well of lists of artworks.
The following transcription concerns the first fifty pages of Vlug's report. The transcription is a work in progress. Please indicate any errors in the comments. Thank you.
For more information about the Vlug report, please see lootedart.com
The National Archives have published photographs of the Vlug report online at Fold3.
The photo above is from The Monuments Men Foundation website which honors Jan Vlug and requests more information about him.




This report is based on interrogations conducted by special invitation at S.S.U. Special Interrogation Center, Alt Aussee, Austria; in Berlin; through the courtesy of British Element C.C.(M.F.A. &A.), and in Holland and France.
The following are the most important persons interrogated:
Kajetan Mühlmann at Alt Aussee, August-Sept. 1945.
Rosa Bauer secretary to Kajetan Mühlmann.
Joseph Mühlmann Half-brother of Kaj. Mühlmann. at Uttendorf, Austria, 5/10 Sept. ’45.
Madame Jaremtchenko (called “Nicole”), secretary to Joseph Mühlmann ----- Uttendorf, 5-10 Sept. 1945.
Hilda Ziegler Mühlmann Second wife of Kaj. Mühlmann; at Kamme am Attersee, Austria, on three occasions during Sept. 1945.
Wildenhofer Transport-agent for Kajetan Mühlmann; at Salzburg, Austria, 10-13 Sept 1945.
Eduard Plietzseh Art-expert, second in command of the Dienststelle Mühlmann; at Berlin Meineckestrasse 9; 1-8 November, 1945.
Rompa Chauffeur and confidential man to the Dienststelle Mühlmann; at The
Hague, Stuyvesantstraat 300015; 18 November, 1945.
Myrthel Frank Principal middleman and agent for the Dienststelle Mühlmann; at The Hague 15-18 Nov. 1945.
Maurice Lagrand Principal buyer and agent for Joseph Mühlmann at Paris; Boul. Raspail 38; 22 Nov. 1945.
It is desired to express appreciations to the Art Looting Investigation Unit (S.S.U.) and to British Element C.C. (M.F.A. & A.), for providing the facilities which have made possible this investigations on which this report is based.

  Fine Arts (Special Services).            
  Dutch Restitution Committee.
  458 Heerengracht; Amsterdam.
  Detailed Interrogation Report No. 1.
25 December 1945.
Kajetan Mühlmann and the Dienststelle Mühlmann.

U.S. Chief of Counsel, Nuremberg. 6
U.S. Group C.C. (Germany) M.F.A. & A. 4
USFET, M.F.A. & A. 6
USF. Austria (YSACA), M.F.A. & A. 2
G-5, Civil Affairs, War Dept. 2 Jean VIug, Drs.
Roberts Commission. 2 Captain.
State Dept. E.W.D. 2 Royal Netherlands Army.
Brit. El. C.C. (Germany), M.F.A. & A. 2
A.C.A. (British), M.F.A. & A. 2
M.E.W. 2
M.I. 5 2
M.I. 6 2
D.G.E.R. 4
Internal and File 12
  1. TASK.
  2. Administration.
  1. External.
  2. Internal.
  1. Personalities.
    1. Kajetan Mühlmann.
    2. Eduard Plietzsch. 
    3. Joseph Mühlmann.
    4. Kiesslinger.
    5. Ernst.
    6. SS. Mayer.
    7. Degenhart.
    8. Rose Bauer.
    9. Jacobus Rompa.
    10. Kurt Eder. (died in Russia) 1942.
  2. Relations with Nazi Organisations.
    1. ) Feindvermöge.
    2. ) The Sicherheitsdienst. (S.D.)
  3. Methods.
    1. Forced sales. 
(The Mannheimer Affair)
(Exchange Kröller Müller)
    1. Confiscations.
    2. Exchanges.
    3. Auction.
  1. Dealers.
  2. Clients.
  1. Hitler; Göring.
  2. Other Nazi Officials.
  3. Purchases for the Baudirektion Krakau.

  1. Insurance, transport and present condition of the objects.

  1. Branches.
    1. La Dienststelle Mühlmann en France.
    2. La Dienststelle Mühlmann en Belgique.
    1. American Zone.
    2. English Zone.
    3. French Zone.
    4. Russian Zone.
  3. Attachments.
  1. German Revisions and Treuhand Action gesellschaft.
Geschäftsstelle The Hague, No.11
  1. Papers from Handelsmaatschappy Mr. Albert de
Barry & Co. N.V.


Rotterdam was still burning when Kajetan Mühlmann in his SS-uniform arrived in Holland to take up his new task as Chief of the Dienststell. He came from Poland.
The task of the Dienststelle Mühlman consisted of  :
  1. Making list of art-objects for Feindvermögen; see Art. I 
(The Dienststelle Mühlmann acted then as indicator).

  1. Expertising confiscated Art-objects coming from Feindvermögen.
(Chief : Fran Dr. Gutjahr, ex Mannheimer, Hartog, Lught, Jaffé).

  1. Polling those objects and selling them in Germany to Hitler, 
Göring, Baldur v. Schirach. H. Hoffmann, Todt, G.G. Frank, Kaltenbrunner, Seyss-Inqyart.
tenbrunner, Seyss-Inquart.
SS.Departments, Museums, Private collections and auction receive 15% commission.

  1. Buying on the free market every object of a certain importance.
(with paper money introduced in Holland). The following letter 
Gives us a clear impression of how finances were manipulated:
        Staatliche Gemälde Galerie Dresden 10 Juni 1940.
der Direktor
    Herrn Reichsleitar Martin Bormann.
Berlin 7.8
Wilhemstrasse 64.
Sehr geehrter Herr Reichsleiter!
          Translation: Dr. Mühlmann, who in his capacity as special delegate for the    safeguarding of art and cultural goods, has just returned from Holland, and notified me to-day by telephone from Berlin that there is at present a particularly favourable opportunity to purchase valuable works of art from Dutch art-dealers and private property in German currency.

I beg to submit for consideration whether we shall comply with this suggestion. Even though a large part of the important work, which were in the Dutch art trade before the beginning of war, are likely to be moved recently from Holland. I hope that the trade will still contain enough objects desirable for the Führer’s collection. There could under present circumstances be purchased without foreign currency.




       Wimmer. Fischböck.   Rauter. Schmidt. Capt.Heinrich.
       (justice) (Feindvermögen) (Gestapo) (Sonderfrugen) (Dienststelle
  Göpel.   Mühlmann)

       The Dienststelle Mühlmann was working directly with or under Wimmer administrately with:
Rauter to do the job.
       The account was divided as follows:
  1. Guilder account.
  2. Guilder account (sonder)
  3. Guilder account (andar).
       The Mannheimer collection 5½ million
½ million guilders,
        was directly paid by Seyss-Inquart, even for three paintings which went to Göring.
        Mühlmann had also money at his disposal from Governor-General Frank.

  1. OFFICEThe Hague, ll Sophialaan.
Kajetan Mühlmann Director.
Eduard Plietsch) experts for D.M. and indicators for 
Franz Kieslinger) Feindvermögen.
Joseph Ernst Chief Administrator (Only for a short period
Fräulein Rose Bauer Secretaries.
Fräulein Grete Bauer
Bernhard Degenhard Administrator
Jacobus Rompa Chauffeur and confidential man.
Kurt Eder died in Russia 1942.

  1. OFFICEBerlin, 27 Unter den Linden.
This was the Central Office of Seyss Inquart in Berlin, but in 1942 the building, including the documents and storage places, filled with art objects, was destroyed.
The office was moved to the house os Plietsch at 9 Meineckestrasse, Berlin 15. No documents were found there. Frau HUNERT was Chief Administrator of this office.
After September 1944, Mühlmann moved the office to Vienna, Raten-Turmstrasse 14, 1st. Floor.

  1. OFFICE :  Paris
Joseph Mühlmann, half-brother of Kajetan (by the same mother), had no office, but used his hotel-room as such, (Hotel d'Orsay, etc.) His secretary was Madame Jaremtchenko, called “Nicole”.

The Staff was paid by the Dienststelle from profits made from sales. 
For example:
Tapestry XVI Century feuilles de chou bought from Lagrand
  RM. 15.000.-     sold to G.G. Frank RM.26.000.-
Brekelenkam : “Man with pipe” confiscated.
Estimated at RM.700.- and sold to H. Hoffmann at that price. 
The Dienststelle received 10 to 15 % commission from the sale.
For each object coming from confiscation and going through the D.M.’s hand, 10 to 15 % was taken in commission.

Mühlmann states that he made no profit from sales to Hitler (Linz)

Cuyp “Landscape” Smit v. Gelder Fl.12.00 Führer Fl.14.000
Wynands “Landscape” Smit v. Gelder Fl. 6.000 Führer Fl. 8.000
Mengs “Portrait” Wetzlar Fl. 5.000 Göring Fl. 6.650

Profits were occasionally made this way, on sales both to Hitler and Göring.
Such profits were “prohibited”.
The above-mentioned sales appear however in the account-books of the Dienststelle Mühlmann.

  1. Kajetan Mühlmann.
Born 26th June 1889 in Uttendorf near Zèll am See, Austria.
Son of Juliana Lesstbaum and Kajetan Mühlmann.
Went to school in Salzburg till 1915.
From 1915 – 1918 volunteer in the Army.
1922 – 1926 studied History of Art in Vienna and Innsbrück, received his doctorate.
Since 1926 Head of the Propaganda for the Festspiele in Salzburg.
1932 Married Poldi Woyteck.
1934 Made the acquaintance of Seyss-Inquart.
1938 Active member for the Anschluss, was appointed State-Secretary for Fine Arts on March                                   
          12th. Since that date Mühlmann was an SS.-General. (Oberführer).
1939-1943 Head confiscation of Art-objects in Poland.
1940 Arrived in Holland on May 15th as Head of the Dienststelle under Seyss-Inquart.
1942 Married Hilda Ziegler by whom he had already had three children.
1944 Left Holland and removed his office from The Hague and Berlin to Vienna.
1945 Arrested by the Third U.S. Army and transported to Special Interrogation Centre, Alt Aussee.

  1. Activity since the Anschluss.

        Austria Mühlmann was appointed State-secretary for Fine Arts by his Friend Seyss-Inquart. In this group were several persons who worked for German Institutions:
  1. Joseph Mühlmann
  2. Dworschak
  3. Ruprecht 
  4. Baldas 
  5. Adriani
Mühlamm, although Austrian, did not oppose the deportation of State treasuries to Nuremberg, as well
as the Vienna Tapestries which were transported to the Reichskanzlei.
He acted as a German, and not as an Austrian.

Poland In 1939 he was appointed Head of Confiscation of Objects of Art in Poland. His Chief was Governor Frank in Krakau.
The confiscations included: clerical, private and museum art-objects.
Nothing remained for the Poles. This is very important for War Crimes.
Two depots were formed, 1. Warsaw: The National Museum and Schloss Wilnow.
Head was Dr. Jospeph Mühlmann with 2 S.D. agents.
2. Krakau: the Jaghellon Library and the Town Major Directors were Dr.Barthel from Breslau and Dr. Muller de Groot, (nephew of C. Hofstede de Groot) from Troppau.

Kajetan Mühlmann controlled all the confiscations and had direct contact with Hitler and Göring.
In 1943 Mühlmann was replaced by Dr. Palisieux, Nuremberg; who is now imprisoned in Nuremberg.
Mühlmann was the head of an Holland organisation which attracted confiscations and free purchases in Dutch currency and in Marks. By a single action the objects were put up for sale in Germany and in Austria. 
They went to Hitler, Göring, several Gauleiters, Governor Frank, the SS.-offices and the auctioneers.
The objects had not cost those clients anything, because the clearing never functioned in Holland and the money that had been obtained went to the third Reich.

As Head from the Dienststelle, SS.-Oberführer Kajetan Mühlmann, who had already made his career in Austria and Poland, must be held responsible for the control of objects confiscated in Holland and the works that flowed from Holland into the Reich. The nature of the work, of the Dienststelle is clear from the letter from Posse to Martin Bormann dated 10th June, 1940, and from documentation which Plietsch drew up for Mühlmann concerning Dutch private collections both in Holland and abroad.
The S.D. and the Gestapo helped the Dienststelle with its work. This was the best moment to enrich German collections at the cost of Dutch treasures.
The Germans even regretted that so many treasures were in England, France and America.
Kajetan Mühlmann was appointed by Seyss-Inquart. As a high Nazi-official he visited: v. Hummel,  Ruprecht, Dworschak, Hofer, Lose v. Behr, Rosemann etc. who were engaged in similar tasks in other countries.
Kajetan Mühlmann is obstinate, he has no conscience, he does not care about Art, he is a liar and a vile person.
He used the above-mentioned system to furnish the 4 jewish houses which had been confiscated to make room for his offices 
In his cellar are stored cases with Dutch products: soap, shaving sticks, Rols, cigars, lamps, cosmetics, rugs.
He was a traitor in Austria, head of confiscation in Poland and head of the Dienststelle in Holland.


2. Eduard Plietsch.
born 9th July 1886 in Altenburg/Thüringen
married to Elisabeth Suckau.
no children.
Art historian, worked together with Bode and Hofstede de Groot,
experts on old Dutch masters.
1914 Cavalry, he was so deaf, that he was soon demobilised.
1933-1945 Not a party-member, he was even known to be anti-nazi.
Not one letter is signed “Heil Hitler”.
Lives: 15 Meineckestrasse, Berlin.

Plietsch is the proto-type of the sort of thin German with the manners of a “chef-comptable”. He is deaf and uses an ear-phone. Plietsch was very helpful in giving information on the Dienststelle Mühlmann.
Like all Germans, Plietsch feels no guilt. One has to admit that the way he kept the collection Lught together, proved his love of Art.
This will be discussed later in Chapter V B, Several letters in which he refused to accept commissions when he was working for official business, were found.

No letters from Plietsch to Mühlmann were found. He said they were burned in his cellar by the Russians. Perhaps Plietsch burned them, because he was afraid to keep them. The remaining document letters about sales in Germany, etc. are utilized in this report under Chapter X.

Activity for the Dienststelle Mühlmann.
In June 1940 Plietsch wrote to Posse from Berlin, that he would like to join the Anschluss with Holland.
Shortly aftȩr, Kielinger offered him a position as an expert and purchaser for the Dienststelle Mühlmann in Holland, Belgium and France.
Plietsch accepted the offer on the following conditions:

  1. He remained a civilian and dealer.
  2. He received 15% from the paintings which went through his hand 
  3. He received 10.00 Rm. a month for his work in Berlin
  4. His travelling-expenses were compensated for.

The Dienststelle Mühlmann needed an expert for paintings, as Mühlmann did not know anything about Art and Kieslinger had been appointed as expert for art-objects.
Plietsch started his work on the 7th September 1940. On the 12th of September he handed the following report to Mühlmann:


Den Haag.

For your private information I herewith report on my impression of the Art-market in Holland:
It must first be recalled that Holland has been for more than two centuries an art export country. In the 18th century there was the famous Netherlands Gallery in Kassle, Salzdahlum; from the Brunswick Gallery developed; further the Munich Pinakothek, founded by Elector Karl Theodor von der Pfalz, and above all the most famous Dutch and especially Rembrandt collection of the world: the Lichtenstein Gallery in Vienna, the Count Schönborn Collection in Pommersfelden, Nostiz in Prague etc. An enormous quantity of art treasures went to England, which in spite of the dissolution of most important public collections after the world war is still in possession of an impressive public and private treasure of Dutch masters. When in the last third of the 19th century, Bode acquired the Dutch pictures for the Kaiser Friedrich Museum, already then he depended like the European and American public collections, almost exclusively on the English art-market. From the Netherlands market themselves only relatively little could still be acquired.
The two last private collections which had remained in Holland were the Steengracht Gallery in the Hague and the famous Six Collection in Amsterdam. When the Steengracht collection was sold at auction in 1913 in Paris, Dutch art circles finally almost too late became aware of the situation. A number of the most important pictures were purchased for Dutch museums. Due to the economic consequences of the world war, this recently started activity had to be discontinued for some years.
When the Six collection was dissolved in 1928, important objects could be obtained for the Dutch museums through

donation and purchases. The famous ”Street” by Vermeer van Delft, in addition to the Portrait of the burgomaster Six, the outstanding piece of the collection, which remained in the possession of the family, had already been donated in 1921 to the Ryksmuseum by Sir Henry Deterding. The following collections were set up or enlarged:
The Beuningen collection, van der Vorm and Goudriaan in Rotterdam, ten Cate in Almelo, Philips in Eindhoven, Veltman in Bloemendaal, Hartogh and Leo van den Bergh in Wassenaar, Scholten in Enschede, Fritz Gutmann in Heemstede. In the Hague Thurkow, A. Mayer, who had begun in Mannheim, and Volz, whose pictures are now abroad.
In Amsterdam, the private collection of Proehl, Reiner, de Geus van den Heuvel, Brinbaum in London, Heldring and others. These collections and various smaller individual property naturally consist mainly of Dutch pictures. Almost exclusively Italians were acquired decades ago by the late surgeon Professor Dr. Lanz and Mr. vom Rath in Amsterdam. A few important German masters can be found in the possession of Fritz Gutmann. (portraits by Cranach, Burgmaier and Baldung), van Beuningen, (among others a Holy Family by Dürer, in bad condition), Proehl (a standing Venus by Cranach) and as exceptions in the van Gogh-Museum, Pictures by Baldung from the property of the late Mrs. Muller-Kröller.

Dutch citizens who have been resident abroad for many years and keep their collections there, are de Bruin in Spiez (Switserland), del Monte in Brussels, Mrs. V. Gelder in Uccle near Brussels and in Antwerp the collector Smidt van Gelder, whom you know and whose brother Dr. J. H. Smidt van Gelder in Arnheim also possesses Old masters, among which a splendid Kalf.
The Bredius and Frits Lught collections are of especially high quality. Thanks to his riches and his high connoisseur-ship which only in the last years had been considerably affected by the late excentricities of old age, Dr. Bredius, already decades ago secured for his country very important paintings by Rembrandt and outstanding works of other masters. Only part of these located in the Bredius Museum, Bredius’ former house, private house, are public property. The most important, especially the valuable Rembrandts, are at the disposal of the Dutch museums for the present only as loans.
The excellent Art-connoisseur Frits Lught, had brought together during many years a famous collection of drawings of old masters and acquired a few outstanding paintings. Lught, who recently moved back to the Hague and also had a smaller apartment in Paris, lives in Switzerland since the outbreak of war. His art-treasures are likely to be at present hidden in different countries. No less famous is the collection of old drawings (Dürer, Grünewald, Rembrandt, etc.) of Mr. Koenings in Haarlem, which regarding to its volume and value is worthy of a museum.
I am not informed whether the drawing as well as the famous collection of the paintings and sketches by Rubens is about to be dissolved. Finally I must point to the collection of Mrs. von Pannwitz in Haarlem, which after the world war was transferred from Berlin to Holland.
It is difficult to prove, due to concealment, whether valuable objects were brought to Holland illegally by migrating people. One depends in this respect on casual discoveries. I already reported to you separately on the case of the Kappel pictures from Dr. Rathen. Summarising it can be stated, that the Dutch art trade up to now has imported its main objects from England. As late as winter the firm of Katz brothers in Dieren could make the sensational purchases of the Dutch masters from the word-famous Cook-collection of Richmond (from these there remained in Holland among others: the Jan van Eyck, acquired by van Beuningen, and the “Portrait of Titus as a child” by Rembrandt, which was acquired by the Boymans Museum in Rotterdam, Holland’s best Museum. The connections between the Dutch art-market and England were so strong, that several Dutch firms (Asscherand Welker, Duits, Koetser and others) established permanent residence in London or maintained branch there. Since these connections and all imports are at present stopped, one depends on the art stored within the country.
Much is in the hands of very wealthy private collectors. Adequate financial means, keen initiative and constant observation of the Dutch art-market are therefore needed in order to continue to acquire important and valuable works of art, as has already been done most successfully in a short time so far.
I have the impression that there is an increasing trend to invest money in material possessions, and that the Dutch art market is in danger of inflation. For many pictures prices have been demanded in Germany, i.e. the purchasing value of the mark in the German art market equals that of the florin in Holland.

Den Haag, 12 September, 1940

Signed, Dr. Eduard Plietsch.
Some years later Plietzsch submitted the following report to Seyss-Inquart. :
Extract from the report on my activities.
Since September 4, 1940 well over a thousand paintings by old and also more modern masters which were partly offered directly or which were in the Dutch or Belgian market, have been expertised.
The larger part of the most important private collections are still on view and a great many single privately-owned paintings were also examined. Amongst them were also all kinds of doubtful or so-called forged great master-pieces, purchase of which on the score of well founded reasons, had to be advised against, notwithstanding a surveyor’s certificate on hand.
As typical examples, the collections of v. Buuren at Haarlem and Dr. de Gelder at Utrecht may be mentioned. Amongst the private galleries which can be taken on seriously and which have been surveyed, the collection of Dr. Wyers at Tilburg and the important collection of Dr. Smidt v. Gelder at Antwerp should be mentioned in the first place. But here too, there were a Rembrandt, a Frans Hals and a Hobbema, certified by Friedländer, and other authorities, which on careful examination, proved to be school-paintings.
However from both collections important genuine paintings could be selected and surveyed.
Thanks to personal relations contact was established with the collector Wetzlar at Amsterdam, from whom several paintings, meant for the Führer, could be purchased and with the collector Thurkow at the Hague. Thurkow promised right of pro-emption to the most important of his paintings.
The storage of the Jewish Berlin collection of Dr. Jaffé in the museum at Leiden, which confidential information I had from private quarters in Germany (the curator of the museum there had failed in accordance with the relations, to inform the competent authorities) led to the seizure of the large collection, owner of which had emigrated to England.
The Rathenau-paintings from the Berlin-Kappel heritage were a similar case. An Arian co-heir had confidentially informed me that years ago the painting had illegally been exported from Germany and had later on, with the knowledge of the “Ryksmuseum” been transported to America.
Owning to my knowledge of ownership and the secret place of storage of the rest of the paintings, we could indemnify ourselves by seizing a series of the Kappel drawings by Menzel and the famous painting “View of Haarlem” by Jacob van Ruysdael, and “Canal in Amsterdam” by Jan van der Heyden, and by paying in installments a very small amount to the Arian joint-owner. The collector Dr. Reiffers in Luxemburg notified me privately in Berlin of his intentions to sell, requesting me at the same time to assist him in realising the paintings. On the ground of the statement forwarded by me to the office and after a renewed examination and valuation in Luxemburg, the four most exclusive paintings could be selected for us and be bought at a very reasonable price.
Further two important portraits by Amberger, which were part of hidden German private property, which exchange was carried out by me.
Owing to long-standing relations with the government of the former reigning Prussian Royal house and thanks to a special local confidential person, I received notice in time of the intended sale of the large painting by Rubens “Gregor and Domtilla”.
The important painting which owing to a heritage from the House of Orange had come into the possession of the Rohenzollern, could consequently be bought far below the value of the Mark.
In joint session with Mr. van Deventer and curator Dr. Harnema, the collective price for the Baldung, Cranach and Bruyn of the Museum Müller-Kröller was agreed upon, the price of 600.000.-  guilders answered to our own valuation. For the modern “Ausgleichsbilder” I could trace and buy at Hamburg the very cheap Manet and the important Pissaro.
Among the paintings proposed to buy and which were bought, those by : Joost v. Cleve, meant for the Führer; the large Rubens from the former Oldenburger Gallery; a Ter Borgh; Snijders; Tintoretto, further portraits by Abraham Jansens, Cranach and others may be mentioned
Of the scientific activities the inventory and valuation of the painting of Frits Lught’s collection and valuation and scientific text-working of the two maps of the Führer may be mentioned.
d. KIESSLINGER, Vienna, 133 Pechtolsdorf: Hochstrasse.
Most of all, Kiesslinger had to do with Enemy Property. He worked for the Dienststelle in Holland, Belgium, France and Italy.
From Kiesslinger’s address, Miss Begeer wrote a letter to the “Ecole du Louvre” in which she mentioned the desire to buy French Impressionists.
He bought drawings by Mellaerts and many other things. When Ilse Göring the Reichsmarshall’s sister visited Holland, he always accompanied her.

Ernst was an active member of the Nazi-party. He is described as a very unsympathetic person.
Ernst was also in Poland and Holland.

Mayer had directed an SS. depot near the Hague for a friend of Mühlmann.
He arranged many transports e.g., in September 1944 he transported the furniture from Mühlmann’s house and some of the papers.
His wife lives in Strobl, Villa Gautch.

g. DEGENHART. Vienna.

Little is known about his activity. From 1942 he was in the Army. He specialized in drawings.


Present address: Zell-am-Moos, near Rondsee, Austria.
Secretary to the Dienststelle in Poland and from June 1940 in the Hague.
Born in Vienna 10th September 1917. Member of the Nazi-party.
Engaged to SS-SD Warnecker in the Hague. During the questioning she was very helpful and gave valuable information.
300 Stuyvesantlaan, the Hague.
Driver and confidential man.
Burnt the papers of the Dienststelle and photo’s.
Only a little was saved.

He did in Russia in 1942.

  1. Feindvermögen (Enemy Property Control)

The Omnia Treuhandgesellschaft appointed a manager for each jewish antiquary 
(e.g. Herbert Wieth for Rosenbaum, Woudstra, Simons; Dr. Hübner for several firms in the Hague; Rüdiger for Alberg, Rubens, Falkenburg; Heymans for Ryxman etc.) These managers were engaged by the economic examination center. Chief Head Mrs. Gutjahr,
The Dienststelle and especially Dr. Kiesslinger obtained from Mrs. Gutjahr the lists of art objects and the places where they were stored. The objects were selected according to these lists (partly by Dr. Degenhart, Kiesslinger and Miss Begeer).
Everything which was of any use to the Reich was put on new lists of which the office, Kiesslinger, Mrs. Gutjahr and the Omnia Treuhand received a copy.
The confiscated goods were sent to the Hague by de Gruyt and the most important ones were selected to be photographed by Frequi. Afterwards they were sold to Hitler, Hoffmann, Wilpert, Esser, Frank, Klott Walczog etc. Two pictures by Corn. Troost which belonged to Rosenbaum (manager H. Wieth) were intended for Hitler.
The greater part of the objects which were to be sold by auction was given to Weinmuller and to Lange. Lange received only objects from the collection Hartog and 4 early paintings the Hamburger collection.
Revenues from those confiscated goods were deposited by the Dienststelle Mühlmann or by the buyers at H. Albert de Bary & Co. Bank. (Anderkonto Dienststelle Mühlmann).
The greater part of the confiscated objects was settled with the managers via the Omnia Treuhand A.G.
The receipts and expenditures were under control of the Deutsche Revisions- und Treuhand A.G. (Dr. Winger).
  1. The Sicherheitsdienst.

As in Poland, France and elsewhere, the SD. worked close contact with offices engaged in confiscating works of Art.
The head of the SD. was Peter Gern, who lived in Mühlmann’s private house in Wassenaar (The Hague) and had an office for several months at Plietzsch’s house, 9 Meineckestrasse, Berlin.

(a forced sale)
In the opinion of the lawyers of Seyss-Inquart and in his own juridical opinion, the collection Mannheimer was Jewish Property, although the creditors of the Mendelsohn Bank were Aryan.
From the beginning Mühlmann intended to buy this collection and he wanted Seyss-Inquart to pay the confiscation price of 712 million guilders. Miedl had an option on this price from the creditors. In the summer of 1941 the purchase was closed. Seyss-Inquart had authorized Mühlmann an offer of only 512 million guilders. Mühlmann informed the creditors that they had to accept this offer, as otherwise he had to force the sale. They asked one day’s time to consider and the next day the purchase was closed.
In this contact the rights of the creditors of Mannheimer to his possessions in France and England were sold as well.
Alois Miedl was granted a compensation of 400.000 guilders because of his option, by the State-Commissioner.
Kajetan Mühlmann states that the amount was Fl. 400.000 but Frl. Bauer states that it was Fl. 800.00.-. Plietzsch thinks that Mühlmann made money from doing business with Miedl personally.
As for the French portion of the collection, early in 1944, Haberstock asked Mühlmann in a letter how it was possible that he had rights on the inventory of the Mannheimer Collection in Paris. Haberstock wished to acquire some of the woks for Hitler, especially The Crivelli, Magdalen. Mühlmann explained the matter to Haberstock and to Seyss-Inquart, and informed Bermann.
In April 1944, Mühlmann was summoned by Dr. von Hummel to go to Paris to obtain the drawings and paintings. In Paris Mühlmann dealt with the French, the manager of Jewish Property, Niedermayer, with the French director for the Bankruptcy of the Mannheimer Inheritance and with representatives of the “Deutschen Wehrmachtsbefehlshebe.”
The French creditors were satisfied with the sale of the immovables, they had no objections against the sale of the art-treasure which valued Frs. 14.472.000.-

The French courts were ready to give their authorization for the sale, when the manager for the bankruptcy of Mannheimer, Mr. Korthals Altes, agreed with it.
Herein Mühlmann saw a way to give the creditors in Holland an additional payment and he offered Korthals Altes the value of Frs. 15.000.000.-(Fl. 500.000.-) which the latter accepted.

Paris den 12.5.1944.
Ueber den Empfang nachstehender Kunstgeganstände.
1. Watteau, Jean Ant. Feuilles d’études Frs. 800.000.-
Cadre en bois sculpté
2. Fragonard, Jean Honoré  Fête dans un parc 
figuré à l’Exposition de l’Art Francais
à Londres. 800.000.-
3. Guardi Francesco,     La salute et l’entrée 
du grand Canal à Venise. Toile. 400.000.-
4. Mierveld (attribute à Michel Jansz van)
La fillette au Perroquet Bois. 500.000.-
5. Chardin (d’après Jean Baptiste).
La Ratisseuse Toile. 25.000.-
6. Grivelli Carlo, Sainte Marie Madelaine 4.000.000.-
7. Chardin (Jean Baptiste) Les Bulles de Savon. 
Toile. 800.000.-
8. Fragonard, Jean Honoré; La fete foraine 800.000.-
9. Fragonard, Jaen Honoré; Les Pins Parasols
Lavis de sepia. 800.000.-
10. Ecole Vénitienne (18e sìecle)
    1. Lʽéglise St. Marc. Plume
    2. Le grand canal et le pont du Rialto. Plume.
    3. Le grand canal à Vénise. Plume.
    4. Lʽéglise St. Marc et le palais des Doges.
    5. La Piazetta, le Pulais des Doges et le 
Quai des Esclavons. Plume. 50.000.-
11. Canaletto (Antonio Canalo dit le )
La Piazza et le Campanile. Plume. 5.000.-
12. Eccle Hollandaise (18e siecle)
Etudes de Maisons. Plume et Aquarelle. 4.000.-
13. Ecole Hollandaise, Etudes de femmes.
Sanguine. 2.000.-
14. Greuze (attribuée à Jean Baptiste)
Jeune femme étendue sur une chaise longue. 20.000.-
15. Ingrès Jean Dominique, Portrairt De femme. 250.000.-
16. Fragonnard Jean Honoré; Jeune femme lisante. Frs. 2.000.000.
17. Watteau, Jean Antonie. Feuilles dʽétudes
deux figures de femmes. 350.000.
18. Fragonnard Jean Honoré; Une vente publique
sous les ombrages. 850.000.
19. Fragonnard Jean Honoré. La révérence.
Lavis et bistre. 800.00
20. Ecole francaise (18e siècle)
Le torrent- Les pêcheurs. Deux pendants. 6.000.
21. Ruysdael, Salomon van. Le Passeur Bois. 750.000.
22. Wouwerman (attribué à P.)
Jeux équestres. Toile. 80.000
23. Molenaer. Jean Mienze. Les Jeunes musiciens.
   Bois. 150.000.
24. Molenaer Jean Mienzo. Le concert. Bois.       500.000.
25. Heyden (Genre de Jean v.d)
Vue de ville traversée par le canal. 8.000.
26. Velde (Ecole de Willem v.d.)
Une revue navale. Toile. 20.000.
27. Ecole hollandaise.
Plage et bâteau de pêche. Bois. 2.000.
Total : Frs. 14.472.000.
Soit: Quatorze millions quatre cent soixante douze mille francs.
With the consent of the French and German authorities in Paris, the works were transported by rail to Bad Aussee, Motel Post.

The State Commissioner paid altogether:
1941 Fl. 5.500.000.-
1944 to the sellers           500.000.-
1941 to Alois Miedl           400.000.- 800.000.- ?

Dr. Kieslinger had to draw up an inventory of the collection and did this according to the registers of Falke. Miss Schöneberg and his Begcer assisted him. The collection was photographed by Julius Schorb, Vienna V, Gumpendorfstrasse.
A set of these books, in brown, pigskin inset with a golden Nazi-eagle, were found in a safe in the Hague.
The Dutch part of the collection, except for 6 paintings which were sent to the Fḧrerbau in Munich at the end of 1941, c.o. Architect Reger, was shipped to Hohenfurth, whence it was later moved to alt Aussee.


Exchange of the painting from the Kröller-Müller Museum.

The Kröller-Müller collection which consists of modern works, possessed 3 
ancient paintings (early).
Hans Baldung Grion Venus and Amor.
Lucas Cranach, the older; Venus and Amor.
Barthol Bruyn Picture with 2 figures.
The Reich was interested in these pictures. Göring informed Mühlmann that he wanted to obtain the “Venus” by Grion. Seyss-Inquart summoned Mühlmann to lead the negociations. He agreed with M. ‘s proposal to obtain the pictures in exchange for French Impressionists, moreover he granted property concessions regarding the National Park in which the museum is situated. Mühlmann dealt with the verwalter of the Kröller-Museum, van Deventer, and they soon come to an agreement. Van Deventer was “deutsch-freundlich”, he looked upon the business from a financial point of view.
He agreed with Mühlmann’s proposal that a commission of two Dutchmen and one German should fix the value of the painting as a basis for the exchange and with the supplementary decision of the Kröller-Müller-foundation with regard to the extension of the Park.

The commission consisted of :
Dr. Hannema, Van Deventer and Plietzsch.
The value of the works was fixed at Fl.600.000.- and the amount was at the disposal of the Foundation Kr. M. on the account of the State Commissioner. With the help of the Dienststelle, van Deventer and Dr. Auping obtained the following works :
Pissaro : Garden (Lange, Berlin)   both were re-
Degas : Nude             (Dr. Meller, Paris) turned to the French.
Corot : Girl (Lange, Berlin)
Renoir : Landscape (Plietzsch, Paris)
Fantin Latour : Flowers (Plietzsch, Paris)
Ven Gogh : Drawing for landscape (Frequin, Hague)
Breitner : Don Quichotte (van Deventer)
The three German painting were handed to Göring in the autumn of 1940. Göring was to get the Hans Baldung Grien; the two other paintings were selected for the Führermuseum, but Göring kept them all.


The revenues from sales of paintings confiscated by the Dienststelle Mühlmann to private persons of auctioneers were placed by the Dienststelle on the so-called “Anderkonto” and sent to the Deutsche Treuhandgesellschaft. The Treuhand belonged to the Reich. The latter controlled from time to time the Dienststelle with regard to the converting into money of Jewish- and Enemy Property.
This action was the same everywhere. It constituted a war-crime case against the Reich.
Lippmann, Rosenthal & Co. Amsterdam, Muiderschans.
Seyss-Inquart ordered the Bank by decree to buy at cost-price all the pictures from jewish private possessions. An inventory was to be made, and the objects were to be valued and to be handed to the Dienststelle Mühlmann. (Verwalter of the Bank Mr. V. Karner; head of the Department of Fine Arts: Baron Steckow).
A special report on the activity of this Bank is forth-coming, as well as lists of German buyers and lists of the places in Germany where the objects in question can be found.

1. Collection Jaffé.
In 1941 indicated by the Dienststelle as Enemy Property, registered (Dr. Plietzsch) and converted in the museum Lakenhal in Leiden.

2. Collection Hamburger.
In 1941 indicated by the Dienststelle as Enemy Property, registered and estimated (Dr. Plietzsch) and converted into money.

3. Collection Hartog.
In 1942 indicated by the Dienststelle as Enemy Property, (Dr. Kielsinger) and converted into money. The greater part of the collection was sold at auction by Weinmuller and Lange (Berlin). it was about to be sold by Bignell in the Hague, for Feindvermöger, when Mühlmann seized it.

4. Collection Nienhuys.
In 1942 indicated by the Dienststelle as Enemy Property, and supervised by the D.M. At first the collection was put in safety in the Rotterdamsche Bank and from 1943 in the Kröller-Müller Museum. In the autumn of 1944, Plietzsch left the collection there, where it was found in good condition in 1945.

5. Collection Polak, Amersfoort. Manager Mr. Toschner.
The Führer received about 5 paintings from this collection (1941). In 1943 a painting by Stosskopf was bought from the collection which Posse received for Linz. Dr. Plietzsch valued those works. The revenues were placed on the account of Polak, in favour of the “Verwalter” Teschne.
6. Collection Rattenau.
A Rembrandt which was stored at the Ryksmuseum was confiscated by the D.M. The Rattenau family is in England.

7. Collection Lugt, The Hague.
During the German occupation, what remained of the Collection Lugt had been stored in his house, Vyvorberg, The Hague. Lugt himself lived in Switserland, where he had a large part of the collection. In autumn, Lugt’s secretary, a Dutchman called Domis, visited Mühlmann and told him that Lugt ordered him to divide several works of the collection among friends and acquaintances, who had to state that they were their property.
Till then there had been no reason to act against Lugt. The State Commissioner however, considered this act of camouflage, according to enemy laws, as a hostile act and had the collection confiscated. Enemy Property was summoned to prepare the confiscation. The paintings were stored at De Gruyter.
Part of the pictures were selected for the Museum of the Führer, according to the decree of the Führer on confiscated art-treasures; estimated by Dr. Plietzsch and send to the Führer-bau, Munich. 
In the meantime the inquiry about Domis had a surprising result. Domis admitted to have obtained the assurance of a good position through the Germans. The ordered confiscation was stopped, but the collection was stille safe-guarded. The paintings which had been sent to the Führermuseum did not return.
It was said in Holland that pictures from the collection Lugt had been sold to private persons. If this is true, Domis must have done so, but not one has been sold by the D.M. Photos from the painting which were sent to the Führermuseum can be found in the photocase of the D.M. 1940/41. The remaining objects are in the Hague.
The paintings in the Netherland Bank; the furniture is stored at de Gruyter and in the house of Lugt; the photoarchives and the drawings in the “Ryksbureau voor Documentatie”; the frames in the house of Lugt.
Domis has been arrested and will be tried as a traitor, pro-german, and for selling stolen goods.


1. Exchange v. Goyen and Rembrandt for two Ambergers.

Plietzsch bought from Weyers a Rembrandt, Head of Christ, with jewish features which was refused for the Führermuseum by Prof Dr. Posse.

Plietszch made the following exchange with Neuerburg in Hamburg. Neuerburg received the Rembrandt and a van Goyen which has been obtained by S.v. Gelder, and gave 2 portraits by Amberger. The Ambergers, which Plietzsch valued at that time at RM.100.000.-, (which Göring did not pay for), were about equal to the cost-price of the Rembrandt, (Fl.65.000.-). Later on Göring handed them back and they were sold by Lange.

2. Exchange Ysenbrant for a Terborgh.

Neuerburg, Hamburg, had an Ysenbrandt: “Portrait of a man”, in his possession which he gave in exchange for a Terborgh from S.V. Gelder. The Ysenbrandt was sent to the Linz-collection.

Great quantities of works were purchased in Holland, Belgium and France by the D.M. Purchases are discussed in detail.


1. Lange, Berlin, 7 Bellevuestrasse.

Several times, sold objects coming from the Dienststelle. Plietzsch was a good friend of Lange, who was very active in France and Holland. Lange died on 7th May in Berlin in the Volksturm.
For the objects see attachments to Chapter X. Lange’s  chief-secretary Fräulein Herta Schöne, Berlin, Zehlendorf, 4 or 6 Kleinstrasse, can probably give further information.

2. Dorotheum. Vienna, Dorotheumgasse.
Mühlmann sent several objects to this auction house. Herbst was the chief buyer. A
special report on Hebrst is forthcoming.
3. Weinmuller. Rattenthurmstrasse 14 Vienna.
Odeonsplatz München.
Present address: Togernsee, Rosenstrasse. 74

Several boxes with objects and paintings went to this auction house. Mühlmann had an office here from 1944-45. Weinmüller had a poor reputation. An Austrian, he came to Munich against considerable opposition by German competitors and set up a Munich branch.
Dr. Georg Hoffman, insurance-broker of 51 Briennerstrasse, Munich, is the source of the following information conceiving Weinmüller.
Hoffman insured transports from Mühlmann in the Hague, Munich and Vienna. At the end of 1942 or at the beginning of ’43, Hoffman visited Weinmüller in the Herzog Josephstrasse, Munich. Weinmuller opened a cupboard with china and fayence and told Hoffman that he was allowed to make a choice from these objects at the confiscation price in Holland, and to the amount of RM.50.000.- before the sale was to take place. He made his choice according to a list in which the prices were mentioned.
Weinmuller had to send the money to the Treuhand. As Hoffman did not know the Treuhand and how the Enemy Property worked Weinmuller explained it to him.
This clearly is a case in which Mühlmann worked for his own profit.
Presumably Mühlmann received a commission from Weinmüller for all the other objects. Plietzsch is of this opinion.

Plietzsch acted merely as an expert for the Dienststelle Mühlmann for the painting of Enemy Property, Treuhand. He bought at Lippmann Rosenthal and in the free market. He gave hand to the robbing of the Dutch, Belgian and French art treasures.
The information he gave for the restitution is very valuable. This man should not be allowed further entrance in Holland.

De Boer Amsterdam. Katz, Dieran and the Hague
Hoogendyk Amsterdam. Jagenau the Hague
Goudstikker Amsterdam. Legat the Hague
Wetzlar Amsterdam. Vermeulen the Hague
v.d. Ploeg Amsterdam. Mulders the Hague
Delaunoy Amsterdam. Maes the Hague
Paul Cassirer Amsterdam. d’Autrech the Hague
Paech Amsterdam. Mellaert, the Hague, Maustricht.
Houthakker Amsterdam. Parry the Hague
Douwes Amsterdam. Meyer-Elte the Hague
Denys Amsterdam. Falkenburg the Hague
A. Staal Amsterdam. v. Marle-Bignell the Hague
J. Stodel Amsterdam.
Rysmann Amsterdam.
Alfred Brack Amsterdam. Graaf v.Limburg-Stirum private-agents.
Paul Brandt Amsterdam. Thurkew the Hague
Heydenrijk Amsterdam. Maasdijk Wassenaar
Boughouts Amsterdam. Dir. Knote the Hague
Fred.Muller Amsterdam. van Eik Wassenaar

Dr. de Wild the Hague
Traas the Hague restorers
van Behemen the Hague  
Vossiek the Hague

de Jonge the Hague
Schullein the Hague Germans.
   Mrs. Telders the Hague
Frank the Hague
Sammelverwaltung f.feindl. Hausgeräte, the Hague.
de Gruyter‘s –Hertegerbosch,
Smit van Gelder, Antwerp.
Weyers, Tilburg.
Lippmann en Rosenthal, Amsterdam.
In 1938/39 the Dutch market was for art objects in marks not flourishing and in the beginning of 1940 the German could buy without exporting foreign currency, and art objects were much in demand, dealers are keen on selling.
The Dienststelle worked together with:
phase 1 de Boer, Hoogendijk and Parry.
phase 2 Wetzlar, v.d. Ploeg, Vermeulen, de Wild, and Frank.
One cannot say that the dealers were forced to sell; they themselves offered goods. De Boer and Delaunoy are examples. Exorbitant prices were paid. Frank acted as mediator for the Dienststelle Mühlmann and Vital. Bloch for Göpel (Linz).
Dutch art dealers are cooperative now in giving information about art objects which they sold.
Only Mak van Wasy and Delaunoy bought at Lippmann Rosenthal, the store-house of confiscated jewish property.

1. DEBOER, Amsterdam.

(Had enemy property in his possession, among which a Rubens). In 1940 de Boer only worked with the Dienststelle, later on with all the German and any Dutch who were interested. He seldom visited the Dienststelle himself; usually he telephoned or wrote a letter, and in that case he enclosed the photographs of the pictures in question.
In German circles he was well-known. He often visited art-dealers and he knew to treat every buyer individually.
Hermann Göring stayed with de Boer in spring 1941 and personally bought some pictures from him. In one day Baldur von Schirach bought from de Boer 18 paintings. From the middle of 1943 Mühlmann did not deal much with de Boer, the reason being that his brother had gone to Switserland (now he had to run the business himself); there were not enough works to satisfy all the customers. Moreover at that time not very much could be obtained in the market.
De Boer’s wife was jewish and de Boer begged Dr. Mühlmann to obtain an aryan-certificate for her. Dr. Mühlmann however was not successful. De Boer wanted to declare that his wife was jewish because of a misstep on her mother’s part.
  1. Goudstikker.
Already in September 1940 Mühlmann and Miedl were in contact about the Masnheimer collection. Miedl received Fl.800.000.- as a sort of commission, but had to give up the buying of the collection. It is probable that Mühlmann helped Miedl and had earned money thereby, however this has not yet been proved.
Miedl’s friend Hoffmann had a financial interest in Goudstikker, Plietzsch helped Miedl to select the pictures, he considers Miedl’s taste poor.
Goudstikker became a money-business instead of an art-business.
See : Special Report, Alois Miedl.

3. Hoogendijk, Amsterdam.
In September he made contact with the Dienststelle and all the Germans and Museum directors visited him. Hoogendijk offered first-class works; the Führer and Göring obtained some of these.
He very seldom visited the offices, he only dealt with it by telephone or by letter.
Later on he was not so helpful, although he treated his visitors correctly. Nevertheless he kept his best work for Göring. (Sec: O.S.S.Consolidated Interrogation Report No.28 The Göring Col.”)

4. Delaunoy, Amsterdam.
Delaunoy worked together with German offices, especially with architects who bought furniture, tapestries, etc.
When somebody arrived from Germany to buy furniture, he was sent to Delaunoy.
The Dienststelle bought a Teniers: Hunting Scene, which Göring obtained, and some chairs which Seyss-Inquart received. Delaunoy visited the Dienststelle personally a few times, as well as Seyss-Inquart and other German Dienststellen that he knew to be interested in his objects. Delaunoy was well-known in German circles. The Germans who lived in Holland and helped to furnish the offices and houses, recommended him. Delaunoy bought at Lippmann and Rosenthal. Göring and Gritzbach as well were good customers.
5. Denijs.
The Dienststelle bought very few things from him. Among these were two Delft flask-like vases and a chest of drawers, 18th century at a total amount of 1.160.- guilders. Probably a few chairs have been bought too. The most important customers of Denijs were: Miss Begeer, Herbst, Weinmüller, Lange, Dr. Barthel and Gèrmans who bought small things for personal use.

6. van der Ploeg.
From 1943 he worked with the Dienststelle (Dr. Plietzsch). Most of the paintings he offered were bought. These works were not very important. The contact between van der Ploeg and the Dienststelle was very close. He also worked with Dr. Göpel and Reblitz. (German Banker)

7. Houthakker.

(Enemy property and Jewish art dealer).
He called at the office a few times and three or four pictures he brought with him were bought.

8. Douwes.

The same as Houthakker with the difference that Douwes had better works.

Legat, d’Autrech, Verreulon, Mulders, Jagenau; The Hague.
They had all the same intermediary : Myrtel Frank, Jagenau worked with Mühlmann from 1940 (Standing Knight/Göring), the others joined in later.

Pro-German, deserter from the Belgian army, 1914/1918 in jail.
Mühlmann obtained good works from Mulders and Verzoulen.
Mayer-Elte, The Hague.
Worked with other German institutions, architects and Seyss-Inquart. Mühlmann only bought old maps and some books of art.

Falkenburg, The Hague.

Only vases and furniture were of importance. A baroque back-case and 2 Delft flask-like vases have been bought. Later on the firm was closed, being a jewish art-dealer.

Mallaert, the Hague and Maastricht.
As Dr. Plietzsch did not want to deal with him, Mellaert only did business with Kieslinger. He sold a few works in 1940 and later on drawings and industrial art objects.

Katz, Dieren and The Hague.
In The Hague as well in Dieren, Mühlmann only did business with him once. In the Hague Mühlmann bought a Sieberechts “Crossing-Place” and in Dieron one painting.(?).
Posse worked a great deal with him. The Dienststelle did not sympathise with Katz, probably because of this.

van Märle-Bignell, The Hague.

Bignell called at the Dienststelle several times to draw the attention to some of another object. Mühlmann had a lot to do with him because of the collection Hartog which was to be sold by auction. Van Marlo advertising in “Welt-Kunst”, acted as a Pro-German firm.

Wiegersma, Utrecht.

Kieslinger and Miss Begeer accidentally came in contact with Wiegersma. Dr. Kielslinger got hold of a bundle of drawings by auction at Weinmüller. From that time Wiegersma offered drawing and coins. I suppose that Dr. Kieslinger made the acquaintance with de Gruyter,‘s-Hertogenbosch, through Wiegersma. I do not know if Wiegersma did any business with other Germans.
Smith van Gelder, Antwerp.

Called at the Dienststelle at his own accord. 18 pictures offered by him were bought by Mühlmann, Kiesslinger and Plietzsch during a stay at the house of van Gelder.
This purchase being closed, van Gelder continually asked for personal favours (travelling permit etc.) nearly all of which were granted. Van Gelder insisted that the objects, which had been obtained from his collection of the Führer, should be mentioned in the catalogue.
From 1942 he acted as an intermediary and as a dealer. Plietzsch refused most of his offers. The amount to which has been bought from van Golder is about ¼ million guilders.

Schonemann. Amsterdam.

German Jew, deceased. He only did business in autumn 1940. One “Saverij” and a Gobelin representing armor.
Dr. Plietzsch and Dr. Kiellinger had nothing to do with him.

Paul Cassirer, and Paech, Amsterdam.

Dienststelle Mühlmann had little to do with these art-dealers. Friedländer drew Mühlmann’s attention to several works that were available. Art-dealers did not sympathise with Paech. He worked a great deal together with v.d. Ploeg and Miedl.
Dr. Berger who is in Würtzburg now (M.F.A. & A.), sold pictures from Paech. Dr. Berger is well known in Holland as anti-American and anti-English.

A. Staal; J Stadel ; Ryxmun; Alfr. Brack, Borghouts; Paul Brandt, Amsterdam.

These were smaller dealers who sometimes called at the Dienststelle. They mainly sold art objects. Therefore they probably did more business with Weinmüller, Herbst, etc.
Dr. Barthel and Dr. Kudlich of the Polish Dianststelle were also customers.(Museum of Troppau and Breslau).
Heydenryk, Amsterdam, The Hague.

Heydenryk was known as a frame-maker. It sometimes occurred that he offered Dr. Plietzsch a picture. (all collectors, buyers and sellers met at Heydenryk). He accepted all the offers which were given to him e.g. Hofer.

Frederik Muller, Amsterdam.

Dr. Degenhart bought 4 of 5 pictures of mediocre quality which were sold at auction. (e.g. a Scorel “Girl in Landscape”).
Frederik Muller sent Mühlmann the auction-catalogues of his own accord.

Parry, the Hague.

Parry continually offered paintings and furniture (Pieter Codde/Göring) (Saverij/Göring).
Through Parry Mühlmann obtained the pictures from Weyers Tilburg. In 1940/41 Parry called very often at the office. He wanted to get from Mühlmann a travelling-permit for Belgium and France.
Apparently he went there several times, and recommended some of the dealers in Brussels.
The Dienststelle asked Parry several times to procure (e.g. a silver box, a ring etc.) smaller objects, which he always executed quickly and successfully. Parry was a business-man much liked by the Germans; he always tried to sell advantage. Dr. Kielsinger had more to do with him than Plietzsch.

Victor Maas, The Hague, Zeestraat.

Since autumn 1940 he entered business with the Dienststelle of his own accord.
He continuously offered pictures, but only very little has been accepted. (1 or 2 Aert v.d. Neer, 1 Ruysdael, etc.)
Weyers, Tilburg.

The Dienststelle made the first purchases through Parry intermediary, then they were closed by Dr. Kieslinger. The next time Weyers made an offer himself.

de Gruyter. ‘s-Hertegenbesch.

Contact with the Dienststelle was probably made through Wiegersau, Utrecht. The Dienststelle only bought 3 or 4 paintings. De Gruyter worked with Dr. Kieslinger and later on with Plietzsch.

Dr. de Wild, The Hague, Laan van Meorderveort. The Hague.

De Wild restored most of the painting for the Dienststelle, though Windschmidt put the best ones in Berlin and later on in Schwerin and Mecklenburg. Dr de Wild visited the Dienststelle several times. Dr. Plietzsch asked him to examine and to authenticate paintings, which he was always willing to do. De Wild sometimes offered works to other German authorities, especially Dr. Göpel.
Dr. Plietzsch once asked De Wild to offer the works first of all to the Dienststelle. Dr. de Wild restored all the works that were brought to him. Traas had only little connection with the Dienststelle. Some sort of enmity existed between Traas and Frank.

Graaf Limburg Stirum, Laan v. Meorderveort, The Hague.

Introduced by Rompa. Because he was in want for money he tried to sell his art objects on to an intermediary. Dr. Göpel bought a Bloemaert for Linz. The other works which Limburg Stirum offered were refused.

Thurkow, The Hague.
Frank, Plietzsch and v. Blech acted as middle-men for him in selling part of his collection. Except for this transaction he did not want to have anything to do with the Germans. In a letter to Plietzsch, V. Bloch asked for a commission for the purchases made from Thurkow. One thing is sure, Thurkow thought it was a good idea to sell his fake Guardi’s or Camaletto’s to the Germans.
Maasdijk, Wassenaar, The Hague.

Maasdijk made the acquaintance with Dr. Mühlmann in the Hague and sold his Uytewaal “Lot and his daughters” to the Dienststelle. Dr. Plietzsch was invited to examine his pictures.

Director Knote, Mesdag Museum, The Hague.

Knote visited the Dienststelle through Frank. The 1 or 2 pictures he offered were bought. Knote himself collected antique furniture which he partly offered for sale, probably also to other Germans interested.
Knote was not Pro-German, but apparently needed money.
Myrtle Frank, The Hague.

In 1940 Frank visited the Dienststelle several times and offered paintings. Gradually he became the most important intermediary of the Dienststelle. Frank is a German Jew who went to Holland in 1933 and who knew all the art-dealers and private collections, and he very well knew how to do business too.
Frank is not an expert, but gradually he acquired knowledge and knew to fulfill the desires of Plietzsch.
Frank also worked with Weinmüller, Hebrst, Rudolf Berghaus Kruger Verlag Berlin, Beutsch, etc. He probably had something to do with the confiscation of the collection Nyenhuis. He acted one of the worst parts; he was a great friend of Dr. Schmidt (Ein-und Ausreisestelle) and co-operated with Dik.
When the Dienststelle left Holland, he states he saved some of the papers from being burned. He forced a bureau with papers which he handed to the Gruyter.
When he handed the documents to the present writer, he asked for a reward, and asked if he might work for the Dutch in Germany...

Van Eyk. The Hague.

Employed at the Ryksbureau voor Documentatie. 
Van Eyk offered the Dienststelle 2 paintings among which the Tiepolo-sketch which has been given to the picture-gallery in Dresden.
He tried to become an intermediary but without success. He begged not to mention his work with the Dienststelle to the Ryksbureau voor Documentation. When they found this out however, he was dismissed. Van Eyk is now in England, working for information-service.

Vossiek, de Jonge, Schullein, Mrs. Telders, Frequin, the Hague.

At times they all acted as intermediaries. Vossiek was appointed by Meyer Elte and especially offered drawings and coins. de Jonge, whose father appeared to be an art-dealer, offered only mediocre works, and very little was bought.
Schullein, German: paintings, drawings and coins;

Mrs. Telders: paintings; Mrs. Telders is from a good family and had many rich acquaintances; she acted as an intermediary.
Frequin; who started to run his own business in 1942, tries to acquire some capital (Van Gogh, drawing Kröller-Müller and Madonna with child, sculpture Malletke.)

Miss Rudolpha Begeer, The Hague.

Has been engaged as a secretary and was paid by Dr. Kiesslinger, who had been known to her family for years. She was indispensable because of her knowledge of foreign languages.
Mühlman did not like her because she was too curious and therefore he asked her to limit her visits to the Dienststelle.
She was ambitious, egoistic and avaricious and Mühlmann did not want her private business to get mixed up with the Dienststelle. When Dr. Kiesslinger made purchases in Paris with Dr. Joseph Mühlmann, she accompanied him. Joseph Mühlmann very soon required the dismissal of Miss Begeer. Dr. Kiesslinger declared that she rendered him valuable services in inventorizing the Mannheimer Collection. She received 2500. – guilders from the Dienststelle for her help. Dr. Kiesslinger received Fl.50.000.- for the Mannheiner catalogue.
Miss Begeer was very clever in doing business. From 1943-1944 she also worked together with Dr. Herbst, Dorotheum, Vienna. Just before the end of the war when the question of the foreign currency became rather difficult and even Plietzsch was not able to travel abroad, R. Begeer still went to Paris. Friedländer assisted the purchase of a J.Bosch for Hitler, coming from Paris. Some of the objects were sold at auction by Weinmüller.
From the list of the Gruyter:
Received on 5th. Febr. from P. de Boer, Amsterdam, by order of Miss.
Begeer, property of Dr. Herbst:

1. Jan van Goyen River View.
2. Gerard Deu Man in grotto.
3. Reyntjens Family dinner.
4. Picters Landscape with river.
5. Kimmel River view.
6. W. de Klerk Landscape.
7. M.A. Koekeok Mountainous Landscape.
(26 paintings, 373-399.
     5 paintings,

In total 38 pieces plus 3 gobelins from Delaunoy, removed to the Hague, arrived 8.2.43, delivered by Reyntjes at Miss Begeer’s; 37 pictures and one frame (from Reyntjens) and 3 gobelins for Miss Begeer delivered at Batenburg the Hague/Vienna, on 9.2.43. On 2.3.43 received from Traas for Miss  Begeer and Dr. Herbst, 2 paintings.
On 8.3.43 Traas bought 1 picture “Bible scene” for Miss Begeer. P.de Boer sent 3 painting for Miss Begeer (Dr. Herbst) 24th March 43. 30.4.43. 9 pictures and 1 frame delivered at Batenburg by order of Dr. Herbst.
26.7.43, 6 or (61) pictures delivered at Batenburg with a parcel from Dr. Herbst, by oreder of Miss Begeer.
A special report on Miss Begeer in forthcoming.
(Once she came to Paris at l’Ecole du Louvre and asked Mad. de la Roche Vermet then for the Impressionistes-Lautress, etc. Later she wrote a letter: “if you want a passport for the zone non-occupé I can give you one, it is easier to find pictures”.

S. van Deventer.
Director of the Kröller-Müller Museum. Now arrested but not yet questioned. v. Deventer offered Mühlmann his help when possible. When he was in the Hague he always visited the Dienststelle to inform him what he intended to buy for the Museum, or to draw Mühlmann’s attention to some particular item, such as a van Gogh: Field with poppies, which was bought for Baldur v. Schirach.
van Deventor was acquainted with many German offices, the State-Commissioner and several others were his guests and he also invited them to hunting-parties. Van Devanter often visited Germany, mostly Berlin and Garmisch.
He actually offered the Rembrandt portrait which is now in Würzburg.
Dr. Reiffers. Luxemburg.

Reiffers was an old business connection of Dr. Plietzsch, whom he visited again in 1941.
The Dienststelle Mühlmann bought the following:

Altar-piece, Italian about 1400, (Göring)
2 panels from Zenale (Führer